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Evaluation of Drinking Water Pollution and Health Effects in Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Allaa M. Aenab, S. K. Singh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.36064
Abstract: Contamination of water reserves by biological, chemical, and radiologic agents may affect the health of millions of residents in the Iraq as well as many others throughout the world. Fatal outbreaks of cholera struck several provinces of the country, including Baghdad. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) also says air pollution, resulting from burning oil and aggravated by war, is cause for concern. The study area Baghdad has been divided into two parts: Central Baghdad and Outskirts of Baghdad (included in Baghdad but near the boundaries of Baghdad). The outskirts of Baghdad comprises of 4 cities: Al-Hussaniya located in northern part of Baghdad, Abu-Gurabe located in the western side of Baghdad, Jissr Diyala located in the eastern side of Baghdad and finally Al-Mahmodiya located in the southern side of Baghdad. These cities are in very poor situation in terms of water supply. The quality of water supplied is bad as no attention is given to WTP's in these places, which is also because of the fact that given the insecure war conditions, these areas are inaccessible. The sewage is thrown directly into the river because these areas do not have sewage treatment plants. In case of central Baghdad the water supply and sewerage network are broken in some places. Due to this there is mixing of water between the two networks. For this study we taking water supply samples and collect all the samples from WTPs and water supply network (houses, shops and different places). We made the analysis to parts first bacteriologies, second chlorine and after analysis these samples in lab we will give in our study numbers of fail samples, type of diseases and how many case during year 2007 in Baghdad City. Also in this study we will give Estimated Deaths from Water-Related Diseases 2010 to 2035.
Outcome of Haemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula in Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Abdulsalam Y. Taha, Omer Ahmed Diab, Sabah N. Jaber
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.51003

Background: Vascular access (VA) is the life line for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Though there are many methods of VA, native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the oldest and the best. AVFs are prone to develop some complications. The aim of this combined prospective and retrospective clinical study was to assess the outcome of native haemodialysis AVF in Baghdad Medical City Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients (43 males and 24 females) with ESRD were studied over 6 months, from April 1 to September 30, 2013. Demographic and clinical features as well as co-morbidities were checked. Allen’s test and examination of upper limb superficial veins were performed. Radio-cephalic or brachio-cephalic AVFs were created mostly under local anaesthesia using artery-side to vein-end anastamoses. Complications were noted during a follow-up period of 2 weeks to 6 months. Results: The mean age was 51.2 ± 14.4 years. Fistulas (n = 81) were mostly brachio-cephalic (n = 74, 91.4%). One fifth of patients were diabetics and 58.2% were hypertensive. End of the vein to side of the artery was used in 92.5%. All fistulae functioned primarily. Significant complications were thrombosis (n = 18, 22.2%), aneurysms (n = 3, 4.5%) and steal syndrome (n = 3, 13.6%). Distal oedema, venous congestion, wound infection and seroma were managed conservatively. Three surgical revisions were required, one for a large aneurysmal dilation (aneurysmectomy and vessel ligation) and two for an evacuation of seroma. Conclusion: AVF initial success was good. Late complications such as aneurysms and steal syndrome were almost within the reported rates whilst thrombosis was high.

Evaluation of Dredging Operations for Tigris River within Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Ammar Ali, Qusay Al-Suhail, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Sven Knutsson
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.64026

River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans was performed using the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS) for a 50 km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

Evaluation of quality of drinking water from Baghdad, Iraq
M.M Barbooti, G Bolzoni, I.A Mirza, M Pelosi, I Barilli, R Kadhum, G Peterlongo
Science World Journal , 2010,
Abstract: This is a joint work between the Italian Red Cross and the Environmental Laboratories, Baghdad. The drinking water (DW) samples from 16 residential districts in Baghdad were chemically evaluated with reference to the raw water samples and water directly taken from the purification plants. In addition to the routinely measured parameters, 17 metals and 11 trihalomathane (THM) were measured. Generally, the samples of water analysed can be considered of good quality. The relatively high sulphate and aluminium contents results from the use of aluminium sulphate as flocculent. The ammonia and Nitrite concentrations were lower than the detectable limit, because ammonia is converted into chloramines and nitrite is converted into Nitrate during chlorination. This indicates no sewage contamination of the drinking water. The high chloride contents can be referred to the use of partially degraded hypo for the disinfection. The presence of THM's in the samples analysed is indicative of good disinfection process. The presence of these compounds is preferred better than bacterial contamination. The relatively high levels of zinc and iron have no impact on the quality of DW. Iron, however, was efficiently removed during the treatment, together with Manganese. Reference was done to the EU specification of drinking water regarding total hardness, chloride contents, sulphate, iron and THM's. As for the iron content, the original pH of the river water (7.5 and 8.0) ensures that Iron should not be present in soluble form at a detectable level. Corrosion of the pipes could be one of the reasons for the presence of iron. Key Words: Drinking water quality, heavy metals, sulphate, Aluminium, Trihalomethans, hardness.
IRAQ 2003 (PART 2): THE ROAD TO BAGHDAD  [cached]
Leopold Scholtz
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/32-2-136
Abstract: The operational plans The attack on Iraq, or Operation Iraqi Freedom as it was called, would be very different from its predecessor Operation Desert Storm, 12 years before. The main strategic difference was, of course, the fact that Desert Storm encompassed an enormous international military coalition, with ground, air and naval forces being supplied by America, Britain, France, Italy, Australia, Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Syria. Iraqi Freedom was shouldered by only two countries, the US and the UK, with Australia supplying a small contingent of SAS troops, the Czech Republic a platoon of chemical warfare troops and Spain a hospital ship. To drive the Iraqi occupying forces out of Kuwait in 1991, an enormous force of 15 divisions had been amassed. These had been organised into 3 American corps (XVIII Airborne Corps, consisting of two airborne divisions, a mechanised infantry division, as well as a French light armoured division; VII Corps, consisting of three US and one UK armoured divisions and one US mechanised infantry division; and a US Marine corps, consisting of two Marine divisions), a Saudi Arabian corps of two divisions, an Egyptian corps of two divisions, and a Syrian division.3 For Iraqi Freedom, only a single army corps (V), consisting of two mechanised infantry divisions and an airborne division, together with a marine division, an understrength composite British armoured division, and some smaller independent units, was available. And because of political wrangling, one mechanised infantry division arrived far too late on the battlefield to participate in the fighting. So, compared to 15 divisions in 1991, the job would now have to be done by only four. Nevertheless, with the new American weapons of precision and the extremely able Abrams tank, a repeat of Gulf War I was not really necessary.
Nutritional Status, Nutritional Habit and Breakfast Intake in Relation to IQ among Primary School Children in Baghdad City, Iraq  [PDF]
Hasanain Faisal Ghazi,Zaleha Md. Isa,Syed Aljunid,Azmi Mohd. Tamil
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2012,
Abstract: Nutrition for children especially during the development stage is crucial. A lot of studies have been done to observe the effects of nutrition on child cognition development but the situation in Iraq is absolutely different. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Baghdad city, Iraq to assess the nutritional status and nutritional habit of primary school children and to relate it with their Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score using standardized tools. The prevalence of malnutrition was 12.1% among Iraqi children. Nutritional status, nutritional habit and breakfast intake were significantly associated with children intelligence (p = <0.001, <0.001, <0.001) respectively. Malnutrition among children is still to be a public health issue in Iraq and it is affecting the child cognitive function and academic performance at school.
Clinical Patterns of Primary Dystonias among Hospitalized Patients in Baghdad and Kut in Iraq  [PDF]
Saadoun Al Ameer, Samer Mohammed Saeed, Bahaa Hassan, Zaki Noah Hasan
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.55035
Abstract: Aim of study: This study was carried out to describe characteristics of 22 primary dystonic patients and their response to therapy. Patients and method: Twenty-two patients were entered into the study from Baghdad teaching hospital, Al-Kadhymia teaching hospital in Baghdad, privet nursery home teaching hospital in Baghdad, and Alzehraa teaching hospital in Kut south to Baghdad from January 2005 to January 2008. All cases were primary dystonia, secondary dystonia has been excluded from our study. Neuroimiging and slit Lampe examination have been done for all cases, L-Dopa in dose of 10/mg/kg/day for 2 weeks was giving for all patients. Type of study is a retrospective cohort study. All patients were followed in the outpatient clinics of the hospitals mentioned previously with frequent neurological examinations. Results: Out of 22 patients, 15 (68%) patients were females, 7 (32%) were males. According to descriptive classifications of dystonia by age of onset, fourteen patients (64%) were of early onset and eight (36%) being late onset (26 years and older). Three patients had generalized dystonia, 19 patients had focal dystonia {11 (58%) cases were cervical (TORTICOLIS) type, 5 (26%) blepharospasm type and segmental (LIMBES) dystonia 3 (16%)}. All cases were given L-DOPA in dose 10/mg/kg for 2 weeks, only two cases shown clinical response for the drug inform of absence of abnormal movements and improve quality of life. Conclusion: Dystonia is rare; however, early onset dystonia are more common than late onset. Dystonia are more common in females than in males and focal dystonia is more common than generalized dystonia.
Environmental Assessment of Infrastructure Projects of Water Sector in Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Allaa M. Aenab, S. K. Singh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.31001
Abstract: In 1970s the city of Baghdad had a good infrastructure. Education and healthcare systems were widely regarded as the best in the Middle East. Income per capita rose to over US$3600 in the early 1980s. Since that time, successive wars and a repressive, state-dominated economic system have stifled economic growth and development and debilitated basic infrastructure and social services. At the end of the 2003 war, Baghdad’s infrastructure was seriously degraded. The majority of the population had limited or inadequate access to essential basic services. Currently, there is an ongoing effort by donor countries, such as the United States (US) (through the US Agency for International Development (USAID)), Japan, the European Union (EU), etc., as well as efforts by multilateral agencies such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), to restore the sector to standards that existed prior to the latest conflict. The present study deals with the evaluation of four projects proposed to improve the deteriorating status of water and wastewater treatment plants. Three methods viz. checklist, strategic environment assessment and cost and benefit analysis are used to evaluate the efficiency of the projects.
Heavy Metal Contaminations in Urban Soil within Baghdad City, Iraq  [PDF]
Abdul Hameed M. J. Al Obaidy, Athmar A. M. Al Mashhadi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.41008

Soil samples were collected from three land use types within Baghdad urban areas. The samples analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn indicated higher concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the industrial area, while higher concentration of Mn was observed in the residential areas. However, the concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb was higher than the calculated worldwide mean of unpolluted soil. For both roadside and open areas soils, industrial area exhibited high values of Cd, Ni and Pb. The highest Single Element Pollution Index (SEPI) for Cd, Ni and Pb in the industrial soils seems therefore to be that this type of soil is the most polluted in the city of Baghdad. The calculated Combined Pollution Index (CPI) for Cd, Ni and Pb ranged from 0.98 to 2.15 with a mean of 1.28 for the entire urban soil samples, with the highest values in the industrial area which suggest multi-element contamination and in some cases are recommended for treatment. Furthermore, significant to extremely high values of enrichment factors were recorded confirming an important role of anthropogenic pollution.

Rabies in Iraq: Trends in Human Cases 2001–2010 and Characterisation of Animal Rabies Strains from Baghdad  [PDF]
Daniel L. Horton ,Mashair Z. Is,Eman S. Siryan,Abdul Raheem A. Wali,Husam E. Ab-dulla,Emma Wise,Katja Voller,Graeme Harkess,Denise A. Marston,Lorraine M. McElhinney,Salah F. Abbas,Anthony R. Fooks
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002075
Abstract: Control of rabies requires a consistent supply of dependable resources, constructive cooperation between veterinary and public health authorities, and systematic surveillance. These are challenging in any circumstances, but particularly during conflict. Here we describe available human rabies surveillance data from Iraq, results of renewed sampling for rabies in animals, and the first genetic characterisation of circulating rabies strains from Iraq. Human rabies is notifiable, with reported cases increasing since 2003, and a marked increase in Baghdad between 2009 and 2010. These changes coincide with increasing numbers of reported dog bites. There is no laboratory confirmation of disease or virus characterisation and no systematic surveillance for rabies in animals. To address these issues, brain samples were collected from domestic animals in the greater Baghdad region and tested for rabies. Three of 40 brain samples were positive using the fluorescent antibody test and hemi-nested RT-PCR for rabies virus (RABV). Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using partial nucleoprotein gene sequences derived from the samples demonstrated the viruses belong to a single virus variant and share a common ancestor with viruses from neighbouring countries, 22 (95% HPD 14–32) years ago. These include countries lying to the west, north and east of Iraq, some of which also have other virus variants circulating concurrently. These results suggest possible multiple introductions of rabies into the Middle East, and regular trans-boundary movement of disease. Although 4000 years have passed since the original description of disease consistent with rabies, animals and humans are still dying of this preventable and neglected zoonosis.
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