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M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2008,
Abstract: The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.
Risk factors for indoor air pollution in rural households in Mauche division, Molo district, Kenya
N.W Moturi
African Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million per year deaths in developing countries. In Kenya, it is among the factors linked to high morbidity, especially in children aged below five years. Objectives: The survey was conducted in 2005 in 350 rural households to identify household factors that are likely to enhance indoor air pollution. Methods: Questionnaire, continuous and spot observations were used to collect data on household characteristics, type of primary building in homestead, number of rooms, type of ventilation present and type of fuel used by the household. Results: State of housing and type of fuel used were found to be likely risk factors for indoor air pollution. Fifty two point six percent of those interviewed live in mud walled houses with iron sheet roofs. Ninety one percent live in either single or two roomed houses. Ventilation is provided both by small windows and a space left in between the wall and roof. Thirty seven percent of observed houses have no windows. In all households, fuel wood is used for cooking. Conclusion: State of housing and fuel used in sampled households encourage indoor air pollution, which has been associated with various diseases.
Correlates and Health Consequences of Indoor Air Pollution among Urban Households in Ilorin, Nigeria
A. Raheem Usman,Raheem A. Sheu
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.312.320
Abstract: Given their consequences on human health, indoor air pollution generated through domestic energy consumption is more important than outdoor pollution in the third world. The understanding, however of the intricate link between energy and health lags behind that of the linkages between water or waste management and health. The consequences of energy consumption have not been reflected in health care priorities in most countries. Apart from studies that examine the relationship between poverty and energy, studies are also scanty in the identification of both area and structural characteristics of urban population in relation to energy use. This study identifies the nature, types and sources of energy used by households for domestic purposes in Ilorin, Nigeria. The specific tasks of the study include establishing a spatial pattern of the variation in the types and quantity of energy used by households so as to obtain a gradient of the characteristics of energy consumption in cities of developing countries. This is expected to lead to a corresponding variation in the health consequences resulting from the use of such energy types. These tasks will enhance a clearer understanding of the link between energy and city wide environmental health. Multiple Regression analysis and other relevant statistics would be used to determine the relative contributions of household characteristics to the pattern of energy use. The sources of data are primary and secondary.
Use of Ventilation-Index in the Development of Exposure Model for Indoor Air Pollution—A Review  [PDF]
Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Rengaraj Ramasamy, Banani Mukhopadhyay, Santu Ghosh, Sankar Sambandam, Kalpana Balakrishnan
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2014.32004

In indoor environment, emission factor of the cooking fuel plays a vital role in determining correlation between exposure assessment and health effects. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures are widely influenced by the ventilation status. An optimum control of the air change rate has also significant impact on the exposure pattern. A number of studies revealed that the indoor particulates and gaseous exposures, resulting from the combustion of various cooking fuels, are associated with significant adverse health effects on pregnant mothers and new born babies. The impacts of ventilation status on air pollution exposure in households’ kitchens or living rooms have not been explored enough. Except a few studies with concrete rooms, especially in industries, no other studies have been established on the correlation between the ventilation index and air pollution exposure. The intent of this review is to discuss reported findings focused on the ventilation and exposure to air pollution. This will obviously help better understanding to modulate exposure profile in household condition using simple tool of ventilation measurement.

The Levels of Toxic Air Pollutants in Kitchens with Traditional Stoves in Rural Sierra Leone  [PDF]
Eldred Tunde Taylor, Satoshi Nakai
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.310154
Abstract: Wood and charcoal fuels, widely used in Sierra Leone for cooking, may impact indoor air quality. Until now, there is presently lack of data to quantify the extent of impact. In this study, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured in kitchens with wood and charcoal stoves during cooking in rural areas. PAH contents of PM2.5 and PM2.5 - 10 fractions were analyzed using HPLC/FLD and SPM and CO were monitored in realtime. Mean ± SD concentrations of PM2.5 related ∑11PAHs, PM and CO were 2127 ± 1173 ng/m3, 1686 ± 973 μg/m3 and 28 ± 9 ppm for wood stoves; and 158 ± 106 ng/m3, 315 ± 205 μg/m3 and 42 ± 21 ppm for charcoal stoves, respectively. PAHs were largely associated with PM2.5 than PM2.5 - 10. Maximum 1-hr time averaged ± SD CO concentration for kitchens with wood and charcoal stoves were 44 ± 21 ppm and 77 ± 49 ppm, respectively. Generally, concentrations of PAHs, PM and CO were higher than the WHO recommended guidelines which raise concern with regards to health risks. Given the existing evidence of reduced emissions of PAHs, PM and CO from cleaner fuels, a transition from cooking with wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels would provide an improvement in indoor air quality, a requirement for good health.
Categorical representations of categorical groups  [PDF]
John W. Barrett,Marco Mackaay
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: The representation theory for categorical groups is constructed. Each categorical group determines a monoidal bicategory of representations. Typically, these categories contain representations which are indecomposable but not irreducible. A simple example is computed in explicit detail.
Forgotten buildings: detached kitchens in Southeast England  [cached]
David Martin
Archaeology International , 2000, DOI: 10.5334/ai.0406
Abstract: Few archaeologists study standing domestic buildings, but such investigation can yield novel insights into how people lived in their home environments, especially when it is coupled with documentary evidence. Recent research by a member of the UCL Field Archaeology Unit has led to the surprising conclusion that detached kitchens were, after houses and barns, the most common type of building during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Southeast England. Much of the new evidence comes from the assessment of listed buildings in the planning process and shows how commercial archaeology can serve academic research.
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, the magnitude of black carbon (BC) in the kitchen wasquantified in giving a preliminary picture about its potential on human health burden. BC concentration was derived from PM10 measurements by means of Smoke Stain Reflectometer quantifying during cooking and off-cooking. Sampled households was characterized by two groups i.e use wood and kerosene fuel each of which had been measured during cooking and off-cooking. The result of the research showed that the kitchen use fire-wood fuel in cooking condition, BC concentration were in the range 35.25 ± 0,23 to 83,803 ± 0.37 Ag m-3, while for off-cooking condition it showed 3.59 ± 0.06 to 8.98 ± 1.02 Ag m-3. In contrast, lower BC concentration was performed in kitchens use kerosene fuel where for cooking condition which it reached up to 6,90 ± 0.06 - 22,29 ± 0.46 Ag m-3, and it exhibited only 2,32 ± 0.04 - 5,74 ± 0.1 Ag m-3 during off-cooking condition. The findings suggest black carbon concentration on average introduce high risk towards human health in cooking using fire-wood fuel.
On categorical semigroups  [PDF]
A. Kostin,B. Novikov
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: The structure of categorical at zero semigroups is studied from the point of view their likeness to categories.
Palatal Rugae Pattern in Nepalese Subjects  [PDF]
Dipshikha Bajracharya,Anisha Vaidya,Sunaina Thapa,Sujita Shrestha
Orthodontic Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ojn.v3i2.10076
Abstract: Objective: To determine the number and pattern of palatal rugae in Nepalese subjects and to find the association of gender with the number and pattern of palatal rugae.
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