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Assessment of Domestic Wastewater Management Practices in the Communal District I of Maradi City, Niger Republic  [PDF]
Ousmane Laminou Manzo, Hassidou Saidou, Salamatou Abdourahamane Illiassou, Saoudé Tidjani Idrissa
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.38006
Abstract: Wastewater treatment is a problem with much acuity in the city of Maradi in general, and particularly in the Communal District I of Maradi. It is for this reason that the present study was conducted which deals with wastewater sanitation. The main objective of this study conducted through a survey is to investigate in the domestic wastewater sanitation in the Communal District I of Maradi city. Specifically, the study aims to estimate the amount of wastewater produced by households and to analyze the sanitation system at household and at district levels. The wastewater management practices in this district were assessed through a descriptive cross sectional study in which a total of 129 households were selected by sample distribution technique in the district neighborhoods and studied using interviewer and administered questionnaires at communal and household levels. The results of the study showed that the amount of domestic wastewater generated is quite large, about 32.27 m3 per person per day, and this comes from several sources including showers, laundry, dishwashing and income generating activities. The results also revealed that the unhealthy state of the Communal District I of Maradi is related to the absence of a wastewater treatment system, the methods and practices used in its management, and the population is also largely responsible for this unhealthy state and not willing to participate to a sanitation project.
Solid Waste Management in the Town of Maradi in Niger Republic  [PDF]
Hassidou Saidou, Soulé Aminou
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.64036
Abstract: As in many towns of African countries, the waste management, in particularly solid constitutes a major problem for the municipal authorities of Maradi. The aim of this study is to make a diagnosis of the present system of waste management in the town of Maradi. To achieve this goal, interviews with municipal authorities, cleaning up and health technicians have been made, as well as investigations among households. According to the health technicians of the town, the causes due to the problem of waste management in Maradi town are: collecting capatown insufficient, lack of effective sensitization of people, undeveloped and uncontrolled rubbish dumps, lack of gutter and its maintenance, and insufficient and unqualified human resources. As to the authorities, they denounce always the attitude and the behavior of citizens on the waste issue. The waste evacuation is done by municipal collecting or by depositing in wild rubbish dump. Some people eliminate their waste by burning or duping in the streets or in their houses. According to our investigations, 52% of population evacuates their waste daily. The satisfaction rate of municipal collecting is for 32%. The analysis showed that the present system of waste management in Maradi town was failing. As to solutions, we proposed to equip the technical offices with appropriated material and financial means, reinforce the involved actor’s capacities and make in application the operatives regulations for the waste management.
Rebuilding Resilience in the Sahel: Regreening in the Maradi and Zinder Regions of Niger
Jan Sendzimir,Chris P. Reij,Piotr Magnuszewski
Ecology and Society , 2011, DOI: 10.5751/es-04198-160301
Abstract: The societies and ecosystems of the Nigerien Sahel appeared increasingly vulnerable to climatic and economic uncertainty in the late twentieth century. Severe episodes of drought and famine drove massive livestock losses and human migration and mortality. Soil erosion and tree loss reduced a woodland to a scrub steppe and fed a myth of the Sahara desert relentlessly advancing southward. Over the past two decades this myth has been shattered by the dramatic reforestation of more than 5 million hectares in the Maradi and Zinder Regions of Niger. No single actor, policy, or practice appears behind this successful regreening of the Sahel. Multiple actors, institutions and processes operated at different levels, times, and scales to initiate and sustain this reforestation trend. We used systems analysis to examine the patterns of interaction as biophysical, livelihood, and governance indicators changed relative to one another during forest decline and rebound. It appears that forest decline was reversed when critical interventions helped to shift the direction of reinforcing feedbacks, e.g., vicious cycles changed to virtuous ones. Reversals toward de-forestation or reforestation were preceded by institutional changes in governance, then livelihoods and eventually in the biophysical environment. Biophysical change sustained change in the other two domains until interventions introduced new ideas and institutions that slowed and then reversed the pattern of feedbacks. However, while society seems better at coping with economic or climatic shock or stress, the resilience of society and nature in the Maradi/Zinder region to global sources of uncertainty remains a pressing question in a society with one of the highest population growth rates on Earth.
Low Cost Filtration of Domestic Wastewater for Irrigation Purpose  [PDF]
Kiemde Maximilien Sosthene, Narcisse Gahi
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2018.63036
Abstract: Water scarcity in developing countries has forced farmers to use sewage as an alternative source of irrigation water. However, the usage of sewage for vegetable production has been known to cause excessive and often-unbalanced addition of nutrients hence posing a threat to food safety. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of slow sand filter and wetland plant in domestic wastewater treatment. To achieve this objective, samples were collected from the domestic wastewater collection pond within Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). Laboratory tests were conducted on the collected samples and they revealed the presence of BOD, DO, pH, TDS, Sulfates, Chloride, Turbidity, Salinity, Conductivity, Alkalinity?and Coliform; whose values varied when compared with that of the parameters for standard irrigation water. This gave insight to the kind of treatments and filtration medium that were required to transform domestic wastewater into water fit for irrigation. A slow sand filter bed was designed and constructed using precisely six samples materials; sand, sand and wetland plants, gravel, gravel and wetland plants, mixture of gravel and sand, mixture of gravel and sand with wetland plants. These materials were used to identify the chemical and biological changes in domestic wastewater within a seven-day period. The water collected from the slow sand filter was tested, results showed that, of all six samples, slow sand filter using the mixture of gravel, sand with wetland plants had an average percentage efficient of 90% in removing all impurities from domestic wastewater thereby turning it into water suitable for irrigation. It is hoped that this study will provide a safe, easy, eco-friendly and cheap method of wastewater treatment while ensuring the sustainability of wastewater for irrigation and the expansion of green spaces in urban and peri-urban areas.
Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education  [PDF]
Halima Boubacar Ma?nassara,Zilahatou Tohon
Journal of Parasitology Research , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/190451
Abstract: Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at . Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it ( ). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 ( ). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. 1. Introduction Children in developing countries bear a heavy burden of respiratory tract diseases and diarrhoeal diseases. These diseases can however be prevented with some basic hygiene measures. Hand washing with soap is one of the principal means of preventing transmission of certain diseases [1]. It is generally acknowledged that using latrines can also interrupt the transmission of diarrhoeal disease [2]. Measures such as hand washing with soap, water supply, construction of latrines, and promoting general hygiene provide opportunities for improving children’s health [3]. In 2006, six major French actors on the international solidarity scene came together to form an innovative public-private partnership, the alliance for development. Members of the alliance include institutions from both the public sector (Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Ministry of Economy, Finance, and Industry; and Agence Fran?aise de Développement) and the private sector (Sanofi-Aventis, Institut Pasteur, and Veolia Environnement). The aim is to take advantage of their complementary competences and networks in undertaking concrete action to contribute to improving local environmental and health conditions in developing countries. In order to have a positive impact on prevention of communicable diseases and thus on the
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2011,
Abstract: This research aims to evaluate application of water reuse technologies, with major emphasis of water reuse for non-potable applications in urban housing area. To study the systems performance, secondary treatment development at pilot scale has been studied to achieve desired water reuse quality. There were two systems applied for water reuse scheme using biofilter or fixed bed biofilm system for treating wastewater from Turangga’s flat in Bandung City and membrane bioreactor system for treating wastewater from anaerobic pond of Bojong Soang’s Wastewater Treatment Plant, Bandung City, West Java. The systems produce water quality meets water reuse for domestic purposes, such as toilet flushing, washing, garden irrigation, etc. In general, these applications show assessing a treatment process ability to produce water contains turbidity is less than 2 mgL-1 and BOD is less than 5 mgL-1. This paper concludes that treated wastewater is potential reuse for public/domestic purposes mainly for water scared urban area, which depends on characteristic of wastewater and the methods or degree of treatment required.
A Ricardian Analysis of the Impact of Temperature and Rainfall Variability on Ag-riculture in Dosso and Maradi Regions of Niger Republic  [PDF]
Garba Hima Mamane Bello, Maman Nafiou Malam Maman
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.67070
Abstract: The impact of climate variability on Maradi and Dosso agriculture was estimated taking into account farmer adaptations. The study used a Ricardian analysis of 200 farms to explore the effects of climate variability on net revenue. It also simulates the impact of different climate scenarios on agriculture incomes. This analysis bespeaks that if temperature increases 1°C annually, the annual crop net revenues for both frameworks will decrease up to 582170.7 FCFA2 for model without adaptation (M1) and up to 1316 FCFA for model with adaptation (M2). An increase of Precipitation of 1 mm/month will increase crop receipts for the frameworks up to 721,917 FCFA for M1 and 1,861,455 FCFA for M2. In order to predict climate change impacts for these regions, the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 of IPCC scenarios were examined. The crop net receipts will fall between 10% and 26% if the scenarios happen. Another finding of this study is that each farmer who is practicing adaptation is able to cover the potential loss from climate variability up to 8.95% and 12.71% per ha respectively in Maradi and in Dosso. The study proposes that these regions should start planning measures for unexpected event of climate conditions. Irrigated systems need to be encouraged in order to minimize the vulnerability of the agricultural sector.
Performance and Loading of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants Receiving Aquaculture Processing Effluent.
International Journal of Engineering and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This study dealt with the loading and performance of a domestic wastewater treatment plant when receiving combined influent from an aquaculture processing factory and an urban settlement in Kariba town, Zimbabwe. The methodological framework was a case study approach involving a local aquaculture factory and two treatment plants. In the study effluent from Nyamhunga treatment plant, which receives both domestic and aquaculture effluent, acted as the treatment. Effluent from a similarsized plant, Mahombekombe treatment plant, which only receives domestic wastewater acted as the control. Influent and effluent samples from both plants were collected over a 6 months period. Effluent samples were also taken from the aquaculture factory. The samples were analyzed for Chloride, TotalNitrogen, Biological Oxygen Demand and Fats, Oils and Grease using standard laboratory techniques. Research findings show that Mahombekombe treatment plant was more efficient than Nyamhunga treatment plant. Nyamhunga treatment plant effluent registered significantly higher concentrations for all tested parameters compared to Mahombekombe treatment plant. Effluent from the aquaculture factory significantly increased the wastewater load received by Nyamhunga treatment plant, in both volume and composition. The findings of the study suggests that coupling treatment plants to aquaculture processing facilities might not be a good practise since the former increases the load and concentrationsof wastewater significantly affecting performance.
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research , 2011,
Abstract: The water, in its circuit, passing through various types of uses (industrial processes, domestic uses), is loaded with various materials and substances, turning into what can name by a general term "wastewater". Taking into consideration the problems Romania deals with regarding wastewater treatment, the present paper proposes to investigate the possibilities through which, municipal wastewater can be treated in small plant. In this sense, the infrastructure necessary for wastewater treatment systems must be made in the context of sustainable development by identifying the defining characteristics for each area, local and even individual households.
Investigation of Irrigation Influence by Domestic Wastewater on Soil Characteristics  [cached]
Fayaz Aghayari,Hossein Hassanpour Darvishi
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: To investigate the beneficial impacts of wastewater on soil properties, we conducted an experiment in the lysimeter by measuring certain features essentially related to soil characteristics. Our objectives in this study were (i) the wastewater infiltration by soil and (ii) the effect of wastewater on soil properties. In this experiment, 9 lysimeter were used, 1, 2 and 3 lysimeters irrigated by domestic wastewater. Then, first drainage water accumulated from these lysimeters and 4, 5 and 6 lysimeters irrigated by this water and secondary drainage water accumulated from upon lysimeters. In order to comparison soil properties, 7, 8 and 9 lysimeters irrigated by normal water and finally, soil and water properties analyzed in each stage. The results showed that soil could filtering the wastewater and reduced BOD5 and COD of wastewater sorely. Also, irrigation with wastewater increased nutritive elements in soil that can be source of nutrition for plants. Our findings may give applicable advice to commercial farmers and agricultural researchers for management and proper use of water.
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