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Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) amongst Patients Attending Primary Health Centres in Anambra State  [PDF]
C. M. Ogbukagu, V. N. Anakwenze, C. C. Ekwealor, C. C. Ezemba, I. A. Ekwealor
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.67054
Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most prevalent extra-intestinal bacterial infections. It is a common disease encountered in medical practice affecting people of all ages, from neonate to geriatric age group. These infections are on the increase for outpatients attending Primary Health Centres in Anambra State, Nigeria, therefore the need for this study. The prevalence rate of urinary tract infection, age distribution and influence of sex were determined. Susceptibility pattern of the infectious organisms to antimicrobial agent were examined. Clean-catch midstream urine samples were collected and examined. Out of 3000 urine samples examined, 528 bacterial isolates were recovered and characterized. These include: Escherichia coli (24.2%), Klebsiella spp. (18.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.2%), Proteus mirabilis (9.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.1%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.1%), Citrobacter intermedius (6.1%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (6.1%). More females (52%) were infected than males (48%) and in both sexes, the highest incidence was found amongst the age group, 26 - 38 years. Gram negative rods had the highest incidence in both sexes. Among the towns in Anambra state, Umunya in southern province was observed to have the highest incidence rate of UTI. Susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed that Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to Cephalexin, Penicillin V, Erythromycin and Gentamycin while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all the antibiotics. Escherichia coli
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Escherichia coli Strains to Fluoroquinolones, in Urinary Tract Infections
FA Nakhjavani,A Mirsalehian,M Hamidian,B Kazemi
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed all over the world. Meanwhile most episode of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (up to 85%) and frequently fluoroquinolones are preferred as initial agents for empiric therapy of UTIs. Widespread use of fluoroquinolones has resulted in an increasing incidence of resistance these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from UTI patients against common fluoroquinolones. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk agar diffusion (DAD) and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration methods as described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results: One hundred sixty four clinical isolates of E. coli were collected by urine cultures from patients with UTI. The extent of resistant to nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, by disk diffusion method was 49.3%, 44.5%, 41.4% and 40.2%, respectively. Resistance to ciprofloxacin by MIC method was 4.9%. Conclusion: This study represents high level resistant of E. coli isolates from UTI patients. It is because of inappropriate and incorrect administration of antimicrobial agents in blind cases. This problem remarks significance of performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing before empiric antibiotic therapy. To overcome this problem use of unnecessary antibiotics therapy should be limited.
Persistence of colicinogenic Escherichia coli in the mouse gastrointestinal tract
Osnat Gillor, Itamar Giladi, Margaret A Riley
BMC Microbiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-165
Abstract: Six colicin-producing, yet otherwise isogenic, E. coli strains were administered and established in the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice. The strains' persistence, population density, and doubling time were monitored over a period of 112 days. Early in the experiment only minor differences in population density between the various colicin-producing and the non-producing control strains were detected. However, over time, the density of the control strains plummeted, while that of the colicin-producing strains remained significantly higher (F(7,66) = 2.317; P < 0.0008).The data presented here support prior claims that bacteriocin production may play a significant role in the colonization of E. coli in the gastrointestinal tract. Further, this study suggests that the ability to produce bacteriocins may prove to be a critical factor in determining the success of establishing probiotic E. coli in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans is colonized by Escherichia coli within about 40 hours of birth [1]. This facultative anaerobe is then stably maintained as a relatively minor, but critical, component of the large intestine microflora with a cell density approximately 1000 times lower than the predominant bacterial genera, such as Bacteriodes, Clostridia, and anaerobic streptococci. E. coli adheres to, and primarily subsists on, the mucin layer that coats the epithelial cells of the large intestine. A dominant, resident strain will normally persist in the GI tract for periods of months to years, until it is eventually replaced by one of the many transient strains continually passing through the intestinal lumen. The basis for these periodic shifts is not known and has recently become the focus of a large body of research [2].In part, this increased interest in the dynamics of E. coli strains is due to dysbiosis, or microbial imbalances of the normal human microflora of the GI tract. This common outcome of anti
Escherichia coli, Urinary Tract Infection and Molecular Detection
S Fathollahi,R Yousefi-Mashouf,MT Goodarzi,M Hajilooei
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Urinary tract Infections is the most frequently diagnosed kidney and urologic diseases and Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen found in urinary tract infections. The most frequent serogroups determined in the P- fimbriated strains belonged to one of the six serogroups O1, O2, O4, O6, O7, O18. In E. coli strains, the P fimbriae are considered an essential virulence factor causing pyelonephritis the pap operon encodes for the p fimbriae adhesion. Methods: 130 E. coli strains were isolated from 130 patients with UTI, symptoms and bacteriuria >105 CFU/ml. All of the isolated E. coli were serotyped using 13 different O-antisera. The DNA was released from whole organisms by boiling. Pap gene was detected in all isolated strains using PCR. Pap1 and pap2 25-mer primers were used for PCR and DNA target segment were 328 bp. Results: Serogroups O6(23.84%), O18(12.30%) and O15(6.93%) were the predominant serogroups, respectively. The 44 strains (33.86%) were non-typeable and 61% strains in this study were positive for the pap operon. Conclusion: The pap operon investigated in this study was particularly present in strains belonging to 4 sero-groups most frequently detected in uropathogenic E. coli. Urinary tract infection are caused by a limited number of uropathogenic E.coli strains that predominant possess the pap adhesion-encoding operons.
Reproductive tract infections among women attending gynaecology outpatient department  [PDF]
MS Bohara,AB Joshi,B Lekhak,G Gurung
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v1i1.6940
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Women often suffer silently with reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and sexually active young women are particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted Infections (STIs). The study aimed to know the prevalence of reproductive tract infections among married women attending Gynecological Outpatients Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Kathmandu, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital based crosssectional design was used to investigate RTIs among women attending outpatients department of Gynae and Obstetrics, TUTH from July to November, 2006. A total of 208 samples from 104 women were examined microscopically and culture using standard microbial technique to investigate etiological agents of RTIs. Study samples were selected and examined on the basis of either having discharge or complaints of lower abdominal pain. RESULTS: A total of 208 samples collected from 104 patients were examined and 26% samples were positive for different causative agents of RTIs. Thirty percent of women reported having symptoms related to RTIs and was common in young married women. Nineteen percent had STIs. Thirteen percent had trichomonasis and 7% had gonorrhoea identified in Gram stained smears and cultures. Many women had endogenous RTIs. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 15% and vaginal candidiasis in 25% of women. CONCLUSIONS: Young married women have a high prevalence of RTIs. Education and outreach programs are needed to reduce embarrassment and lack of knowledge related to RTIs. The low socio?economic status of women appears to have influence on high rate of infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v1i1.6940 Int J Infect Microbiol 2012;1(1):29-33
SCREENING OF MULTI DRUG RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTED PATIENTS  [PDF]
Jemimah Naine S,B.Vaishnavi,S.Vijayalakshmi,V.Mohanasrinivasan
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the major threats due to widespread use of antimicrobial drugs in general population and has been increasing in clinical significance over recent years. The prevalence of resistance to antibiotics by Escherichia coli is con current. A total of fifty samples were obtained from urinary tract infected patients, out of which 25 isolates of Escherichia coli were isolated and confirmed. All the strains were found to exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance patterns to eight antibiotics used. The present study was undertaken to accomplish isolation and characterization of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and to assess the current resistant patterns of multidrug resistance among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli. 8 antibiotics were studied using disc diffusion Method. All the isolates were highly resistant to Tetracycline and resistant to Trimethoprim, Ofloxacin, Penicillin G, Amphicillin, Streptomycin and chloramphenicol. Many of the isolates were susceptible to Rifampicin, only 4% resistance was observed. The results demonstrate that the antimicrobial resistance of multi drug resistant Escherichia coli which may become endemic to the hospital environment day by day and may complicate the therapeutic management.
Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among Children Attending Babban Mutum Science Primary School Shekal, Bauchi State, Nigeria
I. A. Allamin, I. B. Machina, M. Ibn Abbas, K. I. Angale
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101596
Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among children attending Babban Mutum Science Primary School Shekal, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The study was carried out between May to July 2014. Among apparently healthy pupils, a questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors from different age groups, sex, and bed wetting history. One hundred (100) clean-catch urine samples were obtained from the pupils using standard procedures. Microbial culture on Cystein Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) ager and subsequent Biochemical tests revealed that Eschericia coli (E. coli) with 11 (28.9%) was the most prevalent while Staphylococcus aureus with 2 (5.3%) was the least prevalent of the samples with significant bacterial growth (≥105 CFU/ml). 38 isolates were obtained out of which Gram negative bacteria were the most isolated. The in-vitro antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates to common antimicrobial agents shows that the isolates are susceptible to all the antibiotics except Amoxycilline which is shown to be less effective in showing great sensitivity.
Occurrence of urinary tract infection among children attending Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital and Research Center, Pokhara, Nepal  [PDF]
G Gautam,S Regmi,NT Magar,B Subedi,T Sharma,SM Regmi
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v2i3.8665
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered as the most common bacterial infectious disease seen among the pediatric patients. Most commonly, members of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly uropathogenic strains of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. are the primary causative pathogens of UTI in the different part of the world. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance rates among pathogens recovered from urinary tract infections is an increasing problem in the specific region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prevalence and anti microbial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial uropathogens isolated from the children attending Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital and Reserch Center (GMC) Nepal. A total of 155 children aged upto 15 years were included in this study. Urine cultures were carried out and the isolates were identified by Gram staining and conventional biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). RESULTS: In the present study 21.3 % of the sample size, showed significant bacterial growth. E. coli was the most frequently occurring pathogen (39.40%), followed by Proteus spp. 21.2%, Citrobacter spp. and Streptococcus faecalis (12.1%) Klebsiella spp. (9.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter (3.0%). Susceptibility rate of E. coli were 69.2% to Gentamycin and Amikacin, 53.8% to Norfloxacin, 38.4% to Nalidixic acid and Norfloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric urine culture isolates were becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Finally, we suggest that empirical antibiotic selection should be based on knowledge of the local prevalence of bacterial organisms and antibiotic sensitivities rather than on universal guidelines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v2i3.8665 ? Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(3):82-86
THE PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (UTI) AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC IN THE GENERAL HOSPITAL, MINNA IN NIGER STATE
Adabara N. U.,J. A. Momoh,J. D. Bala,A. A. Abdulrahaman
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i3.404
Abstract: Background: Bacterial Urinary tract infection is common in pregnancy and may lead to complications such as preterm labor and premature rupture of membrane if untreated. Aim: This study investigates the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women attending antenatal clinic in the general hospital, Minna. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 urine samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of bacteria. Results: Of the total number of samples investigated, 75 (75.0%) were found to be positive for bacterial UTI. The distribution of infection on the basis of age revealed prevalence rates of 100.0%, 94.4% and 64.0% for age groups 30-39, 20-29 and 40-49 respectively. The prevalence rates for the groups were found to be significantly high (P> 0.05). One hundred and ten bacterial agents were isolated, characterized and identified. Klebsiella spp showed the highest frequency of occurrence of 43 (39.1%) and followed in descending order by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proetus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella spp with 31 (28.2%), 23 (20.9%), 11(10.0%) 1 (0.9%) and 1 (0.9%) respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed a high prevalence of bacterial UTI in the study area for all the age groups investigated. The result underscores the need for the implementation of a control program in the area.
THE PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (UTI) AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC IN THE GENERAL HOSPITAL, MINNA IN NIGER STATE
Adabara N. U.,J. A. Momoh,J. D. Bala,A. A. Abdulrahaman
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i3.404
Abstract: Background: Bacterial Urinary tract infection is common in pregnancy and may lead to complications such as preterm labor and premature rupture of membrane if untreated. Aim: This study investigates the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women attending antenatal clinic in the general hospital, Minna. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 urine samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of bacteria. Results: Of the total number of samples investigated, 75 (75.0%) were found to be positive for bacterial UTI. The distribution of infection on the basis of age revealed prevalence rates of 100.0%, 94.4% and 64.0% for age groups 30-39, 20-29 and 40-49 respectively. The prevalence rates for the groups were found to be significantly high (P> 0.05). One hundred and ten bacterial agents were isolated, characterized and identified. Klebsiella spp showed the highest frequency of occurrence of 43 (39.1%) and followed in descending order by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proetus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella spp with 31 (28.2%), 23 (20.9%), 11(10.0%) 1 (0.9%) and 1 (0.9%) respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed a high prevalence of bacterial UTI in the study area for all the age groups investigated. The result underscores the need for the implementation of a control program in the area.
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