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Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors among Permanently Settled Tribal Individuals in Tribal and Urban Areas in Northern State of Sub-Himalayan Region of India  [PDF]
Dhiraj Kapoor,Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj,Dinesh Kumar,Sunil Kumar Raina
International Journal of Chronic Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/380597
Abstract: Background. Effect of urban environment on the development of DM and its risk factors is studied with an ecological fallacy due to their study designs that formulate the background for the present study. Objective. To study the prevalence of DM and associated lifestyle related risk factors in traditional tribal individuals residing in tribal area and migrating persons of the same tribe to urban area of sub-Himalayan northern state of India. Methodology. Population based cross-sectional study. Results. A total of 8000 individuals (tribal: 4000; urban: 4000) were recruited. Overall, among urban tribes the prevalence of central obesity (59.0%), overweight (29.3%), stage 1 (22.8%) and stage 2 (5.3%) hypertension, and DM (fasting: 7.8%; OGTT: 8.5%) was significantly higher than the tribes of tribal area. Based on OGTT, the prevalence of DM was found to be 9.2% among central obese tribes of urban area and 6.7% of tribal area . DM showed a significant high prevalence among urban tribes with prehypertension (urban: 8.3%; tribal: 2.9%; ), and stage 1 (urban: 14.1%; tribal: 8.7%; ) and stage 2 (urban: 17.5%; tribal: 13.9%; ) hypertension. Conclusion. Urban environment showed a changing lifestyle and high prevalence of DM among tribal migrating urban tribes as compared to traditional tribes. 1. Introduction Emerging trend of diabetes mellitus (DM) is observed worldwide, as by 2025, its prevalence is projected to be 6.3%, which is a 24.0% increase compared with 2003. There will be 333 million (a 72.0% increase) diabetics by 2030 in individuals of 20 to 79 years of age. The developing world (mainly central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa) accounted for 141 million people with diabetes (72.5% of the world total) in 2003 [1]. Environmental factors like obesity (central or general), physical inactivity, and diet (saturated fats and transfatty acids) and socioeconomic factors are responsible for development of DM [2–6]. Diet rich in polyunsaturated fats and long chain omega-3 fatty acids reduces the risk for DM [7]. Along with the rising trend of DM, rapid urbanization has been observed as from 2008 to 2030 the global urban population will increase by 1.6 billion people (from 3.3 billion to 4.9 billion). While during the same period the rural population is going to reduce by 28 million. This demographic transition will largely take place in developing countries (particularly in Asia and Africa), as by 2030, the developing world population will constitute more than 80% of the world’s urban population [2, 3]. United Nations (UN) recognized that urbanization has health
Prevalence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in crossbred breeding bulls kept on zero-grazed smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania  [cached]
E.S. Swai,J. Hulsebosch,W. Van der Heijden
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v76i4.431
Abstract: A survey to demonstrate the presence or absence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in cross-bred breeding bulls kept under smallholding dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania was carried out during the period of January-June 1996. Sheath washings, swabs and preputial scrapings were collected from 58 randomly selected bulls. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis was demonstrated in 3/58 (5.1 %) and Tritrichomonas foetus in 0/58 (0 %) of all bulls tested. Bull-level variables of level of taurine genes (62.5 % taurine genes, F2; 75 % taurine genes, F3) and age were not significantly associated with campylobacteriosis (P > 0.05). The result of the study identifies Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerelias as the agent of enzootic infertility in smallholder herds and suggests that may be a significant problem.
Prevalence of HIV Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV Type 1 Isolates in Antiretroviral Therapy Na?ve Population from Northern India  [PDF]
S. Sinha,H. Ahmad,R. C. Shekhar,N. Kumar,L. Dar,J. C. Samantaray,S. K. Sharma,A. Bhargava,R. M. Pandey,R. L. Mitsuyasu,J. L. Fahey
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/905823
Abstract: Objective. The increased use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV, adversely leading to the emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). In this study we aim to evaluate the prevalence of HIVDR mutations in ART-naive HIV-1 infected patients from northern India. Design. Analysis was performed using Viroseq genotyping system based on sequencing of entire protease and two-thirds of the Reverse Transcriptase (RT) region of pol gene. Results. Seventy three chronic HIV-1 infected ART na?ve patients eligible for first line ART were enrolled from April 2006 to August 2008. In 68 patients DNA was successfully amplified and sequencing was done. 97% of HIV-1 strains belonged to subtype C, and one each to subtype A1 and subtype B. The overall prevalence of primary DRMs was 2.9% [2/68, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.3%–10.2%]. One patient had a major RT mutation M184V, known to confer resistance to lamivudine, and another had a major protease inhibitor (PI) mutation D30N that imparts resistance to nelfinavir. Conclusion. Our study shows that primary HIVDR mutations have a prevalence of 2.9% among ART-naive chronic HIV-1 infected individuals. 1. Introduction The national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in India for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was started by National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in April 2004. By the end of November 2009, more than 2, 50,000 patients infected with HIV had received ART under the program [1]. As per the latest report by Joint United Nations programe on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), prevalence of HIV in India is estimated to be 0.31%, that translates to approximately 2.31 million persons living with HIV/AIDS [2]. The current standard first-line treatment for HIV in India consists of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), zidovudine or stavudine plus lamivudine, and one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), nevirapine or efavirenz. Regimens with protease inhibitors (PIs) are available as second-line treatment options upon failure of the first-line ART under the national program. As per the time trends for evolution of primary HIVDR suggested by Grant et al., it can be expected that the prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) may soon increase in India [3, 4]. The widespread use of ART has resulted in an increased prevalence of drug-resistant HIV strains, ranging from 10% to 20% among drug-naive patients in other countries
Prevalence and clinical characteristics of headache in dental students of a tertiary care teaching dental hospital in Northern India  [cached]
Ruchika Nandha,Mahinder K. Chhabra
International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130110
Abstract: Background: Chronic headache is as much as a problem in India as elsewhere in the world with a rising trend in young adults which negatively affects the quality of life of the affected person. In current scenario of increasing prevalence of headache in students, most of them have been found to practice self medication leading to inappropriate management and sometimes analgesic overuse causing treatment refractoriness. Methods: A questionnaire based survey was done on undergraduate dental students at a tertiary care dental teaching hospital in Northern India. Severity of headache was assessed by Numeric Rating Scale. Data collected was analyzed to assess the prevalence, pattern & triggering factors of headache along with awareness of dental students regarding treatment. Prevalence and characteristics of migraine were also assessed along with the therapeutic strategies opted by students. Results: Our study (n=186) demonstrated headache prevalence of 63.9% which was higher in females (74.3%) as compared to males (32.6%). Headache experienced by majority of student population was bilateral (36.13%), sharp stabbing (38.65%) and of moderate intensity (57.98%). Common associated symptoms were nausea/ vomiting (24.36%) and scalp tenderness (22.68%). Stress (82.3%) &irregular sleep (81.5%) were the most common triggering factors. Prevalence of migraine was 13.44% with female preponderance (87.5%). Practice of self medication was reported by 88.2% of students. Most commonly used drugs were paracetamol (36.76%), aspirin (26.47%) and combination of ibuprofen and paracetamol (25%). Specific medication use in migraineurs was found to be low (25%) showing inadequate management of migraine headache in our study population. Conclusions: The results in this study demonstrate high headache prevalence in dental students with self medication being practiced by the majority. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000): 51-55]
The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India  [PDF]
Moataz Abd El Ghany ,Jagadish Chander,Ankur Mutreja,Mamoon Rashid,Grant A. Hill-Cawthorne,Shahjahan Ali,Raeece Naeem,Nicholas R. Thomson,Gordon Dougan,Arnab Pain
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002981
Abstract: Background Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII) and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA) identified 16 distinct clusters. Conclusions/Significance The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.
High prevalence of multidrug-resistant MRSA in a tertiary care hospital of northern India
Hare Krishna Tiwari, Darshan Sapkota, Malaya Ranjan Sen
Infection and Drug Resistance , 2008, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S4105
Abstract: h prevalence of multidrug-resistant MRSA in a tertiary care hospital of northern India Original Research (10189) Total Article Views Authors: Hare Krishna Tiwari, Darshan Sapkota, Malaya Ranjan Sen Published Date November 2008 Volume 2008:1 Pages 57 - 61 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S4105 Hare Krishna Tiwari1, Darshan Sapkota2, Malaya Ranjan Sen1 1Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India; 2Department of Microbiology, Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community pathogen. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of multidrug-resistant MRSA strains in clinical specimens and to investigate the sensitivity pattern of these strains against various antibiotics used for treating hospitalized and out patients. Strains were identified using standard procedures, and their sensitivity pattern was investigated using such techniques as disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the mecA gene PCR. Among 783 isolates of S. aureus, 301 (38.44%) were methicillin-resistant, of which 217 (72.1%) were found to be multidrug-resistant. Almost all MRSA strains were resistant to penicillin, 95.68% were resistant to cotrimoxazole, 92.36% were resistant to chloramphenicol, 90.7% were resistant to norfloxacin, 76.1% were resistant to tetracycline, and 75.75% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Vancomycin was the most effective drug, with only 0.33% of MRSA strains being resistant to it. It is concluded that antibiotics other than vancomycin can be used as anti-MRSA agents after a sensitivity test so as to preclude the emergence of resistance to it and that prevailing problems in chemotherapy will escalate unless indiscriminate and irrational usage of antibiotics is checked.
Distribution and Prevalence of Dermatophytes in Semi-Arid Region of India  [PDF]
Vishnu Sharma, Tarun Kumar Kumawat, Anima Sharma, Ruchi Seth, Subhash Chandra
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.52010
Abstract: Earth has been documented as a natural territory for fungi which cover individual kingdom with evolution. In subsequently vertebrates developed keratin which was a part of life as a structural aspect. Few moulds have skilled to digest keratin and crop up from soil and wastewater habitats. They take part as a keratinolytic agent in the purification of α-keratins with an incidence of disulphide and hydrogen bonds which are improperly biodegradable. The best moulds genera to decay of keratin are Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton. The presences of these genera are open health issues in developing countries where they cause the mortal mycotic contagion. The reason behind this is perceived to be the poor hygienic environment and socioeconomic behaviour among people. The present review is a compilation of updated information concerning the nature of these keratinolytic moulds and abundances of most contributed developing countries including India.
Clinico-Epidemiological Profile of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Report from a High Prevalence State of Northern India
Public Health Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20120206.02
Abstract: Background: Extra pulmonary tuberculosis is substantially higher in Himachal Pradesh state of India than the national average according to the available data. Aim: The aim of the study was to understand the clinco-epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed as EPTB cases. Material and Methods: The study was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey in low and high prevalence Tuberculosis Units of Himachal Pradesh. Results: Of the 86 patients enrolled, 70.9% were from high prevalence TU and 29.1% were from low prevalence TU. Mean age of the patients was 26.67 ± 11.72 years. Of 86 patients 57 (66.3%) were in the age group of 15 – 34 years. Overall, pleural TB was the most common type of EPTB followed by lymph node TB (53 cases, 61.6% and 20 cases, 23.2% respectively).
Clinico-Epidemiological Profile of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Report from a High Prevalence State of Northern India
Vishav Chander,Sunil Kumar Raina,Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj,Anmol Gupta,Surender Kashyap,Abhilash Sood
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ijtmed.2012.117.120
Abstract: Extra pulmonary tuberculosis is substantially higher in Himachal Pradesh State of India than the national average according to the available data. The aim of the study was to understand the clinco-epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed as EPTB cases. The study was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey in low and high prevalence tuberculosis units of Himachal Pradesh. Of the 86 patients enrolled, 70.9% were from high prevalence TU and 29.1% were from low prevalence TU. Mean age of the patients was 26.67 11.72 years. Of 86 patients 57 (66.3%) were in the age group of 15-34 years. Overall, pleural TB was the most common type of EPTB followed by lymph node TB (53 cases, 61.6% and 20 cases, 23.2%, respectively). Pleural TB was more common among male patients (32; 37.2% in males vs. 21; 24.4% in females) whereas lymph node TB was found to be more common in females.
High prevalence of multidrug-resistant MRSA in a tertiary care hospital of northern India  [cached]
Hare Krishna Tiwari,Darshan Sapkota,Malaya Ranjan Sen
Infection and Drug Resistance , 2008,
Abstract: Hare Krishna Tiwari1, Darshan Sapkota2, Malaya Ranjan Sen11Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India; 2Department of Microbiology, Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, NepalAbstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community pathogen. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of multidrug-resistant MRSA strains in clinical specimens and to investigate the sensitivity pattern of these strains against various antibiotics used for treating hospitalized and out patients. Strains were identified using standard procedures, and their sensitivity pattern was investigated using such techniques as disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the mecA gene PCR. Among 783 isolates of S. aureus, 301 (38.44%) were methicillin-resistant, of which 217 (72.1%) were found to be multidrug-resistant. Almost all MRSA strains were resistant to penicillin, 95.68% were resistant to cotrimoxazole, 92.36% were resistant to chloramphenicol, 90.7% were resistant to norfloxacin, 76.1% were resistant to tetracycline, and 75.75% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Vancomycin was the most effective drug, with only 0.33% of MRSA strains being resistant to it. It is concluded that antibiotics other than vancomycin can be used as anti-MRSA agents after a sensitivity test so as to preclude the emergence of resistance to it and that prevailing problems in chemotherapy will escalate unless indiscriminate and irrational usage of antibiotics is checked.Keywords: multidrug-resistant MRSA, prevalence, India
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