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Knowledge management tools of rice technology in Nepal  [PDF]
BP Tripathi
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7518
Abstract: Technology plays an important role for enhancing production and productivity. In Nepal, the apex research body, Nepal Agricultural Research council (NARC) is mandated for generating technology whereas Department of Agriculture Extension is responsible for disseminating rice technologies to the farmers’ fields through different channels of the system. Different International and National Non-Government Organization (INGOs/NGOs) are also involved in dissemination of rice technologies as well. Although technologies are disseminating however, adoption rate of rice seems to be low. Awareness is an issue to adopt the right technology. Knowledge Management Tools (KMT) followed for rice in Nepal are fact sheets, farmers’ field school, printed media, radio, television, toll free services, training and visit, and mini-kit distribution. Therefore, to find out the gap between adoption and disseminating technology, a study on KMT was carried out. Informant survey was launched to collect the data covering four regions of Nepal taking 2 districts in each region during 2010. Mini-kit distribution to the farmers, technologies through farmers’ group and training to the farmers were the most effective for transferring rice technologies, which were confirmed by 49 (62.9%), 46 (59.0%) and 41 (52.8%) interviewed farmers, respectively. Among the electronic media, FM radio and radio were most effective tools for disseminating rice technologies, which were shown by 33 (42.3%) and 23 (29.5%) farmers respectively. Among the printed media, booklet and news paper were most effective for transferring rice technologies as confirmed by 21 (27.0%) and 13 (16.7%) farmers respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7518 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.24-30
Verification tools for probabilistic forecasts of continuous hydrological variables
F. Laio ,S. Tamea
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: In the present paper we describe some methods for verifying and evaluating probabilistic forecasts of hydrological variables. We propose an extension to continuous-valued variables of a verification method originated in the meteorological literature for the analysis of binary variables, and based on the use of a suitable cost-loss function to evaluate the quality of the forecasts. We find that this procedure is useful and reliable when it is complemented with other verification tools, borrowed from the economic literature, which are addressed to verify the statistical correctness of the probabilistic forecast. We illustrate our findings with a detailed application to the evaluation of probabilistic and deterministic forecasts of hourly discharge values.
Verification tools for probabilistic forecasts of continuous hydrological variables
F. Laio,S. Tamea
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: In the present paper we describe some methods for verifying and evaluating probabilistic forecasts of hydrological variables. We propose an extension to continuous-valued variables of a verification method originated in the meteorological literature for the analysis of binary variables, and based on the use of a suitable cost-loss function to evaluate the quality of the forecasts. We find that this procedure is useful and reliable when it is complemented with other verification tools, borrowed from the economic literature, which are addressed to verify the statistical correctness of the probabilistic forecast. We illustrate our findings with a detailed application to the evaluation of probabilistic and deterministic forecasts of hourly discharge values.
HydroZIP: How Hydrological Knowledge can Be Used to Improve Compression of Hydrological Data  [PDF]
Steven V. Weijs,Nick van de Giesen,Marc B. Parlange
Entropy , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/e15041289
Abstract: From algorithmic information theory, which connects the information content of a data set to the shortest computer program that can produce it, it is known that there are strong analogies between compression, knowledge, inference and prediction. The more we know about a data generating process, the better we can predict and compress the data. A model that is inferred from data should ideally be a compact description of those data. In theory, this means that hydrological knowledge could be incorporated into compression algorithms to more efficiently compress hydrological data and to outperform general purpose compression algorithms. In this study, we develop such a hydrological data compressor, named HydroZIP, and test in practice whether it can outperform general purpose compression algorithms on hydrological data from 431 river basins from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) data set. HydroZIP compresses using temporal dependencies and parametric distributions. Resulting file sizes are interpreted as measures of information content, complexity and model adequacy. These results are discussed to illustrate points related to learning from data, overfitting and model complexity.
STUDIES REGARDING THE WEAR OF THE TOOLS USED IN RUBBER REFINEMENT  [PDF]
Dan Dobrot?,,Alin Nioa??
Revista Fiabilitate si Durabilitate , 2011,
Abstract: The paper presents the results obtained in the study of tools wear that occurs when used in therefining of rubber and solutions to reduce the level of the wear. Thus the wear that occurs in this type of tool is adimensional one, but also one of corrosion cracking which results in a rapid removal of this type of tool fromuse.
Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma  [PDF]
Wendy W. J. van de Sande ,Ahmed H. Fahal,Michael Goodfellow,El Sheikh Mahgoub,Oliverio Welsh,Ed E. Zijlstra
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002918
Abstract: Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools.
Wear investigations of tools used in bone surgery  [PDF]
J. Marciniak,Z. Paszenda,M. Kaczmarek,J. Szewczenko
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2007,
Abstract: Purpose: The main aim of the work was evaluation of wear rate of surgical drills used in orthopaedic procedureswith the use of plate bone stabilizers.Design/methodology/approach: The authors proposed a wear evaluation methodology of surgical drill edges.The drill wear was evaluated on the basis of measurement of point angle (2 κ) and wear land (VBB i VBBmax).The measurements were recorded for preselected number of holes n drilled in a bovine femur. Furthermore,structure investigations and hardness tests of surgical drills were performed.Findings: The investigations revealed diverse wear of the surgical drills. The main mechanism was the wear ofthe chamfered corner and chisel edge of the drills.Research limitations/implications: The improvement of service life of surgical drills can be achieved by thecorrect selection of heat treatment parameters, ensuring the desired geometry of edge and deposition of layerwhich ensure the significant increase of cutting edge hardness.Originality/value: The proposed methodology applied for surgical drills is an effective way of service lifeestimation. The quality of surgical tools influences the safety and the effectiveness of surgical procedures withthe use of plate stabilizers.
Maximum entropy production: can it be used to constrain conceptual hydrological models?
M. C. Westhoff,E. Zehe
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-9-11551-2012
Abstract: In recent years, optimality principles have been proposed to constrain hydrological models. The principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) is one of the proposed principles and is subject of this study. It states that a steady state system is organized in such a way that entropy production is maximized. However, within hydrology, tests against observations are still missing. The aim of this paper is to test the MEP principle to reduce equifinality of a simple conceptual (bucket) model. We used the principle of maximizing power, which is equivalent to MEP when a constant temperature is assumed. Power is determined by multiplying a flux with its gradient. We thus defined for each flux in the model a gradient and checked if parameter sets that maximize power also reproduce the observed water balance. Subsequently we concluded that with the used model concept, this does not work. It would be easy to reject the MEP hypothesis to explain our findings, but we believe that our test is incomplete. By referring to the flaws in our own model concept, we believe that many issues can be learned about how to use MEP to constrain hydrological models. Among others, the most important are: (1) fluxes should be defined as a gradient divided by a resistance, where the flux feeds back on the gradient; (2) there should be a trade-off between two or more different fluxes, where, in principle, only one resistance can be optimized and (3) each process should have the right degrees of freedom: what are the feedbacks on this flux and what limits the flux?
Medicinal Plants Used by Raji Ethnic Tribe of Nepal in Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders  [PDF]
Lal Bahadur Thapa,Til Maya Dhakal,Raghunath Chaudhary,Himanchal Thapa
Our Nature , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/on.v11i2.9645
Abstract: A total of 43 plant species belonging to 40 genera and 29 families have been recorded as medicinal plants used traditionally by Raji people of Nepal for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Different parts of medicinal plants in different forms were reported to be used for treatment of 16 types of gastrointestinal disorders. The traditional healers and elderly people were well experienced in traditional method of using medicinal plants but they were worried about negligence of people towards such traditional use of valuable medicinal plants. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/on.v11i2.9645 Our Nature 2013, 11(2): 177-186
Ethnobotany of Arghakhanchi District, Nepal: Plants used in dermatological and cosmetic disorders  [PDF]
Mohan P. Panthi,Anant Gopal Singh
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v1i2.8199
Abstract: An attempt was made to explore, identify, and document medicinal plants used in dermatological and cosmetic disorders by the people of Arghakhanchi district of western Nepal. The study was conducted during 2006-2008 using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, informal interviews, and group discussion with traditional healers and persons of different age and occupation having knowledge about plants and plant based remedies. A total of 31 plant species belonging to 24 families were identified and documented. Arghakhanchi district has a rich repository of medicinal plants. The indigenous traditional knowledge has been transmitted orally for years is becoming extinct, with the introduction of modern and alternative facilities of treatments in the district. Hence, these traditional practices need proper documentation and this reinforces the need for screening new active compounds. These documented plant species may be used for development of new, cheep, and effective medicines in future.
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