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Evaluating Long-Term Annual Sediment Yield Estimating Potential of GIS Interfaced MUSLE Model on Two Micro-Watersheds
Saleh Arekhi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Use of an event scale MUSLE model for obtaining accurate long-term annual sediment yield estimates from micro-watersheds was evaluated. Such estimates are extremely important for designing appropriate soil/ water conserving measures. For easy extraction and inputting of model input parameters, the proposed model was interfaced to an Arc-View/Spatial Analyst geographic information system. Application of this GIS interfaced MUSLE model on two gauged (pine and oak forest) hilly micro-watersheds viz., Salla Rautella (0.47 km2) and Naula (0.42 km2), in Almora district of Uttaranchal, India showed that it could estimate annual sediment yields with absolute mean relative errors ranging between 12-14%. Even long-term average sediment yields for Salla Rautella (observed: 9.58 tons and estimated: 10.92 tons) and Naula: (Observed: 23.89 tons and estimated: 26.61 tons) micro-watersheds could be quite realistically simulated by the proposed model.
Annual sediment yield in sub-watersheds at upper reaches of Minjiang River: A simulation with SEDD model

YANG Meng,LI Xiu-zhen,HU Yuan-man,HE Xing-yuan,

应用生态学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Based on GIS, a sediment delivery distributed (SEDD) model was established to simulate the spatial patterns of annual soil water erosion and sediment yield in two sub-watersheds at the upper reaches of Minjiang River. The model was based on the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) for calculating the annual soil water erosion, and coupled with an equation for evaluating the sediment delivery ratio of each cell. The results showed that in most regions of the two sub-watersheds, erosion intensity was below high level. Similar spatial patterns of sediment delivery ratio and sediment yield were observed, i.e., being higher along river, and approached to zero in other regions. Most parts of eroded soil were deposited in the sub-watersheds during their transportation, and less than 5% of it reached the river. Shrub land and forestland were the most important sources of sediment yield, and the sum of their sediment yield occupied 70% of the total.
Quantitative Regionalization of W. Mujib-Wala Sub-Watersheds (Southern Jordan) Using GIS and Multivariate Statistical Techniques  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Nisrin Al-Shaikh
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2017.72010
Abstract: In arid and semi-arid watersheds, sustainable management of natural resources (i.e. land, water and ecological resources), and watershed management are crucial issues in applied morphometric studies. Geomorphometric parameters and their interrelationships are of paramount importance in characterizing the morphology, topography, geology and structure, hydrological potential, and geomorphic evolution of such catchments. An analysis of spatial characteristics and morphological development of the demarcated 76 sub-watersheds related to W. Mujib-Wala catchment, was carried out using ASTER DEM and GIS. Multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA), and Discriminant Analysis (DA), were also employed to assess different aspects of drainage networks, and their morphometric properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reduces the 22 morphometric parameters to five components, which explain 90.4% of total variance. The relationship of these components to the morphometric variables and to the individual sub-watersheds was evaluated, and then the degree of inter-correlation among the morphometric descriptors was explored. The 76 sub-watersheds were classified according to their individual relation to the components, and similarities in their morphometric characteristics. Regionalization of sub-watertsheds was achieved using hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA). The validity of the resultant cluster groups was tested statistically by means of Discriminant Analysis. The present investigation provides information which highlights the benefit of geomorphometric analysis and multivariate statistics in modeling hydrological responses: i.e., surface runoff and sediment yield, hydrological assessment, water resources planning, and watershed management. Furthermore, the results can be useful for soil and water conservation planning, and assessment of flash floods potential.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Under the watershed development project of the Ministry of Rural Development, many micro watersheds have been identified for development and management. However Government is handicapped inobtaining data on the performance of these programmes due to the absence of watershed performance studies. Rainfed agriculture is clearly critical to agricultural performance in India. Nonetheless, it is difficult to precisely quantify the overall importance of the sector. The widely quoted statistic is that 70% of cultivated area israinfed, implying that rainfed agriculture is more important than irrigated agriculture. In the present study two rainfed micro-watersheds namely Kolvan valley and Darewadi is taken as case study for performance monitoring using GIS and RS Techniques. An attempt has been made to highlight the role of GIS and RS in estimation of runoff from both the watersheds by SCS curve number method. The methodology developed for the research show that the knowledge extracted from proposed approach can remove the problem of performance monitoring of micro watersheds to great extent. Comparative performance of both micro watersheds having extreme rainfall conditions shows that in Darewadi micro watershed overall success rate is more than Kolvan valley.
The Applications of GIS in the Analysis of the Impacts of Human Activities on South Texas Watersheds  [PDF]
Edmund C. Merem,Sudha Yerramilli,Yaw A. Twumasi,Joan M. Wesley,Bennetta Robinson,Chandra Richardson
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8062418
Abstract: With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem.
Prioritization of W. Alarab Sub-Watersheds (North Jordan) for Conservation Measures Using RS, GIS, and Multi-Criteria Analysis  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Samer Nawaieh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.118059
Abstract: Soil erosion and high sediment flow are of eminent environmental concern in Wadi Alarab catchment, northern Jordan. The objective of this research is to conduct a prioritization scheme using RS, GIS, and multi-criteria analysis approach based on morphometric analysis, land use/land cover (LULC) change analysis, and soil loss modeling based on RUSLE model factors. ASTER GDEM and Arc GIS were utilized to delineate watersheds and extract the drainage networks using the Arc Hydro tool. Five basic morphometric parameters, five linear and five shape parameters, six LULC classes, and five soil erosion risk classes are applied to prioritize 13 sub-watersheds connected to W. Alarab basin. LANDSAT images were subjected to supervised classification (the Maximum Likelihood Method) to determine land use/cover changes and to establish the LULC map/layer. Soil erosion risk classes were estimated using the RULSE model. RULSE factors (R, K, L, S, C, and P) were calculated in a GIS environment, then multiplied together so as to estimate soil loss (ton·ha-1·yr-1) and to establish a soil erosion risk map for the entire watershed and the thirteen sub-watersheds. A GIS-based integration of the three layers compiled for each criterion reveals that six sub-watersheds (1, 5, 8, 9, 10, and 11) are categorized under low priority. Further, three sub-basins (4, 12, and 13) are fall under moderate priority, and four sub-basins (2, 3, 6, and 7) are designated as of high priority. It is obvious that 53.8% of these sub-basins must be prioritized immediately for soil and conservation measures. The validity of the achieved priority classes was tested statistically using Discriminant Analysis (DA), and the results showed that morphometric parameters, LULC analysis, and soil loss are accepted criteria for prioritization. These results are intended to help decision-makers to prepare reliable soil erosion management plans.
A Diffusion Wave Based Integrated FEM-GIS Model for Runoff Simulation of Small Watersheds  [PDF]
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.16047
Abstract: In this paper, an integrated model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has been presented for the runoff simulation of small watersheds. Interception is estimated by an exponential model based on Leaf Area Index (LAI). Philip two term model has been used for the estima-tion of infiltration in the watershed. For runoff estimation, diffusion wave equations solved by FEM are used. Interflow has been simulated using FEM based model. The developed integrated model has been applied to Peacheater Creek watershed in USA. Sensitivity analysis of the model has been carried out for various pa-rameters. From the results, it is seen that the model is able to simulate the hydrographs with reasonable ac-curacy. The presented model is useful for runoff estimation in small watersheds.
Estimation of runoff and sediment yield in the Redrock Creek watershed using AnnAGNPS and GIS
Tsou Ming-Shu,ZHAN Xiao-yong,
Tsou Ming-Shu
,ZHAN Xiao-yong

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2004,
Abstract: Sediment has been identified as a significant threat to water quality and channel clogging that in turn may lead to river flooding. With the increasing awareness of the impairment from sediment to water bodies in a watershed, identifying the locations of the major sediment sources and reducing the sediment through management practices will be important for an effective watershed management. The annualized agricultural non-point source pollution(AnnAGNPS) model and newly developed GIS interface for it were applied in a small agricultural watershed, Redrock Creek watershed, Kansas, in this pilot study for exploring the effectiveness of using this model as a management tool. The calibrated model appropriately simulated monthly runoff and sediment yield through the practices in this study and potentially suggested the ways of sediment reduction through evaluating the changes of land use and field operation in the model for the purpose of watershed management.
Prioritization of Sub-Watersheds in a Large Semi-Arid Drainage Basin (Southern Jordan) Using Morphometric Analysis, GIS, and Multivariate Statistics  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Ali Anbar, Nisreen Al-Shaikh, Haifa Almohammad, Sireen Alshawamreh, Manal Barghouthi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.94031
Abstract: GIS-based morphometric analysis was employed to prioritize the W. Mujib-Wala watershed southern Jordan. Seventy six fourth-order sub-watersheds were prioritized using morphometric analysis of ten linear and shape parameters. Each sub-watershed is prioritized by designated ranks based on the calculated compound parameter (Cp). The total score for each sub-basin is assigned as per erosion threat. The 76 sub-basins were grouped into four categories of priority: very high (12 sub-basins, 15.8% of the total), high (32 sub-watersheds, 42.1% of the total), moderate (25 sub-watersheds, 32.9% of the total), and low (7 sub-watersheds, 9.2% of the total). Sub-watersheds categorized as very high and high are subjected to high erosion risk, thus creating an urgent need for applying soil and water conservation measures. The relative diversity in land use practices and land cover, including variation in slope and soil types, are considered in proposing suitable conservation structures for sub-watersheds connected to each priority class. The adaptation of soil conservation measures priority-wise will reduce the erosivity effect on soil loss; while increasing infiltration rates; and water availability in soil profile. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduces the basic parameters and erosion risk parameters to three components, explaining 88% of the variance. The relationships of these components to the basic and erosion risk parameters were evaluated, and then the degree of inter-correlation among the morphometric parameters was explored. The verification of priority classes obtained through morphometric analysis was tested using Discriminant Analysis (DA). The results show a complete separation existing between the identified priority classes. Thus, soil erosion risk and geomorphic conditions are found entirely different from one class to another. The present results are intended to help decision makers to plan for efficient soil and water conservation measures to achieve future agricultural sustainability in the rainfed highlands of Jordan.
Simulation of Runoff and Sediment Yield for a Himalayan Watershed Using SWAT Model  [PDF]
Sanjay K. Jain, Jaivir Tyagi, Vishal Singh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.23031
Abstract: Watershed is considered to be the ideal unit for management of the natural resources. Extraction of water-shed parameters using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) and use of mathematical models is the current trend for hydrologic evaluation of watersheds. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) having an interface with ArcView GIS software (AVSWAT2000/X) was selected for the estimation of runoff and sediment yield from an area of Suni to Kasol, an intermediate watershed of Satluj river, located in Western Himalayan region. The model was calibrated for the years 1993 & 1994 and validated with the observed runoff and sediment yield for the years 1995, 1996 and 1997. The performance of the model was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to assess the capability of the model in simulating the run-off and sediment yield from the study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the daily and monthly runoff was obtained as 0.53 and 0.90 respectively for the calibration period and 0.33 and 0.62 respectively for the validation period. The R2 value in estimating the daily and monthly sediment yield during calibration was computed as 0.33 and 0.38 respectively. The R2 for daily and monthly sediment yield values for 1995 to 1997 was observed to be 0.26 and 0.47.
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