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Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  [cached]
Liezel van Niekerk,Dewald van Niekerk
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v2i2.20
Abstract: Participatory action research (PAR) is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.
Sustainability evaluation of the Grain for Green Program based on participatory rural appraisal in Wolong Nature Reserve
基于参与性调查的退耕还林政策可持续性评价 ——卧龙自然保护区研究

XU Jian-Ying,CHEN Li-Ding,L Yi-He,FU Bo-Jie,

生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the Grain for Green Program in Wolong Nature Reserve with Participatory Rural Appraisal.Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey to local households because they are the main stakeholder group of the program.The questionnaire survey covers local people's attitudes and perceptions to the Program,their cropland holding and the Program's economic impact and compensation.Three critical issues are found that may influence the sustainability of the Program.The first issue is concerned with the Program's close relationships with local people's sustenance.Due to poor growing conditions,local people's grain consumption greatly relies on supplies from outside the reserve.After implementation of the Program,local people's main income and food product from the agricultural field decreased dramatically due to reduced cropland holding.Furthermore,no alternative measures were implemented to increase local people's income or production of foodstuff.This loss of income and self-sufficiency of the local people threatens the sustainability of the Program.The second issue is that employment opportunities are insufficient and prospective income from the reforested land is uncertain.So local people's economic prospects through the Program are undermined.Finally,according to the theory and practice of ecological restoration,it is hard for the Program to achieve sustainability to give the same compensation period and amount at a national scale.The Program's compensation needs to be adjusted to adapt to local features and achieve its ecological goals effectively.In the study area,the Program needs to incorporate local biodiversity conservation and nature reserve management so as to exert its ecological benefit adequately.
Challenges of Participatory Approach to Watershed Management in Rural Communities of Enugu State
A Enwelu, AE Agwu, EM Igbokwe
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2010,
Abstract: The study highlights the status of existing watersheds management in four rural communities of Enugu State. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Rapid Rural Appraisal, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and semi-structured interview schedules) were used in an interactive manner to collect data for this study from four rural communities in the state. The study revealed that many problems such as fuel wood exploitation, farming activities, animal grazing/hunting, and road/house construction, among others were factors threatening the sustainability of watersheds in Enugu State. The study also showed that many of the communities had rules and regulations guiding the use of watersheds but could not apply the principle of participatory management approach to ensure sustainability of the watersheds. However, the rules and regulations merely emphasized environmental sanitation of the watershed surroundings without ensuring the overall sustainability of the watersheds. The paper concludes with the need for public and private extension services to educate key actors in rural communities on the sustainability of using participatory watershed management approach.
Sustainability: Its Changing Paradigm and Rural Development in Sindh  [cached]
Imamuddin Khoso,Nanik Ram,Babak Mehmood,Faiz. M.Shaikh
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v3n4p252
Abstract: The current research investigates the sustainability and its changing paradigm in rural development in Sindh. Data were collected from 400 respondent’s five districts Nawabshah, Nausheroferoze, Matyari, Dadu, and Tando Allayer, by using simple random technique. Structural questionnaire was the basic tool for measuring the change. It was revealed that creation of institutions, such as, officials elected representatives at districts block and village level. Such decentralization of institutions have been to promote a participatory strategy for rural development at Micro/or village level. It was further revealed that To achieve sustainable development it is still seems to be an elusive one until there is a determined government effort to allow officials (RD) and non-official (PRIs) to work in harmony for the betterment and reduction in the number of rural poor.
Rural development with environmental sustainability
Lu Yonglong,Wang Rusong,
Lu Yonglong
,Wang Rusong

环境科学学报(英文版) , 1994,
Abstract: Rural development is a broad and meaningful concept. It means not only economic growth butalso changes towards a better direction in economic structure , social structure , relation between human soci-ety and environment, and even political structure. Present development should not damage the environmentbut leave the same or an improved natural resource endowment as a bequest to the future. This is the devel-opment with environmental sustainability. In this paper the characteristics of rural development were reex-amined, and what environmental sustainability means and how to measure it were explicitly presented. Prac-tical approaches for achieving environmental sustainability were also given with some cases from China.
Participatory action research approaches and methods  [cached]
Nancy Gibson
Gateways : International Journal of Community Research & Engagement , 2010,
Abstract: This book, published as part of Routledge’s Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR). In three major sections, beginning and ending with ‘Reflections’ that bracket the ‘Action’ section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.
Action research als relevante vorm van interventieonderzoek: Verslag van het World Congress on Action Learning and Action Research & Participatory Action Research 2006  [cached]
Coyan Tromp
Journal of Social Intervention : Theory and Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Eind augustus 2006 vond in Groningen het gecombineerde internationale congress over Action Learning and Action Research/Participatory Action Research (ALARPM 7th/PAR 11th) plaats. Onderzoekers van over de hele wereld namen deel om te luisteren naar key-note speakers, om een workshop te geven of bij te wonen en om ervaringen uit te wisselen. De 290 deelnemers hadden een ruime keus: naast de zeven centrale lezingen was er een scala aan workshops over thema’s uit vijf verschillende stromingen (Standards/Ethics, Education/Action Learning, Organizational Development, Rural Development/Developmental Cooperation/Social Innovation, Health). Een impressie van het congres.
Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion  [cached]
Katie Richards-Schuster
Gateways : International Journal of Community Research & Engagement , 2010,
Abstract: This article reviews 'Revolutionizing education', a deeply reflective and retrospective book of scholarship on critical questions about youth participatory action research. The book contains a series of case study chapters that examine how youth participatory action research transforms young people and the social contexts in which they live as well as the learnings and implications yielded from this research. The book examines youth participatory action research both for its radical and revolutionary challenge to 'traditional research' practices but also for its active focus on research as a vehicle for increasing critical consciousness, developing knowledge for 'resistance and transformation' and for creating social change. It represents an important contribution to the field of youth participatory action research and community-based research.
Integrating Methods for Developing Sustainability Indicators to Facilitate Learning and Action  [cached]
Mark Reed,Evan D. G. Fraser,Stephen Morse,Andrew J. Dougill
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: Bossel's (2001) systems-based approach for deriving comprehensive indicator sets provides one of the most holistic frameworks for developing sustainability indicators. It ensures that indicators cover all important aspects of system viability, performance, and sustainability, and recognizes that a system cannot be assessed in isolation from the systems upon which it depends and which in turn depend upon it. In this reply, we show how Bossel's approach is part of a wider convergence toward integrating participatory and reductionist approaches to measure progress toward sustainable development. However, we also show that further integration of these approaches may be able to improve the accuracy and reliability of indicators to better stimulate community learning and action. Only through active community involvement can indicators facilitate progress toward sustainable development goals. To engage communities effectively in the application of indicators, these communities must be actively involved in developing, and even in proposing, indicators. The accuracy, reliability, and sensitivity of the indicators derived from local communities can be ensured through an iterative process of empirical and community evaluation. Communities are unlikely to invest in measuring sustainability indicators unless monitoring provides immediate and clear benefits. However, in the context of goals, targets, and/or baselines, sustainability indicators can more effectively contribute to a process of development that matches local priorities and engages the interests of local people.
Decentralization and Participatory Rural Development: A Literature Review
Muhammad Shakil Ahmad,Noraini Bt. Abu Talib
Contemporary Economics , 2011, DOI: 10.5709/ce.1897-9254.28
Abstract: Most of the developing nations are still struggling for efficient use of their resources. In order to overcome physical and administrative constraints of the development, it is necessary to transfer the power from the central government to local authorities. Distribution of power from improves the management of resources and community participation which is considered key to sustainable development. Advocates of decentralization argue that decentralized government is source to improve community participation in rural development. Decentralized government is considered more responsive towards local needs and development of poor peoples. There are many obstacles to expand the citizen participation in rural areas. There are many approaches for participatory development but all have to face the same challenges. Current paper highlights the literature about Decentralization and participatory rural development. Concept and modalities of Decentralization, dimensions of participation, types of rural participation and obstacles to participation are also the part of this paper.
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