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Entomological studies for surveillance and prevention of dengue in arid and semi-arid districts of Rajasthan, India  [PDF]
Keerti Sharma,Bennet Angel,Himmat Singh,Anil Purohit
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2008,
Abstract: Background & objectives: Rajasthan is one of the dengue endemic states of India. Very few studies have been published on entomological aspects of dengue in this state. Owing to water scarcity, inhabitants in desert areas overstore domestic water which leads to the persistence of dengue vectors within the domestic premises. Area specific knowledge on breeding, key containers and seasonal rhythms of vector population is essential for preparing an effective prevention plan against dengue. Present paper reports results of entomological investigations on dengue vectors in arid and semi-arid districts of Rajasthan. Methods: Longitudinal studies were undertaken during 2004–06 in one arid and two semi-arid dengue endemic districts of Rajasthan. Adult and larval Aedes were collected from the randomly selected houses in representative towns and villages with associated details of container types and water storage practices of inhabitants. Results: In urban areas during all the seasons adult house index (AHI) of Aedes aegypti was maximum in desert zone (25) and least in semi-arid area with saline river III (1). The difference of AHI during three seasons was statistically significant (c2 = 16.1, p <0.01 for urban; and c2 = 50.71, p < 0.001 for rural). Breeding of Ae. aegypti among urban settings was maximum in desert zone. During all the seasons cement tanks were the key breeding habitats for Ae. aegypti in desert as well as semi-arid areas. Interpretation & conclusion: Water storage habits during summer season emerged to be the risk factor of vector abundance in urban areas of arid and semi-arid settings. A carefully designed study of key containers targeting cement tanks as the primary habitats of mosquito control may lead to commendable results for dengue prevention.
Distribution and seasonality of vertically transmitted dengue viruses in Aedes mosquitoes in arid and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan, India  [PDF]
Bennet Angel,Vinod Joshi
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2008,
Abstract: Background & objectives: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus is a crucial etiological phenomenon responsible for persistence of virus during inter-epidemic period of the disease. Distribution and seasonality of this phenomenon in disease endemic areas may contribute to explain emergence of dengue and its subsequent prevention. The study on seasonal and area distribution of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. vittatus has been made in desert and non-desert districts of Rajasthan, India from 2006 to 2007. The observations revealed role of different Aedes species in transmission and retention of dengue virus.Methods: The larvae of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. vittatus were collected during each of the study seasons from rural and urban areas of three districts—Jodhpur, Jaipur and Kota. The larvae were collected from domestic and peri-domestic containers and from tree holes of peri-urban foci such as gardens and parks and were reared into adults in the laboratory at room temperature. The laboratory reared adults were subjected to Indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The laboratory-reared adult mosquitoes showing positive IFA were treated as the sample showing vertically transmitted dengue virus.Results: Pooled data for all the four seasons revealed maximum (15.7%) mosquito infectivity in Ae. albopictus followed by Ae. aegypti (12.6%) in Jodhpur district. In Jaipur district, Ae. vittatus showed highest infection (20%) of vertically transmitted virus followed by Ae. albopictus (18.7%) and least in Ae. aegypti (13.3%). In Kota district, pooled data for all the four seasons showed maximum vertical infection of mosquitoes in Ae. albopictus (14.2%).Interpretation & conclusion: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus by available vector species in a dengue endemic setting could be the key etiological phenomenon responsible for re-emergence of the disease from inter-epidemic to epidemic phase of disease onset. The observations in the present study suggest that during winter season which is not the active transmission season of dengue in Rajasthan, Ae. albopictus has shown maximum percentage of vertically transmitted virus. Our observation substantiates with the earlier studies that how Ae. albopictus is horbouring virus during inter-epidemic period of dengue. Another important lead emerging through present study is the high mosquito infectivity of Ae. aegypti during summer and rainy seasons especially from desert districts, Jodhpur and semi district. This observation suggests that in Rajasthan, ow
Physical and chemical properties of red and black soils of selected benchmark Spots for carbon sequestration studies in Semi-Arid Tropics of India  [PDF]
T Bhattacharyya,P Chandran,SK Ray,C Mandal
Journal of SAT Agricultural Research , 2007,
Abstract: Physical (nine characteristics) and chemical (14) properties of red and black soils are described: sand, silt, clay, fine clay, BD, COLE, HC (hydraulic conductivity) and WDC; pH (H2O and KCl), EC, OC, CaCO3, clay CO3, extractable Ca, Mg, Na, K, CEC, clay CEC, BS and ESP are described in three ecosystems, namely sub-humid (moist and dry) [SH (m) and SH (d)], semi-arid (moist and dry) [SA (m) and SA (d)] and arid in SAT, India. Clay contents vary between 30% in arid system to 82% in sub-humid (dry) system and 79% in semi-arid (dry) system. The red soils contain 8–-55% clay. Fine clay (<0.2 μm) content ranges between 9–54% in red soils; for black soils nearly50% of total clay (<2 μm) remains in finer (<0.2 μm) fractions. The overall relation between SOC and BD is negative; however, the correlation between SIC and BD within a depth of 0–30 cm soil depth is positive. Increase in relative proportion of coarse fragments increases the pore space, effecting decrease in BD values. The inherent relation between total clay and COLE in different bioclimatic systems indicates a positive correlation with a relatively high value (r = 0.83) in arid bioclimatic system. Except sub-humid (moist) and arid bioclimates, a positive correlation between COLE and slickensides is observed in most of the Vertisols in SAT India. A general decreasing trend of SOC with increase in HCis observed. Conversely, an increasing trend of HC has been found with decrease in SIC. In all the bioclimates, there is an increasing trend of SOC with decrease in ESP and an increasing trend of SIC with increase in ESP. This is due to preferential release of Ca2+ ions and their precipitation as CaCO3 in soil, thereby increasing the relative concentration of Na+ ions in the exchange complex effecting high value of ESP. In general, a positive correlation between amount of fine clay and SOC in surface soils has been found.The SOC values in the surface (0–30 cm) follow the trend of forest system > permanent fallow (grassland), horticultural system > agricultural system > wasteland. Surface soils of agricultural and horticultural systems store higher SIC as compared to other systems. The surface soils of semi-arid (moist) show higher SOC under agricultural system due to inclusion of sun hemp for green manuring in crop rotation. The average SOC values follow the trend of SA (m) (0.825%) > SH (d) (0.804%) > SH (m) (0.642%) > SA (d) (0.633%) > arid (0.594%) for black soils under agricultural system. The values of SOC follow the trend of SH (m) (1.35) > SA (d) (0.84) > SA (m) (0.70) for the red soils used for cult
ESTIMATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPOLYTIC ENZYME ACTIVITY BY THERMOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. ISOLATED FROM ARID AND SEMI-ARID REGION OF RAJASTHAN, INDIA  [PDF]
Deeksha Gaur,Pankaj Kumar Jain,Yamini Singh Sisodia,Vivek Bajapai
Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Thermophilic organisms can be defined as, micro-organisms which are adapted to survive at high temperatures. The enzymes secreted by thermophilic bacteria are capable of catalyzing biochemical reactions at high temperatures. Thermophilic bacteria are able to produce thermostable lipolytic enzymes (capable of degradation of lipid) at temperatures higher than mesophilic bacteria. Therefore, the isolation of thermophilic bacteria from natural sources and their identification are quite beneficial in terms of discovering thermostable lipase enzymes. Due to great temperature fluctuation in hot arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan, this area could serve as a good source for new thermophilic lipase producing bacteria with novel industrially important properties. The main objective of this research is the isolation and estimation of industrially important thermophilic lipase enzyme produced by thermophilic bacteria, isolated from arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan. For this research purpose soil samples were collected from Churu, Sikar and Jhunjunu regions of Rajasthan. Total 16 bacterial strains were isolated and among only 2 thermostable lipolytic enzyme producing bacteria were charcterized. The thermostable lipolytic enzyme was estimated by qualitative and quantitative experiments. The isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. by microscopic, biochemical and molecular characterization. The optimum enzyme activity was observed at pH 8, temperature 60°C and 6% salt concentrations at 24 hrs time duration. Lipolytic enzyme find useful in a variety of biotechnological fields such as food and dairy (cheese ripening, flavour development), detergent, pharmaceutical (naproxen, ibuprofen), agrochemical (insecticide, pesticide) and oleochemical (fat and oil hydrolysis, biosurfactant synthesis) industries. Lipolytic enzyme can be further used in many newer areas where they can serve as potential biocatalysts.
Watershed management and farmer conservation investments in the semi-arid tropics of India: analysis of determinants of resource use decisions and land productivity benefits  [PDF]
Bekele A Shiferaw,V Ratna Reddy,SP Wani,GD Nageswara Rao
Journal of SAT Agricultural Research , 2006,
Abstract: Integrated watershed management has been promoted as a suitable strategy for improving productivity and sustainable intensification of agriculture in rainfed drought-prone regions. The paper examines the socioeconomic and biophysical factors influencing farmers' soil and water conservation investment decisions and the resulting economic incentives (productivity benefits) from watershed management interventions in the semi-arid tropics of India. The paper develops a theoretical framework to test hypotheses and to explore (a) the interlinkages between land productivity, soil quality, input use and conservation investments, and (b) the influence of local market imperfections on production and conservation decisions. These relationships are analyzed using plot-level data in six semi-arid villages. A systems approach (3SLS) is used for the joint estimation of structural equations related to land productivity, input use, resource investments and land values. The results show that after controlling for input use and germplasm technologies, soil quality and access to supplemental irrigation significantly affect the productivity of land. Off-farm income is negatively associated with resource investments and land productivity. The watershed program seems to have a greater impact on dryland crops (cereals and pulses) than on other crop not supported by the project. A plot-wise analysis found some degree of substitution between private and public investments in land and water management. Differential effects of family labor on the decision to invest in agriculture revealed that male labor plays a key role in this decision while female workers significantly influence the level of labor use in production and resource conservation. This indicates that labor market imperfections, especially for female labor, are most likely to affect production and conservation investment.
Rainfall Trend in Semi Arid Region – Yerala River Basin of Western Maharashtra, India
Abhijit M. Zende,Dr. R. Nagarajan,Kamalkishor R. Atal
International Journal of Advancements in Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The rainfall is the one of the fundamental physical parameter among the climate as for the development of society is concern and it determines the drought as well as the environmental factors for the particular region. Timeseries of annual rainfall, number of rainy-days per year and monthly rainfall of 10 stations were analyzed to assess climate variability in semi-arid region of Western Maharashtra. The results showed mixed trends of increasing and decreasing rainfall, which were statistically signi cant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) only for Koregaon and Palus stations by the Mann–Kendall test. Also, with the exception of Vita and Vaduj stations there was no statistically signi cant trend in the mean number of rainy-days per year. Increasing and decreasing monthly rainfall trends were found over large continuous areas in the study region. These trends were statistically signi cant mostly during the winter and spring seasons, suggesting a seasonal movement of rainfall concentration. Results also showed that there is no signi cant climate variability in the semi-arid environment of Western Maharashtra.
Prevalence of Tobacco Use in Urban, Semi Urban and Rural Areas in and around Chennai City, India  [PDF]
Kolappan Chockalingam, Chandrasekaran Vedhachalam, Subramani Rangasamy, Gomathi Sekar, Srividya Adinarayanan, Soumya Swaminathan, Pradeep Aravindan Menon
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076005
Abstract: Background Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. Methods A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban), Ambattur (semi-urban) and Sriperumbudur (rural) taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. Results The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7%) compared to semi-urban (20.9%) and urban (19.4%) areas (P value <0.001) Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms) was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1) those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2) those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3) those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. Conclusions Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.
Adaptation Technology: Benefits of Hydrological Services—Watershed Management in Semi-Arid Region of India  [PDF]
Anupam Khajuria, Sayaka Yoshikawa, Shinjiro Kanae
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66055
Abstract:

Watershed management consists of multifunctional activities to manage and address the increasing water resource problems. Ever increasing water demand and rapidly depleting water resources, it has become necessary to develop the adaptation options to recharge groundwater resources. A watershed is a special kind of Common Pool Resources (CPRs); an area is defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinating the use of natural resources by public participation. Watershed developments have shown significant positive impacts on water table, perennially of water in wells and water availability especially in semi-arid regions. This paper describes direct and indirect impacts of the watershed activities and benefits of hydrological services dealing with watershed management with future prediction of net irrigation water supply. In the present work, we have also discussed the multiple impacts of watershed of CPRs for improving groundwater and surface water resources.

Prevalence Of Traditional Medications Through Native Floral Elements Among Tribal Communities Of Kachchh Arid Ecosystem, Gujarat, India  [PDF]
Ekta B Joshi,BK Jain,Pankaj N Joshi,Hiren B Soni
International Journal of Environment , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v2i1.9221
Abstract: This communication deals with the documentation of 38 medicinal plant species used for indigenous medications by local villagers such as pastoralists (Maldharis) and farmers of Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR), Bhuj Taluka, Kachchh District, Gujarat, India. Traditional knowledge on medicinally important plant species has been recorded from tribal communities through semi-questionnaire survey using an open-ended questionnaire datasheets. The response from the people interviewed clearly indicated that most of the villagers were fully or partially dependent on the forest produce for their primary healthcare requirements as well as for curing chronic or acute disorders and ailments. Plant parts such as bark, flowers, fruits, gum, latex, leaves, roots, seeds, and spadix, were found to be used for the cure of bronchitis, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, earache, fever, fistula, gastric troubles, hypothermia, indigestion, piles, skin diseases, snake-bites, toothache, and ulcer. The most predominantly used 10 plant species in the area are Asparagus racemosus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Capparis cartilaginea, Cassia auriculata, Commiphora wightii, Enicostema axillare, Fagonia schweienfurthii, Maytenus emerginata, Tinospora cordifolia, and Tribulus terrestris. An enumeration of these 38 medicinal plant species is presented; each species is cited with correct scientific names, vernacular names, ailments treated for, mode of preparation and dosages.
Prevalence Investigation of Dermatophytes in Rabbits in Qingdao Region, China
Li Dai-Jun,Zhou Yu-Fa,Liu Jing-Bo,Zhang Mingliang,Cai Yu-Mei,Miao Zeng-Min
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.883.885
Abstract: To investigate the prevalence of dermatophytes in rabbits raised in Qingdao region, an Eastern area of Shandong province, China, a total of 880 rabbits with skin lesions were examined from June 2009 to May 2010. Of the 880 individuals studied 271 (30.8%) were positive for fungal elements by direct microscopic examination and 162 (18.4%) samples were culture positive for dermatophytes. Among 162 rabbits with dermatophytosis, the frequency of the isolated species in increasing order was as follows: Microsporum gypseum, 31 (19.8%); Microsporum canis, 56 (34.6%); Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 73 (45.7%). Rabbits <3 months of age showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of dermatophytes than other age groups (p<0.05). The isolation rate of dermatophytes in Summer and Autumn were higher than in Spring and Winter (p<0.05).
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