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Psychosocial and Sociodemographic Predictors of Depression among Older Persons in Jordan  [PDF]
Ayman Hamdan-Mansour
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.67056
Abstract: The average annual growth rate for the ageing population is increasing considerably. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychosocial predictors of depression among older persons in Jordan. Methods: A quantitative approach using cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design was used to carry out on a nationally representative, stratified multistage clustered area probability sample of non-institutionalized adults (aged ≥ 60 years). Data collected using self-report (structured format) of data collection. Data collected in regards to depression, social support, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. Results: About 55.5% of the participants have none to slight depressive symptoms, 22% of them have mild depressive symptoms, 17.3% of them have moderate depressive symptoms, and only 5.2% of them have severed depressive symptoms. Older persons have moderate levels of life satisfaction, perceived social support and psychological distress. Type of diagnosis was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms as it was in model 1 while working status and marital status remained significant predictors. In addition, perceived social support total (β = -1.98, 0.016), psychological distress (β = 0.465, <0.001), and life satisfaction (β = -0.284, <0.001) were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Effective, community-level primary mental health care for older people is crucial, and its recommended to equally focus on the long-term care of older adults suffering from mental health problems, as well as to provide caregivers with education, training and support.
Socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in community-living older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling
Gertrudis IJM Kempen, Jolanda CM van Haastregt, Kevin J McKee, Kim Delbaere, GA Rixt Zijlstra
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-170
Abstract: Cross-sectional study in 540 community-living older people aged ≥ 70 years with at least mild fear of falling and avoidance of activity. Chi-squares, t-tests and logistics regression analyses were performed to study the associations between the selected correlates and both outcomes.Old age, female sex, limitations in activity of daily living, impaired vision, poor perceived health, chronic morbidity, falls, low general self-efficacy, low mastery, loneliness, feelings of anxiety and symptoms of depression were identified as univariate correlates of severe fear of falling and avoidance of activity. Female sex, limitations in activity of daily living and one or more falls in the previous six months correlated independently with severe fear of falling. Higher age and limitations in activity of daily living correlated independently with severe avoidance of activity.Psychosocial variables did not contribute independently to the difference between mild and severe fear of falling and to the difference between mild and severe avoidance of activity due to fear of falling. Although knowledge about the unique associations of specific variables with levels of severe fear of falling and avoidance of activity is of interest for theoretical reasons, knowledge of univariate association may also help to specify the concepts for developing interventions and programmes to reduce fear of falling and avoidance of activity in old age, particularly in their early stages of development.Fear of falling and avoidance of activity due to fear of falling are common in older people. Prevalence rates for fear of falling in community-living older persons range from 20 to above 60% [1-8] and for avoidance of activity due to fear of falling from 15 to above 55% [1,6,7,9-11]. Fear of falling, and related avoidance of activity may lead to adverse consequences, like functional decline [8,12,13], restriction of social participation [9], decreased quality of life [2,8,12], increased risk of falling [8,10]
The Eight Stages of Psychosocial Protective Development: Developmental Psychology  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.86024
Abstract: The proposed universal psychological mechanism for developmental psychology is the mental protective system whose different parts emerge and mature in the eight different stages of psychosocial protective development under different social interactions. The proposed eight stages of psychosocial protective development are childhood (infancy, toddlerhood, pre-juvenile age, and juvenile age), adolescence, early young adulthood, late young adulthood, early middle adulthood, late middle adulthood, early late adulthood, and late late adulthood. The mental protection system consists of four socialities (collectivistic, individualistic, interdependent, and generativity), three worldviews (territorial, competitive, and cooperative), and the mental immune system for four regulated and unregulated countermeasures (hyperactivity, phobia, comforter, and rationality) against adversities. During childhood, dependent children have collectivistic sociality under the protection of committed parents and territorial worldview with the boundary of family. Children start with the unregulated mental immune system without delayed gratification due to mental immaturity, and gradually acquire the regulated mental immune system with delayed gratification through mental maturity. Adolescents transit to adulthood. Independent adults have the regulated metal immune system, individualistic sociality with reciprocity, and competitive-cooperative worldviews without boundary. After the age of 50, older people as elder leaders-mentors develop generativity sociality to protect next generation. The paper shows that the mental protective system as the universal psychological mechanism for developmental psychology explains clearly psychosocial protective development, the human evolution, the Piaget’s cognitive development, the Erikson’s psychosocial (ego-social) development, the Confucius’ (educated person’s) six milestones of life, and parent-child relation in the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and Confucianism.
The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study
Hannie C Comijs, Harm W van Marwijk, Roos C van der Mast, Paul Naarding, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Aartjan TF Beekman, Marjolein Boshuisen, Janny Dekker, Rob Kok, Margot WM de Waal, Brenda WJH Penninx, Max L Stek, Johannes H Smit
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-524
Abstract: We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood.From 2007 until 2010, the NESDO consortium has recruited 510 depressed and non depressed older persons (≥ 60 years) at 5 locations throughout the Netherlands. Depressed persons were recruited from both mental health care institutes and general practices in order to include persons with late-life depression in various developmental and severity stages. Non-depressed persons were recruited from general practices. The baseline assessment included written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, cognitive tests and collection of blood and saliva samples. Information was gathered about mental health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, biological, cognitive and genetic determinants. The baseline NESDO sample consists of 378 depressed (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 132 non-depressed persons aged 60 through 93 years. 95% had a major depression and 26.5% had dysthymia. Mean age of onset of the depressive disorder was around 49 year. For 33.1% of the depressed persons it was their first episode. 41.0% of the depressed persons had a co morbid anxiety disorder. Follow up assessments are currently going on with 6 monthly written questionnaires and face-to-face interviews after 2 and 6 years.The NESDO sample offers the opportunity to study the neurobiological, psychosocial and physical determinants of depression and its long-term course in older persons. Since largely similar measures were used as in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; age range 18-65 years), data can be pooled thus creating a large longitudinal database of clinically depressed persons with adequate power and a large set of neurobiologi
Cases Of HIV Positive Commercial Sex Workers In The City Of Nagpur With Special Reference To Their Psychosocial Problems
Jyoti Motghare
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: HIV positive persons suffer from various Psychosocial problems such as Anxiety, Depression, Guilt ,Anger ,Fear Suicidal thoughts etc. There is a social stigma associated with this condition .They are discriminated at various level. Commercial Sex worker are doubly stigmatized .This research study illustrates the cases of commercial sex worker with their psychosocial problems.
Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescent Psychiatric Population  [PDF]
Jelena Srdanovi? Mara?,Ksenija Kolund?ija,Olja Duki?,Valentina ?obot
Aktuelnosti iz Neurologije, Psihijatrije i Grani?nih Podru?ja , 2010,
Abstract: Committed suicide is one of the most common causes of death in the adolescent population. The rate of adolescent suicides and suicidal attempts is a very fluent category, varying over time and between countries. Suicidal rate at the age 15 to 24 is 6.9 in Serbia, which is 66 deaths per year in absolute numbers. These alarming data about the frequency of suicidal attempts and committed suicides in the population of young people certainly call attention to the significance of identifying factors influencing suicidality in youth. Current suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts, poor psychosocial functioning and recommendation for psychiatric treatment are associated with higher suicide rate and mortality. Global statistics say that 90% of young people who committed suicide had at least one psychiatric disorder. Association of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviour in young people is very strong. Typical for adolescent population are multiple suicidal attempts. Persons working with hospitalised adolescents should pay constant attention to possible expression of various forms of suicidal behaviour.
Hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-positive persons
RD Govender, L Schlebusch
South African Journal of Psychiatry , 2012,
Abstract: Background and objectives. HIV/AIDS and suicidal behaviour are major public health concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-infected persons. Methods. The sample consisted of all adult volunteers attending a voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) HIV clinic at a universityaffiliated state hospital. Suicidal ideation and depression were measured using the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively, at two intervals, viz. 72 hours and 6 weeks after HIV diagnosis. Results. Of the 156 patients who tested positive for HIV, 32 (20.5%) had a hopelessness score of 9 or above on the BHS and 130 patients (82.8%) were depressed according to the BDI at 72 hours after diagnosis. Of the 109 patients assessed 6 weeks after diagnosis, 32 (28.8%) had a hopelessness score of >9 on the BHS and 86 (78.2%) were depressed according to the BDI. A moderately positive correlation at both time periods was found between hopelessness and depression. A ROC analysis showed optimal sensitivity, indicating that the HIV-positive depressed patients were at risk for suicidal behaviour. Conclusion. The significant correlations between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation are important markers that should alert healthcare professionals to underlying suicide risks in HIV-positive patients. Early recognition of this and suicide prevention strategies should be incorporated into the treatment offered at VCT HIV clinics.
A Systematic Review of Social Factors and Suicidal Behavior in Older Adulthood  [PDF]
Madeleine Mellqvist F?ssberg,Kimberly A. van Orden,Paul Duberstein,Annette Erlangsen,Sylvie Lapierre,Ehud Bodner,Silvia Sara Canetto,Diego De Leo,Katalin Szanto,Margda Waern
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9030722
Abstract: Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths) among individuals aged 65 and older. Our search identified only 16 articles (across 14 independent samples) that met inclusion criteria. The limited number of studies points to the need for further research. Included studies were conducted in Canada (n = 2), Germany (n = 1), Hong Kong (n = 1), Japan (n = 1), Singapore (n = 1), Sweden (n = 2), Taiwan (n = 1), the U.K. (n = 2), and the U.S. (n = 3). The majority of the social factors examined in this review can be conceptualized as indices of positive social connectedness—the degree of positive involvement with family, friends, and social groups. Findings indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease suicide risk, especially among men.
Specialist prescribing of psychotropic drugs to older persons in Sweden - a register-based study of 188 024 older persons
Gunilla Martinsson, Ingegerd Fagerberg, Lena Wiklund-Gustin, Christina Lindholm
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-197
Abstract: Data concerning drug treatment for older persons from 2006 to 2008 was gathered from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Mental disorders, defined as affective, psychotic and anxiety disorders (ICD-10 F20-42) were evaluated in order to identify associated drugs. Included was a total of 188 024 older individuals, who collectively filled 2 013 079 prescriptions for the treatment of mental disorders. Descriptive analyses were performed, including frequency distribution and 95% CI. The competence of the prescribers was analyzed by subdividing them into five groups: geriatricians, psychiatrists, general practitioners (GPs), other specialists, and physicians without specialist education.GPs represented the main prescribers, whereas geriatricians and psychiatrists rarely prescribed drugs to older persons. Benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were the most commonly prescribed drugs. Women were prescribed drugs from geriatricians and psychiatrists to a greater extent than men.This study examined the prescription of psychotropic drugs to older persons. Physicians specialized in older persons’ disorders and mental health were rarely the prescribers of these drugs. Contrary to clinical guidelines, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were commonly prescribed to older persons, emphasizing the need for continuous examination of pharmaceutical treatment for older persons. The results indicate a future need of more specialists in geriatrics and psychiatry.The world is facing a demographical shift in which the older population will increase. It is thus fair to assume that the prevalence of disorders that are common among older persons will also increase. Studies have shown that mental disorders are prevalent among the old [1-3], even when dementia disorders are excluded [4,5]. The treatment of mental disorders (i.e. affective, psychotic and anxiety disorders) in older persons is a complex task and can be affected by a variety of factors, including pharmacokinetic
Living Arrangements and Conditions of Older Persons in Namibia  [PDF]
Nelago Indongo, Naftal Sakaria
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2016.55010
In Africa, ageing is a phenomenon that is just beginning to reveal its shape. Most governments, including the Namibian government, recognize the fact that the number of older persons is on the increase, however, discussing it is still a distant phenomenon and family matter. This paper examines the living arrangements of older adults in Namibia, identifying the existing structure of living arrangements and the nature of family relationships of older people, as well as provides some basic descriptive information on the housing conditions in which older persons live and how they are associated with their socioeconomic and demographic factors. The analysis is based on 1991, 2001 and 2011 Namibia Population and Housing Censuses. The study concluded that living arrangements is constantly changing from extended family pattern to western nuclear family, mainly due to urbanization and decreased fertility rate. Housing conditions had notably improved in rural areas while in urban areas the conditions are affected by the mushrooming of informal settlements. There is need to encourage or conduct focused research on ageing to help coin policies based on evidence and make communities sensitive towards ageing. The study further recommends Government to encourage old people to form organizations that would in turn focus on sensitizing and help championing issues of ageing and aged persons.
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