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Acquisition of the Alveo-Palatal Fricative /ʒ/ in L2 English and Jamaican Creole: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Ahmed Mousa
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.53020
Abstract: This study investigates the claim that the strategies employed by second/foreign language learners are the same as those used by speakers of Creole languages. The speech of two speakers of the well-known Broad Jamaican Creole is checked against the performance of Saudi learners of English, focusing on the production of the voiced alveo-palatal fricative/?/. The findings suggest that the speakers in the two groups produce the voiced affricate/d?/ instead, suggesting perhaps that the above claim is valid. This study provides external evidence to the validity of such theories as sound substitution, markedness, and historical sound change which are said to shape early language acquisition, including child language.
Introducing Jamaican Creole into the Jamaican Educational Curriculum  [cached]
Marijke Frank
The English Languages : History, Diaspora, Culture , 2010,
Abstract: This paper argues that the low social status of Jamaican Creole is significantly influenced by its position in Jamaican education, and that the mandatory use of Jamaican Standard English in education shows a tendency to fossilize class divisions. The paper starts by providing a short overview of the impact of colonialism on language policy and education. It will then analyze in what ways Jamaican class relations and the languages of instruction are connected. Selected examples will demonstrate the benefits of using Jamaican Creole in education. It will further discuss possible consequences of introducing Jamaican Creole into the school curriculum for its socio-cultural and political position in Jamaica.
Acquisition of the Inter-Dental Fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ in ESL/EFL and Jamaican Creole: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Ahmed Mousa
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.41004
Abstract:

This study aims at investigating to what extent the linguistic processes exhibited in creolization parallel those manifested by Arab learners of English in particular and those of child language and second/foreign language in general. Another aim of the study is to highlight the link between second/foreign language learning and historical change. To this end, the speech of two speakers of the Broad Jamaican Creole was compared with the performance of Saudi school and university learners of English as a foreign language and data from child language, with respect to the pronunciation of English inter-dental fricatives /θ/ and /e/. The results show that learning in the above three situations takes place according to the same principles. Furthermore, the sound substitutions made in the three situations (i.e. [t], [d] respectively) are the same as those witnessed in historical sound change.

Повзуч сть сталевих канат в, пошкоджених контактною та щ линною короз ю CREEPAGE OF STEEL CABLES, DAMAGED BY CONTACT AND FRICATIVE CORROSION Ползучесть стальных канатов, поврежденных контактной и щелевой коррозией  [cached]
Тaras Matchenko,Ianina Radetskaya
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2006,
Abstract: Запропонованo критер експлуатац йно м цност канат в пошкоджених короз ю. Розроблено алгоритм визначення швидкост короз дрот в сталевих канат в. Наведено приклади окремих вид в антикороз йного захисту. The mathematical model of creepage determination for steel ropes, taking into account the contact and fricative corrosion, methods of determination of the thermo electro destroying force and electro chemical characteristics, algorithm for determination of the steel cable corrosion speed are considered in the article. Запропонованo критерии эксплуатационной прочности канатов поврежденных коррозией. Разработан алгоритм определения скорости коррозии проводов стальных канатов. Приведены примеры отдельных видов антикоррозионной защиты.
Palatal Rugae Pattern in Nepalese Subjects  [PDF]
Dipshikha Bajracharya,Anisha Vaidya,Sunaina Thapa,Sujita Shrestha
Orthodontic Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ojn.v3i2.10076
Abstract: Objective: To determine the number and pattern of palatal rugae in Nepalese subjects and to find the association of gender with the number and pattern of palatal rugae.
An Interesting Property of LPCs for Sonorant Vs Fricative Discrimination  [PDF]
T. V. Ananthapadmanabha,A. G. Ramakrishnan,Pradeep Balachandran
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Linear prediction (LP) technique estimates an optimum all-pole filter of a given order for a frame of speech signal. The coefficients of the all-pole filter, 1/A(z) are referred to as LP coefficients (LPCs). The gain of the inverse of the all-pole filter, A(z) at z = 1, i.e, at frequency = 0, A(1) corresponds to the sum of LPCs, which has the property of being lower (higher) than a threshold for the sonorants (fricatives). When the inverse-tan of A(1), denoted as T(1), is used a feature and tested on the sonorant and fricative frames of the entire TIMIT database, an accuracy of 99.07% is obtained. Hence, we refer to T(1) as sonorant-fricative discrimination index (SFDI). This property has also been tested for its robustness for additive white noise and on the telephone quality speech of the NTIMIT database. These results are comparable to, or in some respects, better than the state-of-the-art methods proposed for a similar task. Such a property may be used for segmenting a speech signal or for non-uniform frame-rate analysis.
Classification of Fricative Consonants for Speech Enhancement in Hearing Devices  [PDF]
Ying-Yee Kong, Ala Mullangi, Kostas Kokkinakis
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095001
Abstract: Objective To investigate a set of acoustic features and classification methods for the classification of three groups of fricative consonants differing in place of articulation. Method A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was used to classify the fricatives extracted from the TIMIT database in quiet and also in speech babble noise at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Spectral features including four spectral moments, peak, slope, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), Gammatone filters outputs, and magnitudes of fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectrum were used for the classification. The analysis frame was restricted to only 8 msec. In addition, commonly-used linear and nonlinear principal component analysis dimensionality reduction techniques that project a high-dimensional feature vector onto a lower dimensional space were examined. Results With 13 MFCC coefficients, 14 or 24 Gammatone filter outputs, classification performance was greater than or equal to 85% in quiet and at +10 dB SNR. Using 14 Gammatone filter outputs above 1 kHz, classification accuracy remained high (greater than 80%) for a wide range of SNRs from +20 to +5 dB SNR. Conclusions High levels of classification accuracy for fricative consonants in quiet and in noise could be achieved using only spectral features extracted from a short time window. Results of this work have a direct impact on the development of speech enhancement algorithms for hearing devices.
Genetic Supervised Classification of Standard Arabic Fricative Consonants for the Automatic Speech Recognition
M. Aissiou,M. Guerti
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is the application of the Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to the supervised classification level, in order to recognize Standard Arabic (SA) fricative consonants of continuous, naturally spoken, speech. We have used GAs because of their advantages in resolving complicated optimization problems, where analytic methods fail. For that, we have analyzed a corpus that contains several sentences composed of the thirteen types of fricative consonants in the initial, medium and final positions, recorded by several male Jordanian speakers. Nearly all the world’s languages contain at least one fricative sound. The SA language occupies a rather exceptional position in that nearly half of it’s consonants is fricatives and nearly half of fricative inventory is situated far back in the uvular, pharyngeal and glottal areas. We have used Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCCs) method to extract vocal tract coefficients from the speech signal. To represents temporal variations in the speech signal, the first and second derivatives of both MFCCs and energy are added to the set of static parameters. The acoustic segments classification and the GAs have been explored. Among a set of classifiers like Bayesian, likelihood and distance classifier, we have used the distance one. It is based on the classification measure criterion. So, we formulate the supervised classification as a function optimization problem and we have used the decision rule Mahalanobis distance as the fitness function for the GA evaluation. We report promising results with a classification recognition accuracy of 82%.
Perspectives on creole language history
Derek Bickerton
New West Indian Guide , 1999,
Abstract: [First paragraph] Les Creoles: Problemes de genese et de description. GUY HAZAELMASSIEUX. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l'Universite de Provence, 1996. 374 pp. (Paper 260 FF) The Kiss of a Slave: Papiamentu's West-African Connections. EFRAIM FRANK MARTINUS. Curacao: De Curacaose Courant, 1997. 292 pp. (Paper US$ 57.50) Towards a New Model of Creole Genesis. JOHN H. MCWHORTER. New York: Peter Lang, 1997. 199 pp. (Cloth US$ 44.95) In two of the three books reviewed here (those by Hazael-Massieux and Martinus), theory takes a back seat to description, while in the third (McWhorter's) the roles are reversed. The work by Guy Hazael-Massieux, whose recent and untimely death saddened his many friends, is entitled Les Creoles: Problemes de genese et de description, but the author is more concerned with history and description than with creole genesis. The book is a collection of twenty-one essays, all of which have been previously published. However, since their loci were extremely scattered and in many cases difficult of access, especially for Anglophone readers, his widow, Marie-Christine Hazael-Massieux, has done the field a service by collecting and editing them. Ten of these essays are gathered under the rubric "Genese et histoire des Creoles," and a further seven are described as "Elements pour une morpho-syntaxe des Creoles francaises," leaving only four that concern themselves directly with "Definition et classement des Creoles."
Mucormycosis presenting as palatal perforation.  [cached]
Jayachandran S,Krithika C
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2006,
Abstract: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that is caused by normally saprobic organism of the class Zygomycetes. The main form of mucormycosis are pulmonary and rhinocerebral. Rhinocerebral mycormycosis typically starts in the maxillary antrum, particularly in poorly controlled diabetics. Invasion of surrounding tissue can cause necrotizing ulceration of palate with a blackish slough and exposure of bone. A case of mucormycosis presenting as palatal performation is discussed in this article.
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