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ISLAM AND THE CHANGING MEANING OF SPIRITUALITAS AND SPIRITUAL IN CONTEMPORARY INDONESIA  [cached]
Ahmad Muttaqin
Al-Jami'ah : Journal of Islamic Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Spiritualitas, an Indonesian term derived from English word’s spirituality, and spiritual from English’s spiritual, are now commonly used in Indonesian discourses. This paper traces earliest usages of the term spiritualitas and spiritual and then explores their changing meaning in contemporary Indonesia. Unlike in the past, where Indonesian government broadly used the terms to refer indigenous mystical legacies of the Aliran Kepercayaan or Kebatinan designing them as not religion but merely cultural legacy (adat, budaya spiritual), the current usage of the terms indicates a growing trend of Indonesian world religions, mainly Islam, in absorbing and acquiring the terms as kind of religious expressions. This trend is quite different from that happen in the West; while the growing of spirituality is correlated to the declining of Western affiliation and participation in religion, mainly Christianity; in Indonesia, world religions, especially Islam, seem to be the sponsor of spirituality. Thus, instead of spirituality will silently take over religion as predicted by Jaremy Carrette and Richard King (2005), the mainstream religious groups seem to take over spirituality. [Istilah spiritual dan spiritulitas akhir-akhir ini banyak digunakan di Indonesia, merujuk tidak hanya pada ekspresi spiritual di luar agama, namun juga yang ada dalam tradsi keagaamaan. Tulisan ini menelaah awal mula penggunaan istilah spiritual dan spiritualitas dalam khazanah literatur pasca kemerdekaan serta fase-fase perubahan makna dari istilah tersebut pada masa-masa sesudahnya. Pada fase awal, pemerintah Indonesia secara massif menggunakan istilah spiritual untuk menunjuk tradisi keberagamaan di luar agama-agama resmi yang berbasis pada mistisisme agama-agama lokal seperti Aliran Kepercayaan dan Kebatinan. Hal ini mengisyaratkan bahwa istilah spiritual tersebut digunakan untuk menekankan bahwa tradisi beragamaan lokal tersebut bukan agama, hanya warisan budaya atau adat istiadat. Namun, kecenderangan baru sejak akhir 1990an hingga saat ini menunjukkan bahwa agama-agama resmi, terutama Islam, secara massif telah menggunakan istilah spiritual maupun spiritualitas sebagai padanan dari ekspresi batin keberagamaan (inner religious expression). Trend semacam ini cukup unik bila dibandingkan dengan yang terjadi di Barat, sebab tumbuh suburnya gerakan spiritual di Barat terjadi pada saat menurunnya tingkat afiliasi publik terhadap agama-agama besar, terutama Kristen; sedangkan di Indonesia agama-agama besar dunia, terutama Islam, menjadi sponsor utama populernya istilah spiritual dan spiritu
Foreign Policy, Islam and Democracy in Indonesia
Dewi Fortuna Anwar
Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: The relations between Islam and Democracy in Indonesia and their implications for the country’s foreign policy have attracted considerable attention in recent years. In the early years of his first presidential term, Susilo Bambang Yudhono introduced the concept of Indonesia’s international identity, that is, as a country in which Islam, democracy and modernity go hand in hand. In the post-9/11 11 international context, in which perceptions of Islam are largely negative, Indonesia’s special attributes as the largest Muslim-majority country and the world’s third largest democracy have special values. The international community, especially Western countries, has looked to Indonesia to provide an alternative face of Islam in the midst of rising religious extremism and terrorism. Indonesia, however, still faces many challenges in realising its aspirations to be a bridge between the Islamic world and the West, and as an alternative model within the Islamic world. Frequent acts of religious intolerance have marred Indonesia’s claim as a moderate Islamic force while Indonesia has generally been perceived to lie in the periphery of the Islamic world.
Political Islam and Democratic Change in Indonesia  [cached]
Paul J. Carnegie
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v4n11p3
Abstract: In the late 1990s Indonesia, the world’s most populous Muslim nation, transitioned to democracy amidst concerns over Islamist ascendancy. Yet, a decade later and Indonesia accommodates a diversity of Islamic political expression. The following article considers the clues to this accommodation. It examines the relationship between political Islam and democratisation and its possible future trajectory in Indonesia.
Contemporary Islamic Renewal in Indonesia  [cached]
Azyumardi Azra
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1996,
Abstract: During the early years of Suharto’s presidency, tension and conflict between Muslim groups and the government was widely evident. This discord was a result of government policies which the Muslims felt would uproot the influence of Islam from Indonesian politics. Towards the end of the 1980s, however, Islam began to show some convincing signs of revival. The turning point of Islamic reinvigoration was the acceptance of Pancasila by Muslim mass organizations as the foundation of their socio-political activities, thus ending the mutual suspicion between Muslims and the government. A more recent indication of Islamic resurgence is the increasing number of Indonesian haj pilgrims to Mecca and the formation of important Islamic organization, the All-Indonesian Muslim Intellectual Association, which serves as the sounding board for the Muslims to influence public policy. To conclude, the revival of Islam came at a time when Indonesia was enjoying economic growth. The crucial question, therefore, is how to maintain the momentum for economic growth so as to avoid possible negative effects of an economic regression on the revival of Islamic life. Moreover, Muslim activists working for a genuine revival of Islam should also deal with the problem of how to eliminate, or at least reduce, un-Islamic practices such as corruption and poor discipline among Indonesian Muslims.
QUESTIONING LIBERAL ISLAM IN INDONESIA: Response and Critique to Jaringan Islam Liberal  [cached]
Ahmad Bunyan Wahib
Al-Jami'ah : Journal of Islamic Studies , 2006,
Abstract: Tulisan ini membahas tentang respons terhadap pemikiran yang dilontarkan oleh para pendukung Jaringan Islam Liberal (JIL), sebuah jaringan yang beranggotakan anak-anak muda yang menyebarkan gagasangagasan pemikiran liberal. JIL telah menjadi salah satu ikon pemikiran Islam liberal di Indonesia. Banyak di antara gagasan-gagasan pemikiran yang diusung oleh para anggotanya menjadi gagasan yang kontroversial. Sebuah artikel berjudul “Menyegarkan Kembali Pemahaman Islam” yang ditulis oleh Ulil Abshar-Abdalla dan dimuat dalam harian Kompas menjadi salah satu artikel yang paling kontroversial. Berbagai respons dan kritik telah dilontarkan terhadap artikel tersebut, baik respons metodologis kritis ataupun apologetis, respons yang bersifat teoretis normative maupun praktis. Bahkan fatwa mati telah dikeluarkan oleh sekelompok orang bagi penulis artikel tersebut. Dalam banyak hal, respons dan kritik tersebut bukanlah hal baru dalam sejarah perjalanan Islam di Indonesia. Berbagai kritik serupa juga telah dilontarkan oleh berbagai kalangan terhadap Nurcholish Madjid di era 1970-an ketika melontarkan gagasan yang sangat kontroversial, yaitu gagasan tentang pembaharuan pemikiran Islam. Hanya fatwa mati saja yang tidak pernah keluar bagi Nurcholish Madjid.
THE HISTORY OF HINDUISM AND ISLAM IN INDONESIA: A REVIEW ON WESTERN PERSPECTIVE  [cached]
Mohd. Zariat Abdul Rani
Makara Seri Sosial Humaniora , 2010,
Abstract: This article takes as its starting point the early observation that describes the vastness of the research corpus on the cultural history of Indonesia. The vastness of this corpus is, among other things, contributed to by the writings of Western scholars. Among those that are considered classics and frequently used as important references are De Hindoe- Javaansche Tijd by N.J. Krom (1950), Nusantara: A History of Indonesia by Bernard H.M. Vlekke (1959), and Indonesia: Trade and Society by J.C. Van Leur (1955). Initial readings find that these Western scholars’ writings often raise the question of the role and contribution of Hinduism and Islam in Indonesia. This draws attention to their views and standpoint as Westerners on the history of Indonesian culture, especially in the context of comparison betweenHinduism and Islam. This article is written with the purpose of discussing the role and contribution of Islam and Hinduism in the history of Indonesia according to the perspective of three Western scholars, namely N.J. Krom, Bernard H.M. Vlekke and J.C. Van Leur in the writings mentioned above. This discussion finds that these writings studied are more inclined to acknowledge the significance of the role and contribution of Hinduism in the history of Indonesian culture, with the presence of Islam said to have not reduced the influence of Hinduism.
RELASI ISLAM DAN NEGARA DI INDONESIA DAN MALAYSIA  [cached]
Kamsi Kamsi
Mukaddimah : Jurnal Studi Islam , 2012,
Abstract: There is nothing the so-called Islamic politics as politics in Islam is basically human affairs. The political terms mainly imply human’s efforts (ijitih}adiyyah) rather than sacred revealed doctrine. In historical point of views, the above assumption is clearly demonstrated through the multiple forms and dynamics of the state and religion relationship. This article is deemed to uncover the political dynamics of the state and religion relation in two biggest Muslim countries, Indonesia and Malaysia. It is argued that in these countries political regimes and their opponents speak on behalf of Islam legitimasing their struggles. In Indonesia, the state ideology, Pancasila, has been a major debate colouring the tension between the state and religion, whereas in Malaysia the so-called official religion is the main source of contestation. Problem politik Islam merupakan persoalan ijtih}adiyyah. Ini dibuktikan dengan relasi Islam dan negara yang mengalami pasang surut. Tulisan ini menjelaskan dinamika relasi Islam dan negara di dua negara muslim terbesar di dunia, Malaysia dan Indonesia. Di dua negara tersebut, baik rejim politik ataupun penentangnya, sama-sama mengatasnamakan Islam untuk melegitimasi perjuangan mereka. Jika di Indonesia, Pancasila menjadi warna penting dalam interpretasi Islam, maka di Malaysia doktrin ‘agama resmi’ menjadi sumber kontestasi. Kata kunci: Islam dan negara, Indonesia, Malaysia.
Review: Aspinall, Edward (2009), Islam and Nation: Separatist Rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia
Christian Stegmann
Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs , 2010,
Abstract: Review of the monograph:Aspinall, Edward (2009), Islam and Nation: Separatist Rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia, Stanford/Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University PressISBN 978-0-8047-6045-4, 288 pages
Muslim diversity: Islam and local tradition in Java and Sulawesi, Indonesia
Muhamad Ali
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies , 2011,
Abstract: Based on some historical and anthropological accounts, this article examines a dynamic interplay between Islam and local tradition in Indonesia with special reference to Java and Sulawesi. It explains how local Muslims differed in their interpretation and application of Islam. It looks at processes of religious change as a world religion interacts with local forces. The “localization” of Islam was a constant feature in the expansion of Islam beyond the Arab homeland, including Southeast Asia. Based on the framework of ‘practical Islam’ , rather than ‘normative Islam’ , and on the framework of both accommodation and conflict between shari’ah and adat as a whole system, rather than as separate entities, it provides a greater variety of Islamic beliefs and experiences. Comparatively , Javanese people have been more diverse than Sulawesi people in terms of religious spectrum; Muslims in Java have incorporated animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam into their culture system. Stories about the nine saints show how early Islamic preachers sought to accommodate Islam with local traditions. In Sulawesi, Dato ri Bandang and the other teachers, representing the elite aristocracy who attempted to Islamize the kingdoms and the people alike and Syeikh Yusuf , representing a strict kind of Islam, show diversity but tends to suggest a less diverse picture, when compared to Java. Despite internal diversity in Java as well as in Sulawesi, Java has remained more open and tolerant with cultural diversity, whereas Sulawesi has increasingly become more legalistic.
MELIHAT SISTEM PEREKONOMIAN INDONESIA DENGAN PERSPEKTIF ISLAM
NAZERI
JEBI (JURNAL EKONOMI DAN BISNIS ISLAM) , 2016,
Abstract: The economic system is the process provide income to people's lives, both in the long term and short term. What is wrong with the economic system of Indonesia? Is the government does not pay attention to the public? In theory an economic system that consists of a capitalist, socialist and Islamic system. In its application in Indonesian economic system over the capitalist system tends to apply. Judging from policies issued sometimes more aligned to the owners of capital. Sources of more production controlled by private parties and foreign parties, so that the uneven distribution of income.
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