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Influences of Levels of Processing, Misleading Intensity and Warnings on Memory Suggestibility  [PDF]
Xiao-Jun Cao, Shen Tu, Xu Chen
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.66069
Abstract: The influences of levels of processing at the encoding phase, misleading intensity at the misleading phase and warning at the retrieval phase on memory suggestibility were explored through the delayed retrieval errors paradigm, and the contributions of dynamic automatic processing and intentional processing to generation of memory suggestibility were deeply assessed through the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm. The results showed that levels of processing were an important influencing factor for memory suggestibility. The intentional processing at the encoding phase benefited the generation of memory suggestibility more than the automatic processing. The misleading intensity had a significant effect, where the misled-generate items were recalled at a higher level with a longer response time than the misled-read items. In addition, the warning in-creased both the memory suggestibility of misleading pictures and the memory accuracy of non-misleading pictures. This memory suggestibility was jointly caused by the automatic pro-cessing and intentional processing, but mainly intentional processing, and the warning increased the probability of intentional processing during the generation of memory suggestibility.
The Summarize Of Research On Suggestibility Of Children''''s Memory
儿童记忆受暗示性影响的研究综述

Zhou Lihua,Liu Ailun,
周丽华
,刘爱伦

心理科学进展 , 2003,
Abstract: Research on suggestibility of children's memory is a rising field of study. At first this study aimed at eyewitness in legal cases, but in fact this plays an important role in avoiding independent variables in an experiment. This article looks back to the major conclusions and ideas on children's suggestibility. The following is our focus: history of this research, the interviewer bias and suggestibility techniques, causal mechanisms, future directions.
Relationship of aerobic fitness and motor skills with memory and attention in preschoolers (Ballabeina): A cross-sectional and longitudinal study
Iris Niederer, Susi Kriemler, Janine Gut, Tim Hartmann, Christian Schindler, Jér?me Barral, Jardena J Puder
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-34
Abstract: Data from 245 ethnically diverse preschool children (mean age: 5.2 (0.6) years, girls: 49.4%) analyzed at baseline and 9 months later. Assessments included aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run) and motor skills with agility (obstacle course) and dynamic balance (balance beam). Cognitive parameters included spatial working memory (IDS) and attention (KHV-VK). All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, migration status, parental education, native language and linguistic region. Longitudinal analyses were additionally adjusted for the respective baseline value.In the cross-sectional analysis, aerobic fitness was associated with better attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03). A shorter time in the agility test was independently associated with a better performance both in working memory (r = -0.17, p = 0.01) and in attention (r = -0.20, p = 0.01). In the longitudinal analyses, baseline aerobic fitness was independently related to improvements in attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03), while baseline dynamic balance was associated with improvements in working memory (r = 0.15, p = 0.04).In young children, higher baseline aerobic fitness and motor skills were related to a better spatial working memory and/or attention at baseline, and to some extent also to their future improvements over the following 9 months.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00674544The debate about a possible relationship between aerobic fitness and motor skills with cognitive development in children has recently re-emerged, because of the decrease in children's aerobic fitness [1] and the concomitant pressure of schools to enhance cognitive performance [2]. In preschoolers, the focus is preferentially set on the advancement of cognitive parameters such as working memory and attention. Both working memory and attention have been shown to be important predictors of academic achievement [3,4].Despite the beneficial health effects, time for physical education or sports activities is often limited by budget cuts or the abundance of al
Suggestibility, Dissociation and Positive Schizotypy
Barkus,Emma; Stirling,John; Cavill,John;
Clínica y Salud , 2010,
Abstract: 94 participants, drawn from a parent sample of 1206 individuals who had previously taken part in an assessment of the factor structure of the oxford-liverpool inventory of feelings and experiences (o-life), were designated into groups differentiated in terms of low, moderate or high levels of positive schizotypy. all also completed the dissociative experiences scale (des) and the inventory of suggestibility (is). our findings suggest that higher reported levels of dissociative experiences and higher suggestibility both independently predict higher scores of positive schizotypy, although suggestibility appears to be a stronger predictor than dissociation.
Structural and Functional Cerebral Correlates of Hypnotic Suggestibility  [PDF]
Alexa Huber, Fausta Lui, Davide Duzzi, Giuseppe Pagnoni, Carlo Adolfo Porro
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093187
Abstract: Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.
Algorithmics for Preschoolers—A Contradiction?  [PDF]
Roland T. Mittermeir
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49081
Abstract:

Developing an algorithm requires expressing it in some (formal) language. The respective language is usually understood to be textual (conventional programming language) or partly graphical (design languages, and languages in programming environments for children). As writing and reading are capabilities not to be presumed from preschoolers, many educators claim that confronting such young kids with algorithmic concepts is beyond their abstraction capability. This paper reports on an experiment with kindergarten-groups requiring them to discover simple algorithms without resorting to reading and writing. It clearly showed that limited capabilities of abstractions are not a hurdle at all, if the problems are posed in a way corresponding to the limited experience base of the children, and if solutions are small enough to be kept in memory and allow expressing themselves in other forms than writing.

Involvement of the insular cortex in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training  [PDF]
Raquel V. Fornari,Romy Wichmann,Tifany Desprez,Ellie Eggens-Meijer,Benno Roozendaal
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00010
Abstract: Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC) to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the IC is importantly involved in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of emotionally arousing inhibitory avoidance training. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist RU 28362 (3 or 10 ng in 0.5 μl) infused bilaterally into the IC of male Sprague–Dawley rats immediately after one-trial inhibitory avoidance training dose-dependently enhanced 48 h retention performance. Moreover, training on the inhibitory avoidance task increased neuronal activity of the IC, as assessed by an increased number of cells expressing immunoreactivity for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2). However, systemic administration of a memory-enhancing dose of corticosterone (1 mg/kg) after inhibitory avoidance training rapidly reduced the number of pERK1/2-positive cells in the IC, suggesting that glucocorticoid administration reduces overall neuronal activity of the IC. To investigate which components of the inhibitory avoidance training experience were influenced by the intra-IC glucocorticoid administration, in the last experiment rats were trained on a modified inhibitory avoidance task in which context exposure and footshock training occur on two sequential days. RU 28362 administration into the IC enhanced later retention when infused immediately after either the context or footshock training. Thus, these findings indicate that the IC mediates glucocorticoid effects on the consolidation of memory of different components of inhibitory avoidance training and suggest that the IC might be an important element of the rodent brain network involved in emotional regulation of learning and memory.
Preschoolers' Dot Enumeration Abilities Are Markers of Their Arithmetic Competence  [PDF]
Sarah A. Gray, Robert A. Reeve
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094428
Abstract: The abilities to enumerate small sets of items (e.g., dots) and to compare magnitudes are claimed to be indexes of core numerical competences that scaffold early math development. Insofar as this is correct, these abilities may be diagnostic markers of math competence in preschoolers. However, unlike magnitude comparison abilities, little research has examined preschoolers' ability to enumerate small sets, or its significance for emerging math abilities; which is surprising since dot enumeration is a marker of school-aged children's math competence. It is nevertheless possible that general cognitive functions (working memory, response inhibition in particular) are associated with preschoolers' math abilities and underlie nascent dot enumeration abilities. We investigated whether preschoolers' dot enumeration abilities predict their non-verbal arithmetic ability, over and above the influence of working memory and response inhibition. Two measures of dot enumeration ability were examined—inverse efficiency and paradigm specific (response time profiles) measures—to determine which has the better diagnostic utility as a marker of math competence. Seventy-eight 42-to-57 month-olds completed dot enumeration, working memory, response inhibition, and non-verbal addition and subtraction tasks. Dot enumeration efficiency predicted arithmetic ability over and above the influence of general cognitive functions. While dot enumeration efficiency was a better predictor of arithmetic ability than paradigm specific response time profiles; the response time profile displaying the smallest subitizing range and steepest subitizing slope, also displayed poor addition abilities, suggesting a weak subitizing profile may have diagnostic significance in preschoolers. Overall, the findings support the claim that dot enumeration abilities and general cognitive functions are markers of preschoolers' math ability.
Glucocorticoid-cholinergic interactions in the dorsal striatum in memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training  [PDF]
Oscar Sánchez-Resendis,Benno Roozendaal,Gina L. Quirarte
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00033
Abstract: Extensive evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones act in a variety of brain regions to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally motivated training experiences. We previously reported that corticosterone, the major glucocorticoid in the rat, administered into the dorsal striatum immediately after inhibitory avoidance training dose-dependently enhances memory consolidation of this training. There is also abundant evidence that the intrinsic cholinergic system of the dorsal striatum is importantly involved in memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training. However, it is presently unknown whether these two neuromodulatory systems interact within the dorsal striatum in the formation of long-term memory. To address this issue, we first investigated in male Wistar rats whether the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine administered into the dorsal striatum immediately after inhibitory avoidance training enhances 48 h retention of the training. Subsequently, we examined whether an attenuation of glucocorticoid signaling by either a systemic administration of the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone or an intra-striatal infusion of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU 38486 would block the memory enhancement induced by oxotremorine. Our findings indicate that oxotremorine dose-dependently enhanced 48 h retention latencies, but that the administration of either metyrapone or RU 38486 prevented the memory-enhancing effect of oxotremorine. In the last experiment, corticosterone was infused into the dorsal striatum together with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine immediately after inhibitory avoidance training. Scopolamine blocked the enhancing effect of corticosterone on 48 h retention performance. These findings indicate that there are mutual interactions between glucocorticoids and the striatal cholinergic system in enhancing the consolidation of memory of inhibitory avoidance training.
Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory
Yue Zhang, Hotaka Fukushima, Satoshi Kida
Molecular Brain , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-6606-4-4
Abstract: To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA) by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) regions) and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory.Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.To form long-term memory (LTM), short-term memory (STM) is stabilized through a process known as memory consolidation [1-3]. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression [3-8].The expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs), such as c-fos, Arc, and Zif268, is regulated in a neural activity-dependent manner [9-16]. Therefore, the expression of IEGs has been used as a marker to identify brain regions that are activated in response to learning or memory retrieval [17-20]. Moreover, the activity-dependent expression of IEGs is thought to play a critical role in the formation of LTM [21-25]. Genetic inhibition of transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription, known as a master regulator of activity-dependent transcription, blocks the consolidation of LTM [26-30]. Consistently,
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