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Effect of Nutrient Restriction and Re-Feeding on Calpain Family Genes in Skeletal Muscle of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  [PDF]
Elena Preziosa, Shikai Liu, Genciana Terova, Xiaoyu Gao, Hong Liu, Huseyin Kucuktas, Jeffery Terhune, Zhanjiang Liu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059404
Abstract: Background Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15–20 g) for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05), clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05), and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05), whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01) after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. Conclusion/Significance We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.
The Effect of Feeding by the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) on the Benthic Invertebrate Community in the Ponds  [cached]
Martin M. Matute,Yvonne A. Manning,Mariam I. Kaleem
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n6p267
Abstract: The impact of fish feed on benthic invertebrates in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds was investigated. Benthic samples were collected from 10 catfish ponds, five in which fish were fed and five in which fish were not fed. The fed and unfed ponds were identical in design, management history and stocking density. Four benthic composite samples were collected from each pond monthly for three months and the invertebrates extracted and pH values determined. Fish feeding significantly reduced invertebrate taxa, abundance and the pH in fed ponds as compared to the unfed ponds. The mean pH in fed and unfed ponds was respectively 6.38 and 7.59; this represents an approximate 71 fold difference. Differences in the benthic invertebrate community seem therefore to be associated with pH levels. Fish feed reduced the populations of certain catfish parasites and this could partly account for the increased fish yield in fed ponds. Ecologically, the results reveal that fish feeding has a reductive effect on invertebrate taxa richness and taxa abundance. The results of this investigation seems to suggest fish feeding has a disruptive effect on the natural ecological functions and processes ascribed to benthic invertebrates, by significantly reducing their abundance, taxa richness, and altering the hydrogen ion concentration of the benthic environment.
Determina??o do sexo em catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus) utilizando endoscopia
Lima, Fernando Souza Mendon?a De;Murgas, Luis David Solis;Felizardo, Viviane De Oliveira;Costa, Adriano Carvalho;Mattos, Bruno Olivetti De;Paula, Daniela Aparecida De Jesus;
Revista Ceres , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-737X2011000300006
Abstract: sex identification in fish is an important practice for the development of broodstock management strategies. endoscopy can be used for sex identification, although in fish, it is still restricted. therefore, the objective of this study was to validate the use of rigid endoscope via the urogenital pore to determine the sex of the catfish (ictalurus punctatus afinesque, 1818). the equipment used was a multi-purpose rigid ? 30o endoscope, with 2.7 mm in diameter and 18 cm in length. we examined 60 fish weighing between 86 and 1032 grams, in which the endoscope was introduced via the genital pore and then immediately euthanized to confirm the sex. gonadal tissue samples were collected for histological assessment of maturation stage and sex confirmation. the results showed that of the 60 fish examined, 57 had positive sex confirmation by endoscopy, corresponding to 95% of the sample. the results show that it is feasible the use of endoscopy for sex determination in catfish via genital pore.
Plant Natural Compounds with Antibacterial Activity towards Common Pathogens of Pond-Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  [PDF]
Kevin K. Schrader
Toxins , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/toxins2071676
Abstract: The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant compounds as potential therapeutants. Chelerythrine chloride and ellagic acid were the most toxic toward E. ictaluri, with 24-h IC50 of 7.3 mg/L and 15.1 mg/L, respectively, and MIC of 2.1 mg/L and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. Chelerythrine chloride, ellagic acid, β-glycyrrhetinic acid, sorgoleone, and wogonin were the most toxic towards two genomovars of F. columnare, and wogonin had the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.3 mg/L).
First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil
Martins, ML.;Marchiori, N.;Nunes, G.;Rodrigues, MP.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842010000300022
Abstract: this study characterises morphologically trichodina heterodentata duncan, 1977 from channel catfish, ictalurus punctatus (rafinesque, 1818) in the state of santa catarina, brazil. body and gill smears were air-dried at room temperature, impregnated with silver nitrate and/or stained with giemsa. ten characteristics were selected to compare the present material with other morphological characterisations of t. heterodentata. prevalence rate was 100%, mean intensity 89,333.70 (3,125 to 299,100 parasites per host). trichodina heterodentata was considered medium-sized trichodinid with mean body diameter 59.4 ± 8.5 μm, denticulate ring 38.5 ± 4.5 μm, adhesive disc 60.2 ± 6.7 μm diameter and 24.4 ± 1.6 denticles. in relation to previous reports of t. heterodentata this material resembles in 90% of the analysed characters. this work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of t. heterodentata. a list of hosts and comparative measurements of t. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host.
Production and utilization of a high-density oligonucleotide microarray in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus
Robert W Li, Geoffrey C Waldbieser
BMC Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-134
Abstract: In the spleen samples, 138 genes were significantly induced or repressed greater than 2-fold by LPS treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to verify the microarray results for nine selected genes representing different expression levels. The results from real-time RT-PCR were positively correlated (R2 = 0.87) with the results from the microarray.The first generation channel catfish microarray provided several candidate genes useful for further evaluation of immune response mechanisms in this species. This research will help us to better understand recognition of LPS by host cells and the LPS-signalling pathway in fish.The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is native to North America and is from the order Siluriformes (superorder Ostariophysi) which is considered more primitive among teleosts [1,2]. Commercial production of catfish as dietary protein is the leading industry of North American aquaculture, with more than 600 million pounds of catfish produced annually in the United States [3]. One of the most significant factors limiting production is loss to disease, and one of our goals is to improve non-specific immunity through selective breeding. The channel catfish immune system is the best characterized for any fish species, and it is the only fish species where clonal functionally distinct lymphocyte lines can be readily established [4]. However, there is a need to better understand the physiological and immunological pathways controlling host-pathogen interactions in vivo.Improvement of disease resistance in catfish populations depends on an understanding of the genetic control of immune-related pathways, response to pathogens, and correlations with other production traits. Recent developments in genomic technology, particularly high-throughput cDNA sequencing and development of expressed sequence microarrays, have made possible the profiling of global gene expression in experimental fish tissues.Microarray experiments have been utilized to determine regulati
Microsatellite variability analysis in farmed catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from Tamaulipas, Mexico
Perales-Flores, Laura E.;Sifuentes-Rincón, Ana María;León, Francisco J. García de;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572007000400011
Abstract: analysis of cultured catfish from six farms in tamaulipas, mexico was achieved using a combination of microsatellite pcr analysis and semiautomatic fluoresce-based detection, in order to provide a first assessment of the genetic variability on cultured catfish in mexico. five microsatellites showed extensive polymorphism with allele numbers ranging from 10 and 20. overall observed heterozygosity at each locus ranged between 0.76 and 0.91 and the average polymorphic information content (pic) for the five loci was 0.811, indicating that these loci can be used for studies of paternity identification, linkage and population genetics. on the basis of the fst values (fst = 0.03829; p = 0.00000) it appears that there was a small amount of genetic differentiation between the channel catfish stocks. the high intrapopulation allelic diversity was the most remarkable parameter.
Ultra-structural and histochemical analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) liver treated with fumonisin B1
Scaff, Rejane Maria Cirra;Scussel, Vildes Maria;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132008000200013
Abstract: the histopathological effects of fumonisin b1 (fb1) injected intraperitoneally (ip), was evaluated in catfish (ictalurus punctatus). fishes were divided into four groups. groups ii, iii and iv were treated ip with fb1 injections of 1; 5 and 10 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, during 21 days. at the 7th, 14th and 21st day, fishes were sacrificed. the livers were hystologicaly analysed by the light and transmission electronic microscopy. livers from the 7th day showed organelles alterations, particularly in the granular endoplasmatic reticle, mitochondria, nucleus and nucleolus mediated by fb1 doses. the occurrence of processes involved in the necrosis and apoptosis was detected. at the highest fb1 dose,the livers presented an intense response with an accentuate tissue disorganization, absence of cell limits and intense cytoplasm vacuolization. the image analysis showed the occurrence of necrosis in some areas, characterized by fully broken or swollen cells. the apoptosis was observed as the cytoplasm contraction and the chromatin formed masses concentrated in the edge of the nucleus. there was strong evidence that the numerous hepatocytes in the liver from the fishes under the toxic dose of fbs were selectively removed by the apoptosis process.
Short-Term Feed Deprivation Alters Immune Status of Surface Mucosa in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  [PDF]
Lisa Liu, Chao Li, Baofeng Su, Benjamin H. Beck, Eric Peatman
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074581
Abstract: Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease. As columnaris gains entry through the gills and skin of fish, we examined here changes in transcriptional regulation induced in these surface mucosal tissues due to short-term (7 day) fasting. RNA-seq expression analysis revealed a total of 1,545 genes perturbed by fasting. Fasting significantly altered expression of critical innate immune factors in a manner consistent with lower immune fitness as well as dysregulating key genes involved in energy metabolism and cell cycling/proliferation. Downregulation of innate immune actors such as iNOS2b, Lysozyme C, and peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 is predicted to impact the delicate recognition/tolerance balance for commensal and pathogenic bacteria on the skin and gill. The highlighted expression profiles reveal potential mechanistic similarities between gut and surface mucosa and underscore the complex interrelationships between nutrition, mucosal integrity, and immunity in teleost fish.
Inbreeding evidence in a traditional channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) hatchery in Mexico
Parra-Bracamonte,Gaspar Manuel; Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana María; Rosa-Reyna,Xochitl Fabiola De la; Arellano-Vera,Williams; Sosa-Reyes,Brenda;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: background: channel catfish are one of the most important aquaculture species raised for food purposes in mexico. two temporal samples were obtained from the largest channel catfish breeding hatchery in mexico to identify changes in genetic diversity and inbreeding that are promoted by traditional hatchery management. results: the genetic parameter analysis of 11 microsatellite loci showed no significant change in genetic diversity (p > 0.05). however, a significant heterozygosis deficiency was detected (p < 0.001), and genetic structure analysis indicated moderate differentiation between the temporally divided populations (fst = 0.08). a moderate level of inbreeding and a slight increase of the inbreeding coefficient from 0.23 to 0.27 were the result of traditional hatchery practices. to achieve an effective population size, the temporal approach resulted in a limited number of breeders to maintain genetic variability. conclusions: although no significant change in genetic diversity parameters was found, the heterozygote deficiency and low effective number of breeders suggest that there is a risk for increased inbreeding. thus, we propose the need for controlled reproductive management and the establishment of genetic programs in hatcheries. molecular tools can provide valuable information to facilitate the achievement of these goals.
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