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MICROCREDIT, MICROENTERPRISES AND SOCIAL WELFARE OF THE RURAL POOR IN NORTH-EASTERN TRINIDAD: AN EVALUATION OF
Talia Esnard-Flavius,Zainab Aziz
Asian Academy of Management Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The study examined the relationship between microcredit, microenterprises, and the social welfare of the rural poor in north-eastern Trinidad. Guided by the main propositions of social capital theory, the researchers held 45 semi-structured interviews with active participants/clients within a case study research design. The data showed that access to microcredit through Helping Others Prosper Economically (HOPE) positively affected their microenterprises and social welfare, though marginally. Findings also revealed that fragmented social relations within the network, conflict, distrust, and the loose structure of the program limited the impact of their access to microcredit on social welfare as well as the financial potential of the lending organisation, that is, HOPE. It is the contention of this paper, therefore, that such questionable social relations dynamics 'hijack' the promise of collective social networks as exercised through goodwill and resource building. Implications of this study and directions for future research are discussed.
Tourism, Terms of Trade and Welfare to the Poor  [PDF]
Bharat R Hazari, Jianjing Lin
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.12007
Abstract: The paper investigates the impact of an increase in tourism and a change in the terms of trade on the welfare of different classes in an economy. We set up a three-sector, three-factor (one specific) model of general equilibrium to derive the results. The most important result we obtain is that tourism can immiserize the poor. In the concluding section we argue that a tax on tourism (a non-distortionary tax) should be used to subsidize the poor and restore their welfare level.
Children’s rights, international human rights and the promise of Islamic legal theory
D Olowu
Law, Democracy & Development , 2008,
Abstract: Dejo Olowu looks at religion and its socio-legal implications. He observes that there has been a noticeable growth in the number of writers exploring possible linkages between Islamic legal theory and an international human rights ethos. The article focuses on dimensions of Islamic legal theory pertaining to the rights of children and, more particularly, the potential of this theory to reinforce the understanding of children’s rights within the context of international human rights. While dealing with issues broadly, it evaluates Islamic legal understanding of the rights of the unborn child in some detail, arguing that the Sharia includes not only law but also religion and ethics, thus offering a multidimensional approach covering the total personality of the child. Moreover, Islam provides enforceable sanctions as well as religious and social measures to promote the welfare of the child. Islamic law, it is concluded, contains extensive provisions that can reinforce global advocacy for the promotion of the rights and welfare of children.
The Impact of Migrant Remittances on Household Welfare in Rural Nigeria
O.W. Olowa
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Records on remittances by Central Bank of Nigeria shows an increasing trends since 2002. These huge flows of remittances are made up of millions private receiver households. The study examine the impacts of these remittances on household welfare in rural Nigeria using the Nigeria living standard statistics 2003/2004 wave by the bureau of stastistics. The result of the regression analysis revealed among other things that remittances help to reduce the effects of poverty and that remittances are counter-cyclical.
Energy services fro the rural poor: A comparative analysis of solar services centres and multifunctional platforms and lessons for Ghana
GY Obeng
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2006,
Abstract: Solar service centres and multifunctional platforms are innovative concepts for providing energy services in poor rural communities. For some communities, because of the size and dispersion of their location, grid-electricity is non-existent and therefore a solar service centre or a multifunctional platform is the only viable option for lighting, refrigeration, water pumping, powering of equipment etc. Though they contribute to socio-economic development of rural communities, it is however argued that the two energy services provide different frontiers of contribution to energy security. This paper therefore compares these energy services and shows how they have contributed to reduce energy-poverty in rural Ghana and Burkina Faso. The scope of the analysis covers deep-seated empirical lessons on investment costs, benefits and welfare gains, and potential in direct productive and spin-off energy demand sectors. The purpose is to draw lessons to inform rural people, energy policy makers, and development experts on both good practices and failures of the two forms of energy services. Evidence from the surveys confirms that, solar service centres and multifunctional platforms are fundamentally suitable for use in poor rural communities. However, the concern is what to go in for when faced with the problem of choice, which is critical in meeting the needs of the rural poor.
Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows
Fabio Abeni,Giuseppe Bertoni
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s1.45
Abstract: The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle); to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering) area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc.), in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation); feed distribution (frequency and time), and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size), and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation). The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression, anorexia, an increase in temperature, and metabolic pathways deviation, with a worsening of the overall sense of well-being.
Primary Health Care in the Rural Area of the Islamic Republic of Iran
H Malekafzali
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2009,
Abstract: Primary health care in the Islamic Republic of Iran was conceived and nurtured on the strength of scientific research, politi-cal commitment, and well thought out planning. Due to expansion of PHC network in rural areas of Iran health Indicators have significantly improved. The health care and network in this country is, however, in need of serious repair if all this endeav-ors hither to be wasted.
The Study of The Social Welfare Progress in China Rural Community(1950——2010)  [cached]
Zhi-gang MEI
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2005, DOI: 10.3968/521
Abstract: The paper is thought that the history logic of china rural community social welfare progress is from the limited community welfare system based on community economy to the socializational social welfare system ,and its practical circumstances is that the traditional rural community social welfare system is disintegrating and a creative rural community social welfare system is establishing. According to the conditions above, the paper put forward some constructive suggestions to establish the reasonable and valid social welfare system in rural community. Key words: Rural social welfare,The developing of social welfare,The system changing Résumé L’auteur de cet article pense que le développement du bien-êre social de la campagne de notre pays réside dans la transformation du système du bien-être limité fondé sur la commue en système du bien-être social socialisé, et que la situation actuellle se traduit par la désintégration du système du bien-être traditionnel de la campagne et la constitution d’un nouveau système. A partir de la transformation du système du bien-être sociale de base, l’auteur propose des conseils constructifs en faveur de l’établissement d’un système bu bien-être de la campagne rationnel et efficace. Mots-clés: le bien-être social de la campagne, le développement du bien-être social, la transformation du système 摘 要 本文認為我國農村社會福利發展是從以社隊為基礎的有限的社區福利體制向社會化的社會福利體制轉型,其現實境遇是傳統的農村社會福利體制遭遇解構和創新的農村社會福利體制正在建構之中,從這個基本的社會福利制度轉型的出發,本文對建立合理有效的農村社會福利體制提出若干建設性的建議 關鍵詞:農村社會福利;社會福利發展;制度轉型
Work and Income Sharing in a Rural Economy: Effect on Economic Growth and Welfare  [PDF]
Nobuyuki Iwai, Stanley R. Thompson
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.46050
Abstract:

An endogenous growth model is developed to explore the effect of work and income sharing (WIS) on economic growth and welfare in a developing rural economy. The practice of WIS is a mechanism which converts incremental diversity of risk into volatility reduction and overall welfare gain. However, the effect on economic growth is sector specific. WIS in the intermediate goods sector has a pro-growth effect through higher investment returns while in the agricultural sector it has an anti-growth effect through lower precautionary savings. WIS also decreases the level of regional government subsidies needed to achieve the optimal growth rate.

Income Inequality and the Welfare of Rural Households in Imo State, Nigeria
I.Y. Ajani Olubunmi,A. Babalola Daniel
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: The study was undertaken to examine the impact income inequality has on the well being of rural households in Imo State. Multistage sampling technique was used in the selection of 200 household heads. Structured interview schedule was developed to obtain information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Gini coefficient based decomposition, Sen s Welfare Index and Spearman s Rank Correlation and the Coping Strategies Use Index (CSUI). The findings shows that the average age of the household heads in the study area was 51 years with farming as major occupation. Indicators of well being used were: housing type, housing material, source of drinking water, health facility, lighting source and type of cooking materials. Results revealed that there was a low level of well being of households from the welfare indicators considered. The income inequality as reflected by the Gini coefficient (0.47) shows a moderately high level of inequality in income of the respondents. Income inequality is negatively correlated with welfare indicators. This implies that income inequality impacts negatively on the well being of members of the households.
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