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 Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.811088 Abstract: Commodification is a widely used and inconsistently defined concept. Inconsistent definitions of commodification, this paper observes, exist because alternative outcomes and consequences of converting relational goods into commodities are confused with the definition of commodification-social exchanges that convert relational goods into commodities. Distinguishing between alternative outcomes and consequences of commodification and the definition of commodification allows us to rationalize inconsistent definitions of commodification. In rationalizing inconsistent definitions of commodification, it is important to distinguish between commodities (goods valued for their ability to satisfy physical needs) and relational goods (goods valued at least in part for their connections to people which enables them to satisfy socio-emotional needs). The process of commodification is described as relocating relational goods from the humanistic sphere and relocating them in the commodity sphere.
 Tobias Lutz Computer Science , 2014, Abstract: Two novel views are presented on the trapdoor channel. First, by deriving the underlying iterated function system (IFS), it is shown that the trapdoor channel with input blocks of length $n$ can be regarded as the $n$th element of a sequence of shapes approximating a fractal. Second, an algorithm is presented that fully characterizes the trapdoor channel and resembles the recursion of generating all permutations of a given string. Subsequently, the problem of maximizing a $n$-letter mutual information is considered. It is shown that $\frac{1}{2}\log_2\left(\frac{5}{2}\right)\approx 0.6610$ bits per use is an upper bound on the capacity of the trapdoor channel. This upper bound, which is the tightest upper bound known proves that feedback increases capacity of the trapdoor channel.
 René van Eeden South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v36i1.854 Abstract: Orientation: Globalisation and accelerating rates of change characterise the work environment. Research purpose: The aim of this research was to study the impact of the change process at a plant of a South African production company. Motivations for the study: Problems were experienced in terms of production and a need for transformation at different levels was expressed. Co-dependence in the environment necessitated exploration of intra-organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The study focused on the management team at a specifc plant, but by applying the systems psychodynamic perspective it was possible to also explore the mutual effect of relationships with other systems in the organisation, the company as a whole and the environment. Respondents included the directors of manufacturing and of human resources, the general manager, an 11-member management team and staff representatives. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews, group interviews and a group consultation session were held. Main findings: Hypotheses were formulated regarding the change experienced in the company, the overemphasis of control in the various systems, efforts to move from dependency to interdependence, personal authority as a requirement for interdependent functioning and problems with interrelatedness. Practical/managerial implications: The study illustrates the application of the systems psychodynamic approach in exploring the interaction between and mutual infuence of various organisational systems, especially in times of change. Contribution/value add: At a broader level, the study contributes to the understanding of the application of the theory as well as suggesting the use of a methodology. Recommendations for an intervention of this nature were also made. How to cite this article: Van Eeden,R.(2010). Exploring the development of an organisational culture of control and dependency from a systems psychodynamic perspective. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 36(1), Art. #854, 11 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v36i1.854
 Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2011, Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the views of preservice information technologies teachers about the appropriateness of the curriculum of the Information Technologies course in terms of various variables on the basis of the curriculum components. In line with this purpose, single and correlational survey model were used in this study. The population of the study contained 330 pre-service information technologies teachers attending to various higher education institutions in Turkey in the spring term of 2008-2009 academic years. For data collection, the questionnaire for the “Evaluation of the Appropriateness of the Curriculum of the Course of Information Technologies” was developed by three researchers, then 227 preservice teachers, out of 330, completed the questionnaire, thus %73 rate of return was accomplished. Consequently, it was revealed that in general, the preservice information technologies teachers had positive views about the appropriateness of the curriculum of the course and that they also reported positive views about the appropriateness of the components of the curriculum, which were goal, content, teaching-learning and assessment. Furthermore, it was found out that in terms of the gender of the preservice teachers, there were differences in favor of the female preservice teachers regarding such components of the curriculum as goal, teaching-learning and assessment; however, with respect to the school type the preservice teachers, no difference was found between their views regarding the curriculum components. Finally, it was concluded that the views of the preservice teachers in terms of the curriculum components differed with respect to the universities they attended. Within the framework of the obtained results, implementations and further research were suggested.