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Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?  [PDF]
Todd Matthews,Lee Michael Johnson,Catherine Jenks
Religions , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rel2040485
Abstract: In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380). Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.
Infant mortality and mothers' religious involvement in Brazil
Verona, Ana Paula de Andrade;Hummer, Robert;Dias Júnior, Cláudio Santiago;Lima, Luciana Concei??o de;
Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Popula??o , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-30982010000100005
Abstract: the growth of protestantism in brazil has been associated with changes in mortality and health-related outcomes. recent research has suggested that affiliation with protestant churches may positively influence their members' well being by: 1) providing moral directives, 2) creating formal or informal sanctions, and 3) promoting social networks and support. this article uses data from the 1996 and 2006 brazilian demographic health surveys (dhs) and cox's proportional hazard models to examine the relationship between infant mortality and mothers' religious involvement. unadjusted results show that differences in the hazard ratios of infant mortality by mothers' religious involvement are considerable and statistically significant. when one controls demographic and socioeconomic variables in the 1996 dhs, the baseline relationship disappears, supporting the hypothesis of selectivity. results using the 2006 dhs are somewhat different and suggest that the association between religious involvement and infant mortality was stronger in brazil in 2006 than in 1996. this research should encourage future studies on religious involvement and health-related outcomes in brazil. this topic deserves further consideration from brazilian demographers not simply because this country has undergone enormous changes in its religious landscape over recent decades, but also because religion can affect believers' lifestyles and behaviors, and this can indirectly influence their health and well-being.
Religious Involvement Effects on Mental Health in Chinese Americans  [cached]
Bu Huang,Hoa B. Appel,Amy L. Ai,Chyongchiou Jeng Lin
Asian Culture and History , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ach.v4n1p2
Abstract: Faith has been shown to serve a protective role in the mental health of African Americans and European Americans. However, little research has examined whether any association exists in Asian Americans. Using the National Latino and Asian American Study dataset, we examined the effect of religious attendance on the mental health of Asian Americans in the United States. The present study focused on Chinese Americans because they are the largest Asian American group. The results revealed that almost 80% of the respondents were foreign-born and that their English proficiency had a positive association with their self-rated mental health. Being male correlated significantly to higher levels of mental health self-rating. After controlling for known predictive variables, such as demographics, cultural and immigration variables, more frequent religious attendance significantly predicted higher self-rating of mental health. These findings suggest that faith may have a unique protective role in Chinese Americans’ mental health.
Fathers Religious and Family Involvement at Home: Work and Family Outcomes
E.J. Hill, R.O. Whyte, J.I. Jacob, V.L. Blanchard, S.F. Duncan, D.C. Dollahite and L. Wadsworthn
The Open Family Studies Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874922400801010056]
Abstract: This study investigates the impact of fathers’ religious and family involvement on work-family conflict, workfamily fit, job satisfaction, and marital satisfaction. The sample consists of employed, married fathers and their spouses from the 2001 Marriott School of Management Alumni Work and Family Survey (n = 210). Fathers’ family involvement was related to less work-life conflict, greater work-family fit, and greater self- and spouse-reports of marital satisfaction. Fathers’ family and religious involvement was related to greater self- and spouse-reports of marital satisfaction. These findings suggest the importance of fathers’ religious and family involvement to valued family and work outcomes.
Does Death of a Family Member Moderate the Relationship between Religious Attendance and Depressive Symptoms? The HUNT Study, Norway  [PDF]
Torgeir S?rensen,Lars J. Danbolt,Jostein Holmen,Harold G. Koenig,Lars Lien
Depression Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/396347
Abstract: Background. The death of a family member is a stressful life event and can result in an increased level of depressive symptoms. Previous American research has shown inverse relationships between religious involvement and depression. European investigations are few and findings inconsistent; different contexts may have an important influence on findings. We therefore investigated the relationship between attendance at church/prayer house and depressive symptoms, and whether this relationship was moderated by the death of a close family member, in Norway. Methods. A population-based sample from the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Study, Norway (HUNT 3, ,981), was the population examined. Multiple regression and interaction tests were utilised. Results. Religious attendees had lower scores on depressive symptoms than non-attendees; death of a close family member moderated this relationship. The inverse relationships between attendance at church/prayer house and depressive symptoms were greater among those experiencing the death of an immediate family member in the last twelve months compared to those without such an experience, with men's decrease of depressive symptoms more pronounced than women's. Conclusion. In a population-based study in Norway, attendance at church/prayer house was associated with lower depressive symptoms, and the death of a close relative and gender moderated this relationship. 1. Introduction Previous research has shown that loss of family members is associated with increased level of depression [1]. Religious involvement, in turn, has been associated with better psychological outcomes for people undergoing stressful life events [2]. However, even if people with religious or spiritual beliefs have better outcomes in response to negative life events in some studies [3], there is still much to be learned about how this relationship comes about [4]. Numerous studies from the USA have reported inverse relationships, both cross-sectional and longitudinal, between organizational religious involvement and depression [5, 6]. Among the most common measures used to assess religiosity in this field has been a single item, attendance at religious services [7]. The relationship between religious activity and depression in the European context is largely unexplored, and results of previous research are inconsistent. This may have to do with the different populations being studied in terms of the distribution of life stressors. In a study that examined religion and depression in eleven Western European countries, no direct association between religious
Mental Health Treatment Involvement and Religious Coping among African American, Hispanic, and White Veterans of the Wars of Iraq and Afghanistan  [PDF]
David S. Greenawalt,Jack Y. Tsan,Nathan A. Kimbrel,Eric C. Meyer,Marc I. Kruse,David F. Tharp,Suzy Bird Gulliver,Sandra B. Morissette
Depression Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/192186
Abstract: Although racial/ethnic differences have been found in the use of mental health services for depression in the general population, research among Veterans has produced mixed results. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the use of mental health services among 148 Operation Enduring/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with high levels of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and evaluated whether religious coping affected service use. No differences between African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic white Veterans were found in use of secular mental health services or religious counseling. Women Veterans were more likely than men to seek secular treatment. After controlling for PTSD symptoms, depression symptom level was a significant predictor of psychotherapy attendance but not medication treatment. African American Veterans reported higher levels of religious coping than whites. Religious coping was associated with participation in religious counseling, but not secular mental health services. 1. Introduction Research indicates that African Americans and Hispanics underutilize mental health services compared with Non-Hispanic whites. According to the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), among those with a mental disorder, African Americans are half as likely as whites to receive psychiatric treatment when controlling for the severity of the disorder [1]. African Americans are also less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to receive treatment for a mental disorder through specialty mental health or general medical services [2]. A recent review indicated that Hispanics, as compared to Non-Hispanic whites, also underutilize mental health services and are less likely to receive adequate mental health treatment [3]. Racial and ethnic differences in use of mental health services have also been shown for specific disorders, such as depression. African Americans are less likely than whites to access mental health treatment for depression, and of those who receive treatment, African Americans are less likely than whites to receive adequate care [4, 5]. A recent national study found that Hispanics, compared to Non-Hispanic whites, were also less likely to receive mental health treatment for depression during the period from 2000–2002 [6]. Whereas data from general community samples have revealed differences in mental health service utilization between minorities and whites [1, 2, 6–8], research with US military Veterans has produced mixed findings regarding utilization
Religious Involvement, Inflammatory Markers and Stress Hormones in Major Depression and Chronic Medical Illness  [PDF]
Denise L. Bellinger, Lee S. Berk, Harold G. Koenig, Noha Daher, Michelle J. Pearce, Clive J. Robins, Bruce Nelson, Sally F. Shaw, Harvey Jay Cohen, Michael B. King
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44040
Abstract: Background: Religious practices/experiences (RPE) may produce positive physiological changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and chronic medical illness. Here, we report cross-sectional relationships between depressive symptoms, RPE and stress biomarkers (pro-/anti-inflammatory measures and stress hormones), hypothesizing positive associations between depressive symptoms and stress biomarkers and inverse associations between RPE and stress biomarkers. Methods: We recruited 132 individuals with both MDD and chronic illness into a randomized clinical trial. First, stress biomarkers in the baseline sample were compared to biomarker levels from a community sample. Second, relationships between depressive symptoms and biomarkers were examined, and, finally, relationships between RPE and biomarkers were analyzed, controlling for demographics, depressive symptoms, and physical functioning. Results: As expected, inflammatory markers and stress hormones were higher in our sample with MDD compared to community participants. In the current sample, however, depressive symptoms were largely unrelated to stress biomarkers, and were unexpectedly inversely related to proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-1β). Likewise, while RPE were largely unrelated to stress biomarkers, they were related to the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1RA and the stress hormone norepinephrine in expected directions. Unexpectedly, RPE were also positively related to the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ and to IFN-γ/IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-10 ratios. Conclusions: Little evidence was found for a consistent pattern of relationships between depressive symptoms or religiosity and stress biomarkers. Of the few significant relationships, unexpected findings predominated. Future research is needed to determine whether religious interventions can alter stress biomarkers over time in MDD.
Self-rated health does not predict 10-year weight change among middle-aged adults in a longitudinal population study
Margareta Norberg, Kristina Lindvall, Paul L Jenkins, Maria Emmelin, G?ran L?nnberg, Anne N Nafziger
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-748
Abstract: From 1990 to 2008, adults aged 30, 40, 50 and 60 years were invited to health surveys that included self-rated health and measured weight and height. ANOVA was used to evaluate the relationship of 10-year percent weight change and self-rated health.The study population consisted of 29,207 participants (46.5% men). There was no relationship between baseline self-rated health and 10-year percent weight change for middle-aged men or women.Self-rated health is not able to predict weight change over a 10-year period in this age group.The obesity epidemic is occurring in many regions and countries of the world. A dose-response relationship exists between increasing obesity and an increasing burden of health problems, mainly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers [1]. There are also important social and psychological effects of obesity [2,3]. Most of the increasing number of efforts to counteract the obesity epidemic focus on promotion of weight loss and have shown limited or no long-term success [4]. Some work has been done to identify those at greatest risk for weight gain with the idea that interventions targeted at such individuals might be the most cost-effective [5]. More recently there has been increasing interest in seeking to identify those who will maintain body weight, because weight maintenance may be easier to achieve than weight loss with subsequent weight stability [4,6]. Also, primary prevention of weight gain may have the greatest chance of avoiding the morbidity and mortality associated with excess body weight [7].Self-rated health is known to both predict and be associated with mortality [8] and many health conditions [2,9-13], and to mainly reflect mental and physical health status [14]. However, not all studies have found a consistent association between poor self-rated health and obesity [2,15,16]. Some investigators have found that associations of poor self-rated health are lowest among overweight middle-aged men and normal weight women below
Does probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improve the accuracy of QTL location in animal pedigree?
Christine Cierco-Ayrolles, Sébastien Dejean, Andrés Legarra, Hélène Gilbert, Tom Druet, Florence Ytournel, Delphine Estivals, Na?ma Oumouhou, Brigitte Mangin
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-42-38
Abstract: Our results indicated that the improvement produced by probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution was not significant. Both methods led to similar results concerning the location accuracy of quantitative trait loci which appeared to be mainly improved by using four flanking markers instead of two.Therefore, in animal half-sib designs, modelling linkage disequilibrium evolution using a Wright-Fisher model does not significantly improve the accuracy of the QTL location when compared to a simpler method assuming complete and constant linkage between the QTL and the marker alleles. Finally, given the high marker density available nowadays, the simpler method should be preferred as it gives accurate results in a reasonable computing time.For several decades, detection and mapping of loci affecting quantitative traits of agricultural interest (Quantitative Trait Loci or QTL) using genetic markers have been based only on pedigree or family information, especially in plant and animal populations where the structure of these experimental designs can be easily controlled. However, the accuracy of gene locations using these methods was limited, due to the small number of meioses occurring in a few generations. Recent advances in technology, such as SNP genotyping, leading to dense genetic maps have boosted research in QTL detection and fine-mapping. Nowadays, methods for fine-mapping rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) information rather than simply on linkage data. Linkage disequilibrium, the non-uniform association of alleles at two loci, has been successfully employed for mapping both Mendelian disease genes [1-4] and QTL [5-7]. Interested readers can also refer to reviews by [8-11]. For all chromosomal loci, including those that are physically unlinked, linkage disequilibrium can be generated or influenced by various evolutionary forces such as mutation, natural or artificial selection, genetic drift, population admixture, changes in population size (expon
Does Evolution matter?: a case study in Brazil of the effects of an evolutionary-thinking academic atmosphere in postgraduate students' belief in God/religious belief
Dias, Ivan A.;Willemart, Rodrigo H.;Marques, Antonio C.;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652012005000023
Abstract: although the theory of evolution is more than 150 years old, a substantial proportion of the world population does not mention it when explaining the origin of human beings. the usual alternative conception is offered by creationism, one of the main obstacles to full acceptance of evolution in many countries. national polls have demonstrated that schooling and religiosity are negatively correlated, with scientists being one of the least religious professionals. herein we analyzed both (1) the profile of 1st semester undergraduate students and (2), thesis and dissertations, concerning religious and evolutionary thoughts from biology and veterinary schools at the largest university of south america. we have shown that students of biology are biased towards evolution before they enter university and also that the presence of an evolutionary-thinking academic atmosphere influences the deism/religiosity beliefs of postgraduate students.
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