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Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hypercholesterolemic Activities of Wasabia japonica  [PDF]
Young Sun Lee,Jae Ha Yang,Man Jong Bae,Wang Keun Yoo,Shen Ye,Charlie C. L. Xue,Chun Guang Li
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nen038
Abstract: The effects of Wasabia japonica (WJ) were investigated in vitro and in vivo for their anti-oxidant and anti-hypercholesterolemic activities. It was found that the aqueous extracts of WJ leaves (WJL) had strong scavenging activities towards 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) free radicals in cell free systems. WJL also inhibited NO production and the expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA and enzyme protein, determined by Griess reactions, RT-PCR or Western blotting respectively in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells. The anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of WJ diet were investigated in hypercholesterolemia rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with either normal diet (Group 1), or diet containing 1%(w/w) cholesterol (Groups 2, 3 and 4). After 4 weeks, Group 2 was changed to normal diet, Groups 3 and 4 were changed to the diet containing 5% WJ leaf and or 5% WJ root, respectively. 3 weeks after WJ diets, Serum HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in WJ diet groups compared with the normal diet hypercholesterolemia rats. In contrast, the serum LDL-cholesterol levels and liver xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in WJ diet groups were significantly decreased. The results indicate that the WJ extracts have significant anti-oxidant activities, and the WJ diet exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic action in high cholesterol diet rats, which was companied with modulations of cholesterol metabolism and decrease in liver XO activity.
POTENSI ANTI-HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA EKASTRAK CASSIA VERA [Anti-hypercholesterolemic Potency of Cassia Vera (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Blume) Bark Extract]  [cached]
Fauzan Azima1),D Muchtadi2),F R Zakaria2),B P Priosoeryanto3)
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan , 2004,
Abstract: There has been limited report on the phytochemical content of cassia vera bark extract, and its potency as anti-hypercholesterolemic in rabbit is not known yet. The objectives of this research was to determine the phytochemical content and potency of anti-hypercholesterolemic of cassia vera bark extract using rabbit as the animal model.The research was devided into three stages, namely: (1) preparing cassia vera extraction with ethanol 96%; (2) analyzing phytochemical contents of cassia vera bark extract; (3) in vivo experiment, where twenty New Zealand White rabbits aged 5 months were used. Experimental rabbits were divided into 5 groups. The rabbits were fed with atherogenic cholesterol (0.1%) as positive control, RB11 standard feed as negative control, or cassia vera extracts (100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day) or fenofibrat (15 mg/day) together with the atherogenic feed for 12 weeks. Levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were determined at 0, 4, 8, and 12 week. At the end of the experiment formation of fatty liver were observed. The results showed that the ethanol extract of cassia vera bark contains total phenol (62.25%), flavonoids, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. On the other hand, cassia vera bark extract was able to decrease total serum cholesterol from 443.3 mg/dl to 139.1 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol from 286.5 mg/dl to 95.8 mg/dl and triglyceride from 122.2 mg/dl to 61.2 mg/dl. Meanwhile, it increased HDL serum cholesterol from 29.1 mg/dl to 50.0 mg/dl in rabbit. It was also shown that the extract was able to decrease the everage fat globule on liver significantly from 27.47 globule to 3.59 globule per field view. Cassia vera bark extract with phytochemical content was found to be potential as anti-hypercholesterolemic and also in preventing fatty liver formatonr in rabbit
Hypolipidemic Activity of Microwave-Dehydrated Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Powder in Mice Fed a Hypercholesterolemic Diet  [PDF]
Obed Osorio-Esquivel, Vianney Cortés-Viguri, Leticia Garduño-Siciliano, Alicia Ortiz-Moreno, María Elena Sánchez-Pardo
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.710080
Abstract: The effect of dietary supplementation with mango (Mangifera indica L.) powder obtained by microwave dehydration was studied in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. The phenolic profiles in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activities were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays, respectively. The total phenolic content of microwave-dehydrated mango powder was 1451.7 ± 26.7 μggallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, and catechin. The anti-oxidant activity was 14.6% higher in microwave-dehydrated mango powder than in conventional mango powder. Mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (1 g cholesterol/100g over 7 days). The hypercholesterolemic mice whose diets were supplemented with microwave-dehydrated mango powder showed a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in total serum cholesterol compared to the hypercholesterolemic mice and the mice fed with conventional dehydrated mango powder. We observed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in HDL-c levels in the microwave-dehydrated mango powder group mice (12.4 ± 1.3 mmol/L) compared to the hypercholesterolemic group (8.6 ± 1.4 mmol/L) and the conventional-dehydrated mango powder group (10.9 ± 1.3 mmol/L). The mice provided with microwave-dehydrated mango powder had significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) levels of serum LDL-c (36.0%) and total cholesterol (43.3%) compared to the mice in hypercholesterolemic group. Notably, the atherogenic index was 72% lower in the microwave-dehydrated mango powder group compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. These results suggest that the biocompounds, such as polyphenols and dietary fiber, found in mango pulp might improve the lipid profile in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.
Hypercholesterolemic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Oat Extracts containing β-glucan  [PDF]
Puneet Dhillon,Aruna Bhatia
Research Journal of Immunology , 2008,
Abstract: An experimental research was carried out to study the effect of oat extracts as modulators of immune response and hypercholesterolemia. This research involved experiments to examine the influence of oat extracts on blood lipids in mice. Oat extracts were given in intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice fed on hypercholesterolemic diet or normal diet. The serum cholesterol level and immune response of the animals was checked under, normal, hypercholesterolemic state and after treating the hypercholesterolemic mice with oat extracts. The immune status was checked by employing INOS activity, Phagocytosis, NBT reduction test and ELISA. The oat extracts resulted in immune response enhancement and reduced the cholesterol level in the hypercholesterolemic mice.
Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Ethanolic Fraction of Terminalia arjuna Bark on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits
Saravanan Subramaniam,Ramachandran Subramaniam,Suja Rajapandian,Subasini Uthrapathi,Victor Rajamanickam Gnanamanickam,Govinda Prasad Dubey
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neq003
Abstract: Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD). Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat) group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10 mg kg−1 body weight), T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight), respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05). Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Electrochemical and Quantum Chemical Studies of 5-Substituted Tetrazoles as Corrosion Inhibitors for Copper in Aerated 0.5 M H2SO4 Solution  [PDF]
Pengju Liu, Xia Fang, Yongming Tang, Chunning Sun, Cheng Yao
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.29171
Abstract: Two 5-substituted tetrazoles, 5-(2-thienyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (2-THTT) and 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (4-PYTT), as copper corrosion inhibitors in aerated 0.5 M H2SO4 solution were studied by using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and quantum chemical calculation. Polarization curves indicate that inhibition efficiencies of tetrazoles increase with increasing inhibitors concentration. The electrochemical results show that the inhibition efficiency of 2-THTT is higher than that of 4-PYTT. Inhibition efficiency of 2-THTT reached 98.9% at very low concentrations (0.25 mM) by EIS, which makes 2-THTT an efficient inhibitor in aerated 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The adsorption of 5-substituted tetrazoles on copper surface obeys the Langmuir isotherm. All the computed quantum chemical parameters are found to correlate well with experimental inhibition efficiencies of inhibitors.
Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats
H.I.H. El-Sayyad, M.A. El-Sherbiny, M.A. Sobh, A.M. Abou-El-Naga, M.A.N. Ibrahim, S.A. Mousa
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.
In vitro studies on anti asthmatic, analgesic and anti convulsant activities of the medicinal plant Bryonia laciniosa.Linn
Jayarama Reddy,Gnanasekaran D.,Vijay D.,Ranganathan T.V.
International Journal of Drug Discovery , 2010,
Abstract: The study was carried out to ascertain anti asthmatic, analgesic and anti convulsant activities ofthe medicinal plant Bryonia Laciniosa. The anti asthmatic activity was estimated by mesenteric mast cellcount by Atopic allergy method. Eddy's hot plate and Analgesiometer tests were used to assess theanalgesic activity of Bryonia Laciniosa. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by Maximum electroshockinducedseizure test. The results indicated that 70% alcoholic extract of Bryonia laciniosa increased theantiasmatic activity, analgestic activity and also anticonvulsant activity.
A novel approach for the synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles
Akhlaghinia, Batool;Rezazadeh, Soodabeh;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532013005000005
Abstract: a series of 5-substituted-1h-tetrazoles (rcn4h) have been synthesized by cycloaddition reaction of different aryl and alkyl nitriles with sodium azide in dmso using cuso4?5h2o as catalyst. a wide variety of aryl nitriles underwent [3+2] cycloaddition to afford tetrazoles under mild reaction conditions in good to excellent yields. the catalyst used is readily available and environmentally friendly. short reaction times, good to excellent yields, safe process and simple workup make this method an attractive and useful contribution to present organic synthesis of 5-substituted-1h-tetrazoles.
Antioxidant status of atorvastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients  [PDF]
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2009,
Abstract: This study was an attempt to establish the extent of increased oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic patients and to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on the oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Blood samples of 15 subjects (age and sex matched) from three groups: group I (healthy subjects), group II (hypercholesterolemic patients with atorvastatin treatment) and group III (hypercholesterolemic patients without any hypolipidemic drug) were taken and centrifuged to separate the plasma, which was used for the determination of vitamin E. The separated cells were washed thrice with 0.90 % w/v cold normal saline and used for the assay of the percentage hemolysis of the RBCs, and the determination of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and hemoglobin. The levels of oxidative stress were higher in the hypercholesterolemic in comparison to the control and atorvastatin group. The levels of antioxidants were higher in the atorvastatin group than in the hypercholesterolemic one but were lower than the controls. From these findings, it was concluded that there is an increase in oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemia but it decreased significantly after 2 months of atorvastatin therapy and antioxidant status also improves in patients taking atorvastatin.
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