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Certified Infertility Nurses’ Perceptions and Practice on Male Infertility Nursing and Related Factors  [PDF]
Akiko Mori, Kyoko Asazawa, Ruriko Hoshi, Yasushi Yumura
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.81001

Purpose: The aims of this study were to clarify the complaints and concerns expressed by couples that included a partner with male infertility, certified infertility nurses’ nursing practice and perceptions of nursing for these couples, and factors related to these perceptions and practices. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. Prospective participants were sent an anonymous self-administered questionnaire containing items pertaining to the complaints and concerns expressed by couples that included a partner with male infertility, and nursing practice and perceptions of nursing for these couples. Results: In total, 133 questionnaires were distributed, 74 responses were received, and 69 of these responses were valid. Couples’ complaints and concerns consisted of a three-factor structure comprising psychological burden, lack of knowledge and information, and problems with partners. Nurses reported that the complaints and concerns of couples that included a partner with male infertility differed between male and female partners. Factors related to nursing practice and nurses’ perceptions of nursing were identified. Conclusions: Participants felt that psychological burden and problems were more serious for female partners than they were for male partners, and concern regarding the physical health of the partner receiving treatment was greater in male partners than it was in female partners.

The effect of semen analysis factors regarding IUI with male factor infertility
A. Ghaseminezhad,M. Akbarpour,S. Falahatkar,Z. Rezaee
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Background and Purpose: There is evidence in literature that IUI is the first line treatment and the most cost-effective procedure for mild to moderate male factor sub-fertility, however, the relative influence of various semen characteristics with the likelihood of a successful outcome is controversial. This study is designed to show the correlation between semen parameters and the pregnancy rate in patients, with mild to moderate male factor sub-fertility and whose wives were normal and underwent hyper-stimulation, including IUI.Materials and Methods: From January 2005 to January of 2006, 95 couples with male factor infertility underwent 140 IUI cycles with husbands washed semen were included in this study .They were divided into two groups based on semen parameters, mild and moderate. Post- wash sperm parameters, type of infertility (primary and secondary), male/ female age and duration of infertility were evaluated and correlated with clinical pregnancy outcome.Results: The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was 26 (18.5%); 15 (21.4%) in mild group, while 11(15.7%) in moderate group. The clinical pregnancy rate per couple was 27.3%.There were significant correlation between female age, duration of infertility, sperm concentration and progressive motility, and clinical pregnancy.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that post- wash sperm concentration and progressive motility, female age and duration of infertility are the most important factors for prediction of successful pregnancJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(65):10-18 (Persian)
Factores causales de infertilidad masculina: Contribución del factor endocrino Causes of male infertility: The contribution of endocrine factors  [cached]
Enzo Devoto C,Marcia Madariaga A,Ximena Lioi C
Revista médica de Chile , 2000,
Abstract: Background: Male infertility is responsible for 35% of infertile couples. Aim: To investigate the causes of male infertility and the relative importance of endocrine factors. Patients and methods: Patients referred to an andrology clinic due to an abnormal spermiogram were studied. A testitular examination, spermiogram and determination of FSH, LH, testosterone and prolactin were done to all. Testicular biopsy was done to patients with severe oligospermia or azoospermia. Causes of infertility were defined and classified as pretesticular, testicular, posttesticular or unclassified. Results: Two hundred fifty seven males were studied. In 3.5% of them, the cause of infertility was defined as pretesticular (that included hypothalamic and pituitary endocrine causes), in 66.9% it was classified as testicular, in 15.6% as posttesticular and in 14%, as unclassified. Thirty percent of infertility cases were idiopathic, 17.9% were associated to varicocele, 12.8% were associated to cryptorchidism, 8.9% to Klinefelter syndrome and 6.6% to exposure to toxic substances. In 50% of patients with cryptorchidism, this abnormality was found during the specialized andrological examination and referrals for surgical correction were made late. Two thirds of patients with Klinefelter syndrome were hypoandrogenic. Conclusions: Causes for male infertility should be investigated and diagnosed accurately. Primary hypoandrogenic testicular failures must be treated with hormone replacement therapy
Cytogenetic of Male Infertility  [cached]
Lutfiye Ozpak,Ayfer Pazarbasi
Arsiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi , 2011,
Abstract: Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000): 230-245]
Focus Issue on Male Infertility  [PDF]
Hideyuki Kobayashi,Koichi Nagao,Koichi Nakajima
Advances in Urology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/823582
Abstract: Male infertility problems can occur when sperms are limited in number or function. In this paper, we describe the clinical evaluation of male infertility. A detailed history, physical examination, and basic semen analysis are required. In addition, ultrasound, karyotyping, and hormonal studies are needed to determine specific causes of infertility. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO, 2009) has developed a manual to provide guidance in performing a comprehensive semen analysis. Among the possible reasons for male infertility, nonobstructive azoospermia is the least treatable, because few or no mature sperm may be produced. In many cases, men with nonobstructive azoospermia typically have small-volume testes and elevated FSH. Although treatment may not completely restore the quality of semen from men with subnormal fertility, in some cases a successful pregnancy can still be achieved through assisted reproductive technology. 1. Introduction About 1 in 7 couples have problems conceiving, with a similar incidence worldwide. Over 80% of couples who have regular sexual intercourse and do not use contraception will achieve a pregnancy within one year, and approximately 92% can achieve a pregnancy within 2 years [1]. Infertility affects males and females equally, although many people believe that infertility is a female problem. In Japan, especially, couples oppose insemination or adoption as an alternative to having a child carrying both parents’ genes, which means that males are likely to seek infertility evaluations when a couple has difficulty conceiving. The clinical evaluation of male infertility includes a detailed history, physical examination, laboratory tests, ultrasound study, and karyotyping. The two main purposes of the evaluation are (1) to identify any modifiable factors that can improve the man’s fertility status and (2) to identify any serious underlying conditions, such as testis cancer, osteoporosis, and endocrine or genetic problems that present first as infertility [2]. 2. History-Taking for the Male Infertility Workup The infertility history should include a detailed account of the patient’s reproductive and sexual history, developmental, family, medical, and surgical history. The information to be included in each portion of the history is detailed below. 2.1. Reproductive and Sexual History For the reproductive history, any prior conceptions for the male with present or past partners, details of any prior difficulty achieving conception, past evaluations and treatments for infertility, and previous use of contraception
Novel concepts in male infertility
Esteves, Sandro C.;Agarwal, Ashok;
International braz j urol , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382011000100002
Abstract: extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility in the last decades. there are new concepts in sperm physiology and several modern tools for the assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo. new tests using molecular biology and dna damage assays allow the clinician to correctly diagnose men so far classified as having idiopathic male infertility. in the field of treatment, microsurgery has increased success rates either for reconstruction of the reproductive tract or the retrieval of spermatozoa for assisted conception. emerging evidence suggests that life-style and environmental conditions are of utmost importance in male fertility and subfertility. this review discusses several concepts that have changed over the last years, such as the duration of the spermatogenic cycle in humans, y-chromosome infertility, the reproductive potential of non-mosaic klinefelter syndrome men, the impact of paternal age and sperm dna in male infertility, the role of antioxidants in the treatment of infertile men, the predictive factors and techniques for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia, and the microsurgical treatment of clinical varicoceles. whenever possible, levels of evidence are provided as suggested by the oxford center of evidence-based medicine.
Factors affecting coronary arterial disease, comparative study in male vs female
Mujapara AK,Gupta G,Gupta N.,Trivedi S.
International Journal of Pharmaceuticals Analysis , 2009,
Abstract: current research is showing correlation between serum billirubin and coronary arterial disease.CAD is most common in man than in female. Because in this there is also one phenomena work behind itwas level of serum billirubin which is maintain in female by estrogen where as in male there is nomaintenances of S. billirubin this is lower in mail compare to female. Another risk factor also work in malerather than female is like smoking, diabetic or level of blood sugar and also B.M.I.
Factors Affecting Male’s Reproductive Health Behaviour in Punjab, Pakistan  [PDF]
Yasir Nawaz,Ashfaq Ahmad Maann,Muhammad Iqbal Zafar,Tanvir Ali
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2012,
Abstract: In Pakistan, male involvement in reproductive health started long before the concept of a holistic approach emerged from ICPD in 1994. Men are far behind the knowledge about contraceptives, authority of decisions making, religiosity, exposure of media, health attitude, physical cost, male violence, drugs and family planning services. These circumstances have damaging-effect on men's reproductive health as well. The poor reproductive health of men in the entire Pakistan has been reported in many studies. The different national and international agencies have shown a great concern on this alarming situation of men's deteriorating reproductive health status. They have recommended to investigate the men reproductive health behaviour in relation to different aspects. A cross sectional study has been conducted in 3-districts of Punjab province. One tehsils from each district will be selected randomly and sample of 272 men from Tehsil-1 i.e. Rawalpindi, 197 from Tehsil-2 i.e. Bahawalpur and 131 from Tehsil-3 i.e. Toba Tek Singh. From each Tehsil equal no. of respondents were selected from rural and urban areas by random sampling technique to explore the research objectives. In this way the total sample size was 600, 300 from rural and 300 from urban areas. A well-structured questionnaire consisting of open ended and close ended questions was prepared in the light of research objectives. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions mean, standard deviation was worked out to describe the data. Bivariate analysis along with the application of different statistical tests such as chi-square test and gamma test according to the nature of the level of measurement of variables under study was applied to examine the relationship between variables. It was concluded that there was strong positive relationship between age, education and income of the respondents and their reproductive health behaviour.
Male infertility and gene defects

遗传 , 2010,
Abstract: About 15% of the couples at reproductive age worldwide suffer from infertility. It is estimated that 50% of the entity result from male itself. The mechanism of male infertility is quite complicated, attributing to inherent and environment factors of the infertility patients, of which defects of fertility-related genes are of importance for its occurrence. The clinical features of male infertility vary from azoospermia to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. This paper presents the relationship between the known defects in genes and male infertility.
Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human  [PDF]
Toshinobu Miyamoto,Akira Tsujimura,Yasushi Miyagawa,Eitetsu Koh,Mikio Namiki,Kazuo Sengoku
Advances in Urology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/384520
Abstract: Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings. 1. Introduction One of the most serious social problems facing developed countries today is the declining birth rate, although it is generally not well recognized that the number of infertile couples is on the rise in these countries. While both social (i.e., social progress for women and the resulting increase in the age at which women marry) and environmental (i.e., pollution and global warming) factors are behind part of the increase in the number of patients with infertility, infertility in the male partner contributes to approximately half of all cases. To date, various techniques, such as in vitro fertilization (particularly, intracytoplasmic sperm injection or ICSI) and so-called TESE-ICSI involving the harvesting of sperm from the testes, have been developed for male infertility. Although these methods are steadily producing results, no technique has proven effective for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Evidence suggests that many patients with azoospermia have a genetic predisposition to the condition, although the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases [1]. Conversely, studies using knockout mouse models have recently linked many genes to spermatogenesis, the mechanisms of which are currently being clarified. These animal findings have yet to be shown applicable to most human cases. This is because identifying the affected genes in humans requires a retrograde genetic approach and because the knockout mouse phenotype is not always faithfully reproduced in humans. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male
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