Abstract:
The Lagrangian formalism for tensor fields over differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections (whose components differ not only by sign) and metrics [$(\bar{L}_n,g)$-spaces] is considered. The functional variation and the Lie variation of a Lagrangian density, depending on components of tensor fields (with finite rank) and their first and second covariant derivatives are established. A variation operator is determined and the corollaries of its commutation relations with the covariant and the Lie differential operators are found. The canonical (common) method of Lagrangians with partial derivatives (MLPD) and the method of Lagrangians with covariant derivatives (MLCD) are outlined. They differ from each other by the commutation relations the variation operator has to obey with the covariant and the Lie differential operator. The canonical and covariant Euler-Lagrange equations are found as well as their corresponding $(\bar{L}_n,g)$-spaces. The energy-momentum tensors are considered on the basis of the Lie variation and the covariant Noether identities.

Abstract:
We introduce a version of the Hamiltonian formalism based on the Clairaut equation theory, which allows us a self-consistent description of systems with degenerate (or singular) Lagrangian. A generalization of the Legendre transform to the case, when the Hessian is zero is done using the mixed (envelope/general) solutions of the multidimensional Clairaut equation. The corresponding system of equations of motion is equivalent to the initial Lagrange equations, but contains "nondynamical" momenta and unresolved velocities. This system is reduced to the physical phase space and presented in the Hamiltonian form by introducing a new (non-Lie) bracket.

Abstract:
We consider the Lagrangian formalism of the deformations of Whitham systems having Dubrovin-Zhang form. As an example the case of modulated one-phase solutions of the non-linear "V-Gordon" equation is considered.

Abstract:
We develop an alternative approach to study the effect of the generic perturbation (in addition to explicitly considering the loss term) in the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations. By a change of the variables that cancel the dissipation term we are able to write the Lagrangian density and then, calculate the Lagrangian as a function of collective variables. We use the Lagrangian formalism together with the Rice {\it Ansatz} to derive the equations of motion of the collective coordinates (CCs) for the perturbed sine-Gordon (sG) and $\phi^{4}$ systems. For the $N$ collective coordinates, regardless of the {\it Ansatz} used, we show that, for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations, this approach is equivalent to the {\it Generalized Traveling Wave Ansatz} ({\it GTWA})

Abstract:
Symmetries in the Lagrangian formalism of arbitrary order are analysed with the help of the so-called Anderson-Duchamp-Krupka equations. For the case of second order equations and a scalar field we establish a polynomial structure in the second order derivatives. This structure can be used to make more precise the form of a general symmetry. As an illustration we analyse the case of Lagrangian equations with Poincar\'e invariance or with universal invariance.

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a Lagrangian formalism for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. This formalism is an extension of the Hamilton principle in classical mechanics that allows the inclusion of irreversible phenomena in both discrete and continuum systems (i.e., systems with finite and infinite degrees of freedom). The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint given by the expression of entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. Hence from a mathematical point of view, our variational formalism may be regarded as a generalization of the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle used in nonholonomic mechanics. In order to formulate the nonholonomic constraint, we associate to each irreversible process a variable called the thermodynamic displacement. This allows the definition of a corresponding variational constraint. Our theory is illustrated with various examples of discrete systems such as mechanical systems with friction, matter transfer, electric circuits, chemical reactions, and diffusion across membranes. For the continuum case, the variational formalism is naturally extended to the setting of infinite dimensional nonholonomic Lagrangian systems and is expressed in material representation, while its spatial version is obtained via a nonholonomic Lagrangian reduction by symmetry. In the continuum case, our theory is systematically illustrated by the example of a multicomponent viscous heat conducting fluid with chemical reactions and mass transfer.

Abstract:
This paper provides a description of an algebraic setting for the Lagrangian formalism over graded algebras and is intended as the necessary first step towards the noncommutative C-spectral sequence (variational bicomplex). A noncommutative version of integration procedure, the notion of adjoint operator, Green's formula, the relation between integral and differential forms, conservation laws, Euler operator, Noether's theorem is considered.

Abstract:
We provide a new proof of a important theorem in the Lagrangian formalism about necessary and sufficient conditions for a second-order variational system of equations to follow from a first-order Lagrangian.

This paper presents a complete integrability condition for fully rheonomous affine constraints in terms of the rheonomous bracket. We first define fully rheonomous affine constraints and develop geometric representation for them. Next, the rheonomous bracket is explained and some properties of it are derived. We then investigate a necessary and sufficient condition on complete integrability for the fully rheonomous affine constraints based on the rheonomous bracket as an extension of Frobenius’ theorem. The effectiveness and the availability of the new results are also evaluated via an example.

Abstract:
We develop a Lagrangian approach for constructing a symplectic structure for singular systems. It gives a simple and unified framework for understanding the origin of the pathologies that appear in the Dirac-Bergmann formalism, and offers a more general approach for a symplectic formalism, even when there is no Hamiltonian in a canonical sense. We can thus overcome the usual limitations of the canonical quantization, and perform an algebraically consistent quantization for a more general set of Lagrangian systems.