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Genetic Variation for Achene Traits in Cup Plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.)  [PDF]
Teshale Assefa, Jixiang Wu, Arvid Boe
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.52006
Abstract: Cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) has demonstrated potential for biomass production in studies using transplants in poorly drained cropland not suitable for conventional crops, but little is known about its establishment from seeding. The success rate for stand establishment of perennial plants is usually positively correlated with seed weight. Therefore, objectives of this study were to determine contribution of genetic effects to variation in achene weight, seed weight, achene length, and achene width of cup plant in a population with high biomass potential. Seedlings of 33 half-sib (HS) families were transplanted at Brookings, SD in 1999 and 2010. Achene/seed traits were determined at seed maturity in 2000, 2011 and 2012. Narrow-sense heritability was higher for achene weight and seed weight than that for dimensional achene traits. Within-population genetic variation occurred for achene and seed weight, both of which varied in response to temporal variation in precipitation and temperature. Results of this study indicated the presence of sufficient additive genetic variation for progress from among-family selection for achene weight. Thus, since families with heavy achenes had higher percent seedling emergence and superior seedling vigor compared to families with light achenes, achene weight may be useful for indirect selection for enhanced seed quality in development of new cultivars of cup plant for biomass production on marginal crop land.
Biomass Production of Cup Plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) in Response to Variation in Plant Population Density in the North Central USA  [PDF]
Arvid Boe, Kenneth A. Albrecht, Paul J. Johnson, Jixiang Wu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.106065
Abstract: The North American genus Silphium is receiving global attention for its potential in the development of new food, forage, and industrial crops, including cellulosic biomass for biofuel. Little is known about the effect of plant population density on biomass production in large, coarse perennial forbs. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of variation in plant density on biomass production and stand morphology of cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.). Plant population densities of 17,000, 34,000, and 68,000 plants ha-1 were evaluated for biomass production in a single-harvest per annum system for three years at Brookings, SD and Arlington, WI. Biomass increased linearly by 43% between the low and high density at Brookings; whereas, at Arlington, response to variation in plant density was year dependent. Shoots plant-1 was inversely related to plant density with linear regression explaining >95% of the variation. Our results strongly suggested that further studies of effects of plant population density on biomass production in cup plant should include evaluation of, in addition to, densities higher than 68,000 plants ha-1.
Optimization of the processes of sterilization and micropropagation of cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) from apical explants of seedlings in in vitro cultures
Magdalena Tomaszewska-Sowa,Anna Figas
Acta Agrobotanica , 2011, DOI: 10.5586/aa.2011.041
Abstract: Cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) is a tall, reaching up to 2.5 m, perennial plant that represents the Asteraceae family. Silphium perfoliatum L. can be applied in medicine, animal feeding, and as a decorative, honey-producing and energy production plant which proves its multi-functional features. Sowing material currently available in Poland is insufficient, which justifies the present attempts at propagating these plants in in vitro cultures. Therefore, Silphium perfoliatum L. seed sterilization and micropropagation processes were studied under controlled conditions in in vitro cultures. Among the tested methods, ACE proved to be the most effective for sterilization. The apical parts of seedlings were used as explants; they were placed onto MS media with growth regulators added. 4 growth regulator concentration variants were applied. The highest percentage of explants with lateral shoots (41.7%) and callus (90.3%) was obtained on MS medium with 5 mg x dm-3 BAP + 1 mg × dm-3 NAA added. Shoots were isolated and transferred onto MS rooting medium without growth regulators. The rooted plants were transferred to the greenhouse and acclimatised to ex vitro conditions.
Management, production, and nutritional characteristics of cup-plant (Silphium perfoliatum) in temperate climates of southern Chile
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202012000100005
Abstract: there is little information known about the response of cup-plant (silphiumperfoliatum l.), a perennial forage crop introduced to chile, to differing cultivation practices. a series of studies was conducted to evaluate the adaptation and productivity of cup-plant across a range of plant densities (104,000 - 208,000 plants ha-1), cutting stages (early vegetative to seed formation), and different levels of n (0 - 400 kg n ha-1) and p (0 - 400 kg p2o5 ha-1) fertilization. field experiments (40°s 73°w) were conducted over a 3-yr period in a subhumid, mediterranean climate on three distinct andisols that originated from volcanic ash, with ph values of 5.2 to 5.6. the forage dry matter yield, plant components (stem count, stem diameter, plant height, and leaf:stem ratio), and nutritional characteristics (crude protein, plant cell wall components, and in vitro dry matter digestibility) were determined. during the first year of growth, cup-plant exhibits a rosette growth habit; the measurements were begun the second spring after planting and were taken during two consecutive growing seasons. plant density over 120,000 plants ha-1 did not affect dry matter yield, which ranged from 15 to 20 t ha-1. stem number and thickness did vary due to plant density, but height and leaf:stem ratio were not affected by density. the leaf proportion of the plants varied between 30 and 45% in the different experiments. in the cutting regime study, lower forage yields but higher nutritional values were observed with earlier first cuts. when the first cut was delayed from the early vegetative stage to the seed stage, crude protein declined from 140 to 60 g kg-1 and digestibility from 790 to 580 g kg-1, mainly due to the low nutritional value of the stems. the dry matter yield and crude protein increased with increasing levels of n and p fertilization. cup-plant requires and absorbs low quantities of nitrogen, what renders it to be a low protein forage resource. at seemingly low rates of nitroge
Internal secretory structures in stems of Silphium perfoliatum L.  [PDF]
Aneta Sulborska
Modern Phytomorphology , 2013,
Abstract: Silphium perfoliatum L. (Asteraceae) is a North American perennial used as a medicinal, fodder, honey-bearing, and ornamental plant as well as for remediation of degraded soils. The location and structure of secretory reservoirs in the stem were examined with the use of light microscopy in cup plant stems. The stems were analysed at various heights (0-2 cm above the root collar, of the stem length, and 0-2 cm below the stem apex/inflorescence) and in three vegetation phases (vegetative phase, full bloom, withering). The plants belonged to the collection of the Department of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. It was found that the secretory canals formed two rings: an external ring situated at the height of sclerenchymatous sheaths and bundle phloem, and the internal ring located in an immediate proximity of the xylem. Two external secretory reservoirs, one on each side of the bundle, were present at larger bundles. No internal reservoirs were formed in the proximity of these bundles. At smaller bundles, there were reservoirs of the internal verticil, but there were no external reservoirs. The canals of the external verticil (23-29) were more numerous that in the internal verticil (17-19). In both cases, the largest number of reservoirs was observed at half the length of the stem, and the lowest number was in the apical part. The less numerous internal canals were larger in comparison with the external reservoirs. Depending on the plant developmental stage and location in the stem, the diameter of the external ring canals was 49-91 μm in cross section, and that of the canals of the internal verticil was 52-101 μm. The analysis of the different vegetation phases in the cup plant demonstrated that the canals had the largest diameters and were the most abundant in the withering phase. The canals evolved through gradual separation of cells (of schizogenous origin). In the cross section they exhibited a nearly circular or oval shape; in the longitudinal section they formed long, continuous canals extending along the organ, i.e. they were ducts s.str.In young stems, the canals were surrounded by a single-layered epithelium, which underwent divisions that were tangential to the stem circumference, thereby forming successive layers of glandular tissue. In mature shoots, the reservoirs were surrounded by a 1-3-layered epithelium with dense cytoplasm and numerous plastids.
Experimental cultivation of a new forage species - Silphium perfoliatum L. - in the Agrobotanical Garden from Cluj-Napoca  [cached]
Ioan PUIA,Attila T. SZABO
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 1985,
Abstract: Based on results of Niqueux (1981) Silphium perfoliatum (Asteroideae, Heliantheae) germplasm preserved in our garden was used for the introduction of this newly emerging forage species in experimental cultivation. As generative reproduction proved to be allowed, plants were reproduced by rhizomes. The influence of bud number per rhizome, fertilization and the inclination of the plot on the growth dynamics and production were studied. Plots were harvested in 1983 and 1984 for silage and seed. The average production of hay in one cut was 6,7 t/ha in 1983 and 6,3 t/ha in 1984. The best plot yiealded 15,7 (1983) and 10,8 t/ha hay. Average seed yield was in 1984: 587 kg/ha, the highest yield was 1265 kg/ha. In so far as we know, this is the first introduction of the species in cultivation for economic purposes (forage or biomass ) in Romania.
Biomass Production of Monocultures and Mixtures of Cup Plant and Native Grasses on Prime and Marginal Cropland  [PDF]
Arvid Boe, Kenneth A. Albrecht, Paul J. Johnson, Jixiang Wu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.106066
Abstract: To date, most candidate systems for producing herbaceous cellulosic biomass have been composed of monocultures of perennial or annual grasses. Ecosystem goods and services provided from these biomass feedstock production systems could be increased dramatically with mixing of one or more forb species that would increase biodiversity and provide habitat for pollinators. Cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) is featured with many desirable characteristics, such as high biomass potential, adaptation to marginal soils, and attractiveness to pollinators, desirable in a dicot species to grow in mixtures with perennial warm-season grasses. The objective of this study was to compare cup plant, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) monocultures to their mixtures for biomass production on prime and poorly drained marginal crop land for two years in both South Dakota and Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, monocultures of prairie cordgrass and cup plant and their mixture produced more biomass (8.1 Mg·ha-1) than the switchgrass monoculture and switchgrass/cup plant mixture (5.3 Mg·ha-1) on both prime and marginal land. While in South Dakota, drought and meristem destruction by the cup plant moth (Eucosma giganteana Riley) caused large reductions in biomass production (1.7 Mg·ha-1) in both years, with the switchgrass/cup plant mixture on marginal land having the highest yield (2.1 Mg·ha-1). Our study showed binary mixtures of cup plant and native warm-season grasses have great potential for increasing biodiversity and other ecosystem goods and services, relative to monocultures, for sustainable biomass feedstock production on poorly
Analysis of lipophilic fraction from leaves, inflorescences and rhizomes of Silphium perfoliatum L.
Rados?aw Kowalski
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2005, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2005.001
Abstract: This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative chromatographic analysis (GC/MS) of the lipophilic fraction extracted from leaves, inflorescences and rhizomes of Silphium perfoliatum L. collected in 1998-2000. It was shown that the extracts of leaves and inflorescences are similar in composition, containing among their main constituents: α-amyrine (up to 13.9% of total components in leaves, up to 11.3% in inflorescences), heptacosane (up to 7.1% in leaves, up to 7.6% in inflorescences), stigmasterol (up to 8.1% in leaves, up to 2.2% in inflorescences), γ-sitosterol (up to 6.9% in leaves, up to 2.2% in inflorescences), β-amyrine (up to 4.1% in leaves, up to 5.8% in inflorescences), β-caryophyllene (up to 2.6% in leaves, up to 1.5% in inflorescences), caryophyllene oxide (up to 4.4% in leaves, up to 2.9% in inflorescences), germacrene D (up to 13.8% in leaves, up to 9.7% in inflorescences) and α-pinene (up to 3.3% in leaves, up to 2.4% in inflorescences). The chemical composition of lipophilic extract of rhizomes significantly differs from that of leaves and inflorescences. The following compounds can be counted among the dominant ones occurring in rhizome extracts: diterpene of labdane type - 16-acetoxycarterochaetol (up to 45%) and sesquiterpenes - 7-b-H-silphiperfol-5-ene (up to 9.1%), 7-a-H-silphiperfol-5-ene (up to 10.7%), d-elemene (up to 7.6%), isocomene (up to 5.6%), germacrene D (up to 5.2%) and modhephene (up to 5.1%).

Du Bingqun,Liu Qihong,Zhu Cuiying,

植物科学学报 , 1990,
Abstract: 串叶松香草Silphiura perfoliatum L.系菊科(Compositae)松香草属(SilphiumL.)多年生宿根草本植物,原产北美洲。1979年由中国科学院植物研究所北京植物园首次从朝鲜引进我国,1980年引种我所栽培,通过几年的试验观察表明:串叶松香草是一种高产、质优、适应性强的饲料作物,近年来,我省广泛发展和应用。据文献报

植物科学学报 , 1990,
Abstract: 松香草(Silphium perfoliatum L.)为原产北美洲的多年生宿根草本植物,由于其地上部分有较高的蛋白质含量,近年来被引入我国作为一种有发展前途的饲料作物进行栽培,除了报道过体细胞染色体研究结果,该物种尚缺少系统的细胞学研究。最近,我们对其小孢子母细胞减数分裂和雄配子体发育过程进行了细胞学观察,并发现了一些异常形态的花粉,现将初步观察结果报道如下。1.材料与方法松香草不同的植株间开花期相差很大。用于观察的花序取自三年生植株。根据花序外部大小,上午11时同时取一系列大小不等的花序固定,重复取材3次。材料以卡诺液(冰醋酸:纯酒精=1:3)固定过夜,次日转于70%酒精中置冰箱内保存备用。细胞学制片用常规压片法。丙酸-水合氯醛-铁矾苏木精染色,临时制片以凡士林封
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