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Prevalence of Tongue Anomalies in Hamadan, Iran
F Mojarrad,P Bakianian Vaziri
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Since the earliest days of medicine, the tongue has been considered a good reflection of systemic disease. Hippocrates, Galen and others considered the tongue to be barometer of health. In addition, the early diagnose of tongue lesions help to recognize the some systemic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of different morphological variations (anomaly) of the tongue in a population of school children aged 6-12 years in Hamadan, Iran. Method: This cross sectional study was held with questionnaires and face-to-face interview among 1600 schoolchildren 6- 12 years old (800 girls, 800 boys) with cluster randomize method were selected and examined. Each school was considered as a cluster that was selected by randomized selections in view of the total sample size. Results: Tongue lesions were found in 39.7% of the children. Overall, the most frequent condition was geographic tongue (27%) and fissured tongue (12.9%). Microglosia and median rhomboid glossitis were in 0.2% of cases. Conclusion: The present study indicates a higher frequency of tongue abnormalities specially geographic tongue than previous studies however further investigation are required to indicate if hereditary and congenital factors play a vital role or if the environmental factors in this region vary with those in their regions. On the other hand the findings from this survey should serve as a baseline for future studies.
Salt Tectonics in the Southern Iran  [PDF]
Azar Khodabakhshnezhad, Mehran Arian
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.73029
Abstract: Based on geographic distribution and geological setting of salt plugs in southern Iran, three salt diapiric provinces have been distinguished. These provinces include the Hormuz, Shiraz-Kazerun and Nyriz-Jahrum sub-basins. There are more than hundred salt plugs which they have been formed and developed in the southern margin of Iran. The salt structures that originated from Hormuz formation in these areas have been restricted and separated from each other for the first time in this paper. Salt diapirism of these provinces has been triggered earlier by Halokinesis in the Zagros and Persian Gulf basins, but it has affected later by tectonic forces, because orientation, shape and position of salt plugs have been followed from convergence regime (especially in the Zagros hinterland). In the other hand, based on our results from salt plugs in Persian Gulf foreland basin and the Zagros hinterland, Halokinesis triggers has been affected more than Halotectonic forces.
Tectonic Geomorphology of Iran’s Salt Structures  [PDF]
Mehran Arian, Hamideh Noroozpour
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.52006
Abstract: Iran has a various salt structures that their tectonic geomorphology is subject of this paper. Geologic situation of salt structures in Iran have determinate. According to age and geological setting of salt deposits that revealed by tectonic geomorphology methods, salt structure provinces of the Central and Southern Iran have been distinguished. Also, critical concepts of salt diapirism in the Southern Iran and Central Iran salt basins have explained. Therefore, Central Iran’s salt diapirs have triggered by tectonic forces, but salt diapirism in the Southern Iran has triggered by halokinesis, then it has effected by tectonic forces, especially in Zagros fold and thrust belt.
Modeling Direct Ethylene Hydration over Zirconium Tungsten Catalyst: Fundamental of Ethanol Production Using the Biggest Global Ethylene Feeding Pipeline in Iran
Behrooz Roozbehani,Saeedeh Imani Moqadam,Mojtaba Mirdrikvand,Ali Cheshmeh Roshan
Energy and Environment Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/eer.v2n2p28
Abstract: Ethanol is produced through two methods of fermenting and hydration of ethylene. In this article, regarding low rates of ethanol production in Iran (1.5′108 liters per year) and extreme requirement of global industry to ethanol as a fuel additive, the capacity of ethanol production in Iran has been discussed. Adding ethanol to fuels would make them environmental friendly and as a result, huge amounts of ethanol would be required. It is declared that Iran, having the biggest ethylene pipeline in the world, has the potential of massive ethanol production and could play a pivotal role for global ethanol manufacturing in the near future. In addition, producing ethanol and exporting it is investigated via the simulation of an ethanol factory. Direct hydration of ethylene is the recommended method in this study. Simulation of this process was done using HYSYS software and the optimization results are illustrated based on Aspen Plus software.
The Emergent Salt Diapirs in the East Zagros, Iran  [PDF]
Ghazaleh Razaghian, Mehran Arian
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.510063
Abstract: The emergent salt diapirs of the east Zagros, Iran have been investigated by their structural positions. The study area is including of Zagros orogeny belt and Persian Gulf that both of them have been formed on northeastern part of Arabian plate. There are 84 emergent salt diapirs that originated from Hormuz formation with Infra-Cambrian to Cambrian age. Based on location, shape and orientation of the emergent salt domes in the east Zagros hinterland and Persian Gulf foreland basin, internal motivation forces in the salt deposits has been predominant compared to later tectonic forces. In the other words, most of the emergent salt diapirs are pre-orogenic diapirs and they had got prominent role as pines in determining the shape and location of next structures during to the Zagros orogeny. Finally, Neogene continental collision has a supplementary role to diapirism and salt reactivation. However there are an evidence to syn-orogenic emergent diapirs that they have got an important role in the progressive deformation.
Non-Diapiric Salt Domes in the West Zanjan, Central Iran  [PDF]
Sina Alizadeh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2017.72009
Abstract: The salt domes of the west Zanjan (Central Iran) are the most important structures in the study area. They have been formed by the uplifting and erosion together under low humidity and dry and warm climate condition. The salt rocks with near to 200 meters thickness are related to lower member of the Upper Red Formation (Early Miocene) that deposited in the inverted back arc basin. They have been formed in the Central Iran basin after the Arabian-Eurasian convergence. Based on filed works and preparation of geologic map, salt domes have been cropped out during regional uplifting and erosion along hinge zone of a longitudinal anticline. Also, there is no evidence for salt diapirism and so, they are different from some salt diapirs in the southwestern margin of Zanjan that is investigated by other researchers.
Hydrogeochemistry of seasonal variation of Urmia Salt Lake, Iran
Samad Alipour
Aquatic Biosystems , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1448-2-9
Abstract: Seven hundred and four samples were taken and partially analyzed for the main cations and anions. Surface water (0.5 m. depth) was analyzed for Na, K, Mg, Ca, Br and Li, and averaged 87.118 g/lit, 1.48 g/lit, 4.82 g/lit, 4.54 g/lit, 1.19 ppm and 12.7 ppm respectively for the western half of the lake. Sodium ranged between 84 to 91.2 g/lit, and showed higher concentrations in the south than in the north. This unexpected result may be caused by shallower depth in the south and a higher net evaporation effect. Calcium ranged between 4.2 to 5 g/lit, apparently slightly higher in the north. K is higher in the south, possibly due to rivers entering from south that may carry slightly higher K in solution.In the middle-range samples (0.5–5 m.), K averaged 1.43 g/lit and ranged from 1.40 to 1.46 g/lit. At this intermediate depth the distribution of K is clearly higher to the south of the causeway that is currently under construction. It is not clear whether this increase is the effect of the causeway or the effect of the salty Aji-Chay River to the east, and the Khoy salt domes to the north of the lake. At depth (5 m–10 m), K averaged 1.48 g/lit and ranged from 1.4 to 1.49 g/lit, differing only in the second decimal from the average of the middle and surface samples.Ignoring the small difference between the averages of the three sample depths, the distribution of K is highly homogeneous in the lake water due to the mixing process. Therefore causeway construction has not yet strongly affected K distribution, or it may be at the starting point. Magnesium concentration ranged from 4.6 to 5-g/lit, and was elevated in the south. This differs somewhat compared to calcium. Lithium, with an average of 12–13 ppm, is slightly higher in the south, and has not shown any significant variation in all three seasons. Iodine was below the detection limit in the lake.Urmia Lake, geochemically, is highly uniform both to the south and north of the causeway, in both the surface and deep brines.
Effect of Sowing Depth on Performance of Quercus castaneifolia Seedling at Different Levels of Canopy Cover  [PDF]
M. Tabari,Jalali,Gh. A,A.R. Ali-Arab
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: : Due to failure of oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Meyer) natural regeneration, investigation on the best acorn sowing depth of this species under different levels of canopy cover is an important consideration in the Caspian forests, north of Iran. For this purpose, a study site with north-facing slope, clay-loam soil and 260-280 m a.s.l. was chosen in a mixed oak forest. The experiment was conducted as a Complete Randomized Split Plot Design (CRSPD) and the measurements made in one growing season in nine fenced circular 1000 m2 plots with three canopy densities (25, 50 and 75%) at three soil depths (5, 10 and 15 cm). The results revealed that under all canopy densities the maximum seedling emergence occurred at 5 cm depth. The highest emergence rate was appeared in June and the lowest in October. Neither canopy density nor sowing depth did prominently reduce seedling establishment, but a high quotient of mortality likely could be attributed to rodent populations, particularly Hystrix indica. Under all canopies, ground line diameter decreased with increasing sowing depth, the biggest being at 5 cm depth. Neither canopy density nor sowing depth influenced the seedling height. It can be concluded that the best performance of Q. castaneifolia seedling occurs at 5 cm sowing depth and 25% canopy cover.
Basement Faults and Salt Plug Emplacement in the Arabian Platform in Southern Iran  [PDF]
J. Rahnama Rad,R. Derakhshani,G. Farhoudi,H. Ghorbani
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The Arabian Platform containing the Zagros Mountain Ranges (ZMR) is located to the Northeast of the Arabian Shield. There are nearly 200 salt domes on the Arabian Platform. In the ZMR, structural anomalies are frequently associated with similar facies distribution patterns. In the eastern portion of the region, emergent salt plugs of Infra-Cambrian age exhibit the same alignment patterns. Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present Zagros fold belt but rather indicate their affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Landsat imagery and aerial photographs. Bending of anticlines in the competent cover rock, combined with minor strike-slip faults and horizontal displacements of parts of folded structures, strongly point to the presence of these basement faults. The salt plugs, which have pierced cover rocks of up to 10000 m thick, are distributed on the Arabian Platform along regional basement faults. The area of diapir outcrops is bounded by the Oman Line to the East and by the Kazerun Fault to the West. Pieces of the basement have been brought up to the surface on some of the salt domes. The fragments were transported by rotational ascent of the Hormuz Salt Formation to the present and former land surfaces. The recognition of features related to basement tectonic and realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes in an important adjunct to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in this region. To our best knowledge, data of basement faults in the study area is scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine basement faults and their relation to salt dome distribution. Considering the fold axis bending, the trend of the salt plugs and also the distribution of epicenters of the last century, numerous new basement faults are introduced in this study.
Changes in Soil Quality Indicators by Reclamation of Salt–Affected Land in Abarkooh Plain, Central Iran  [cached]
J. Fallahzade,M. A. Hajabbasi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2011,
Abstract: The salt–affected lands in arid regions of central Iran are characterized by low rainfall, low fertility, high evaporation and salinity. The cultivation of salt–affected lands may have a major influence on soil quality. The aim of this study was to determine the response of soil quality indicators to reclamation and cultivation of salt–affected lands occurring in Abarkooh plain, central Iran. Soil quality indicators were evaluated in three land use systems including salt-affected land, wheat, and alfalfa fields. Composite soil samples were collected at 0–10, 10–20, 20–30, and 30–40 cm layers and analyzed for soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbohydrate, particulate organic carbon in macro-aggregates (POCmac) and micro-aggregates (POCmic), organic carbon mineralization and wet aggregate stability. The cultivation of salt–affected land caused a significant decrease in electrical conductivity at all layers and increased the amount of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbohydrate, POCmac, POCmic, and organic carbon mineralization. At all layers, the POCmac/POCmic ratio in the alfalfa fields was higher than that in the wheat fields. The cultivation of salt-affected land caused a significant increase in soil aggregate stability (MWD) at all layers. In most cases, the amounts of soil organic matter and MWD were greater in alfalfa than in the wheat fields, reflecting a better soil quality and thus higher potential for increasing soil organic carbon sequestration in the alfalfa fields
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