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Rationalizing Inconsistent Definitions of Commodification: A Social Exchange Perspective  [PDF]
Jeffrey R. Oliver, Lindon J. Robison
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.811088
Abstract: Commodification is a widely used and inconsistently defined concept. Inconsistent definitions of commodification, this paper observes, exist because alternative outcomes and consequences of converting relational goods into commodities are confused with the definition of commodification-social exchanges that convert relational goods into commodities. Distinguishing between alternative outcomes and consequences of commodification and the definition of commodification allows us to rationalize inconsistent definitions of commodification. In rationalizing inconsistent definitions of commodification, it is important to distinguish between commodities (goods valued for their ability to satisfy physical needs) and relational goods (goods valued at least in part for their connections to people which enables them to satisfy socio-emotional needs). The process of commodification is described as relocating relational goods from the humanistic sphere and relocating them in the commodity sphere.
Various Views on the Trapdoor Channel and an Upper Bound on its Capacity  [PDF]
Tobias Lutz
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Two novel views are presented on the trapdoor channel. First, by deriving the underlying iterated function system (IFS), it is shown that the trapdoor channel with input blocks of length $n$ can be regarded as the $n$th element of a sequence of shapes approximating a fractal. Second, an algorithm is presented that fully characterizes the trapdoor channel and resembles the recursion of generating all permutations of a given string. Subsequently, the problem of maximizing a $n$-letter mutual information is considered. It is shown that $\frac{1}{2}\log_2\left(\frac{5}{2}\right)\approx 0.6610$ bits per use is an upper bound on the capacity of the trapdoor channel. This upper bound, which is the tightest upper bound known proves that feedback increases capacity of the trapdoor channel.
Exploring the development of an organisational culture of control and dependency from a systems psychodynamic perspective  [cached]
René van Eeden
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v36i1.854
Abstract: Orientation: Globalisation and accelerating rates of change characterise the work environment. Research purpose: The aim of this research was to study the impact of the change process at a plant of a South African production company. Motivations for the study: Problems were experienced in terms of production and a need for transformation at different levels was expressed. Co-dependence in the environment necessitated exploration of intra-organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The study focused on the management team at a specifc plant, but by applying the systems psychodynamic perspective it was possible to also explore the mutual effect of relationships with other systems in the organisation, the company as a whole and the environment. Respondents included the directors of manufacturing and of human resources, the general manager, an 11-member management team and staff representatives. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews, group interviews and a group consultation session were held. Main findings: Hypotheses were formulated regarding the change experienced in the company, the overemphasis of control in the various systems, efforts to move from dependency to interdependence, personal authority as a requirement for interdependent functioning and problems with interrelatedness. Practical/managerial implications: The study illustrates the application of the systems psychodynamic approach in exploring the interaction between and mutual infuence of various organisational systems, especially in times of change. Contribution/value add: At a broader level, the study contributes to the understanding of the application of the theory as well as suggesting the use of a methodology. Recommendations for an intervention of this nature were also made. How to cite this article: Van Eeden,R.(2010). Exploring the development of an organisational culture of control and dependency from a systems psychodynamic perspective. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 36(1), Art. #854, 11 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v36i1.854
Examination of the Views of Preservice Teacher Regarding the Curriculum of the Course of Information Technologies with Respect to Various Variables
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the views of preservice information technologies teachers about the appropriateness of the curriculum of the Information Technologies course in terms of various variables on the basis of the curriculum components. In line with this purpose, single and correlational survey model were used in this study. The population of the study contained 330 pre-service information technologies teachers attending to various higher education institutions in Turkey in the spring term of 2008-2009 academic years. For data collection, the questionnaire for the “Evaluation of the Appropriateness of the Curriculum of the Course of Information Technologies” was developed by three researchers, then 227 preservice teachers, out of 330, completed the questionnaire, thus %73 rate of return was accomplished. Consequently, it was revealed that in general, the preservice information technologies teachers had positive views about the appropriateness of the curriculum of the course and that they also reported positive views about the appropriateness of the components of the curriculum, which were goal, content, teaching-learning and assessment. Furthermore, it was found out that in terms of the gender of the preservice teachers, there were differences in favor of the female preservice teachers regarding such components of the curriculum as goal, teaching-learning and assessment; however, with respect to the school type the preservice teachers, no difference was found between their views regarding the curriculum components. Finally, it was concluded that the views of the preservice teachers in terms of the curriculum components differed with respect to the universities they attended. Within the framework of the obtained results, implementations and further research were suggested.
Influence of Historical Perspective Approach on 7th Grade Students’ Views about Nature of Science
Nihal DO?AN,M. Ba?ol ?ZCAN
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of historical perspective approaches on 7th grade students views about nature of science. Structure of atomic units was presented an historical perspective with emphasis on six target aspects of nature of science. The sample for this study consisted of 56 students from middle school in Turkey. These students were divided into two groups (A and B) based on differentiating their academic achievements of elementary school. Group A has high academic achievement students consisted of 29 students (15 male; 14 female). Group B has low academic achievement students groups consisted of 27 students (16 male; 11 female).The Views of Nature of Science (VNOS) questionnaire (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell and Scharwartz, 2002) was used to determine students initial views of NOS, and was administered again at the end of units as pre–post tests to determine changes in students views. To help uncover the participants views, semi-structured interview was undertaken with 6 students as pre and post tests before and end of the intervention. The results of the current study clearly revealed that historical perspectives approach significantly shifts have occurred in participants views of NOS. It was found that low academic achievement students groups are more informed views about imagination and creativity than the high academic achievement students groups . Since there are significantly differences between two groups academic achievement, this is surprising results. With this in mind, teachers should integrate the history and nature of science in teaching science concepts to improve students views of NOS.
Expanding Views of Leisure: Possibilities and Challenges

Karla AHenderson,

浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版) , 2008,
Abstract: Scholarship about the meanings of leisure has existed for over 50 years in the United States.Although the contemporary notion of leisure grew out of the modern industrial age,the definitions and meanings continue to expand.This paper addresses historical and evolutionary contexts of leisure from the author's perspective.Five categories of meanings are addressed including leisure as time,recreation/activity,state of mind,places and spaces,and cultural context.Some of the views are highlighted from a feminist perspective,which has provided additional insight into understanding Western leisure.Some of the possibilities and challenges associated with researching leisure and its meanings in the 21st century are described.
Definitions of the Lambda Boo stars  [PDF]
R. Faraggiana,M. Gerbaldi
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Since the identification of these stars by Morgan et al. in 1943, various definitions have been proposed for the stars of the Lambda Bootis group. We present here the various definitions which have been given to these objects in order to induce a general discussion on this topic.
Definitions of almost periodicity  [PDF]
H. Günzler
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Various versions of the classical definitions of (one- and twosided) almost periodicity for functions on groups with values in a uniform space are formulated and their equivalence is shown.
Radiography of Clavicle Fractures— A Review of the Literature —Do Various Radiographic Views of Clavicle Fractures Affect the Management Plan?  [PDF]
Njalalle Baraza, Thomas Wood
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.43031

Introduction: Fractures of the clavicle are common and make up 5% - 10% of all fractures. Treatment options in part depend on the location of the fracture along the bone and degree of displacement. These two parameters are best determined by good quality, standardized radiographs of the clavicle. We reviewed the literature to determine the optimal radiographs of clavicle fractures and their influence on the treatment plan. Methods: A comprehensive search of Medline? database was undertaken with the following search terms and MeSH headings: clavicle, fractures, bone, radiography, and X-ray. We included articles in English published from 1950 to present. We ruled out fractures in children, fracture dislocations, open fractures, those with neurological and vascular injuries and fractures involving the acromioclavicular or sternoclavicular joints. Findings: Of the 821 citations obtained, only four studies proved eligible. In the most pertinent, four orthopaedic surgeons were shown standard views (antero-posterior and 20° cephalic tilt) of 50 clavicle fractures and then additional two views (45° cephalic and caudal tilt), and found that alternative views influenced their decision making, with more surgeons opting for surgical fixation. In a different study, it was shown that orthogonal views of the clavicle increased surgeons’ understanding and improved their treatment of these fractures. The third paper was a case series on clavicle fractures that were missed on the initial antero-posterior radiograph, and the fourth paper postulated that postero-anterior views of the thorax were most accurate in determining length of the clavicle. Conclusion: Studies showing an optimal view for assessment of clavicle fractures with a decision to then progressing to operative fixation are few, but the evidence points towards surgical fixation when alternative views of mid-shaft clavicle fractures are present.

The dependency of AGN infrared color-selection on source luminosity and obscuration: An observational perspective in CDFS and COSMOS  [PDF]
Hugo Messias,Jose M. Afonso,Mara Salvato,Bahram Mobasher,Andrew M. Hopkins
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322267
Abstract: AIMS. This work addresses the AGN IR-selection dependency on intrinsic source luminosity and obscuration, in order to identify and charaterise biases which could affect conclusions in studies. METHODS. We study IR-selected AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) survey and in the Cosmological Survey (COSMOS). The AGN sample is divided into low and high X-ray luminosity classes, and into unobscured (type-1) and obscured (type-2) classes by means of X-ray and optical spectroscopy data. Specifically in the X-rays regime, we adopt the intrinsic luminosity taking into account the estimated column density (N_H). We also take the chance to highlight important differences resulting from adopting different methods to assess AGN obscuration. RESULTS. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that AGN IR-selection efficiency shows a decrease with decreasing source AGN X-ray luminosity. For the intermediate-luminosity AGN population (43.3<~log(L_X[erg/s])<~44$), the efficiency also worsens with increasing obscuration. The same sample also shows an evolution with cosmic time of the obscured fraction at the highest X-ray luminosities, independently of adopted type-1/type-2 classification method. CONCLUSIONS. We confirm that AGN IR-selection is genuinely biased toward unobscured AGN, but only at intermediate luminosities. At the highest luminosities, where AGN IR-selection is more efficient, there is no obscuration bias. We show that type-1 AGN are intrinsically more luminous than type-2 AGN only at z<~1.6, thus resulting in more type-1 AGN being selected the shallower the IR survey is. [ABRIDGED: Conclusion on survey strategy. See manuscript.] Finally, when the James Webb Space Telescope comes online, the broad-band filters 2.0um, 4.4um, 7.7um, and 18um will be key to disentangle AGN from non-AGN dominated SEDs at depths where spectroscopy becomes impractical.
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