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Impact of irrigation in the command area of Bagmati Irrigation Project  [PDF]
Ananta Raj Dahal
Economic Journal of Development Issues , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ejdi.v15i1-2.11854
Abstract: As an agrarian economy Nepal, irrigation is most important to achieve economic development. This research analyzes the impact of Bagmati irrigation project (BIP) in the command area. A comparative study of the output, employment, income and other variables related to the irrigated and un-irrigated agricultural land within and outside the Bagmati irrigation project area has led to positive result. This study found that agricultural productivity increases from 19.32 percent to 102.78 percent in different crops. Likewise irrigation seems to have contributed to increase employment, investment, net income. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ejdi.v15i1-2.11854 Economic Journal of Development Issues Vol. 15 & 16 No. 1-2, pp. 1-14
Using Irrigation Scheduling to Increase Water Productivity of Wheat-Maize Rotation under Climate Change Conditions
El Afandi,Gamal; Khalil,Fouad A; Ouda,Samiha A;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392010000300015
Abstract: irrigation scheduling was used to increase water productivity of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)-maize (zea mays l.) rotation under two climate change scenarios. three wheat varieties and two maize hybrids were planted at in a 2-yr field experiment. cropsyst model was calibrated and validated for the collected field data, then was used to assess the impact of two climate change scenarios (a2 and b2) and three adaptation strategies (early sowing changing, irrigation schedule and the interaction between them) in the year of 2038s. the results revealed that a2 reduced yield more than b2 scenario for both crops. high yield reduction in wheat-maize rotation could be expected under climate change conditions, where wheat and maize yield will be reduced by an average of 41 and 56%, respectively. the most effective adaptation strategy for wheat was sowing 3 wk earlier and irrigation every 21 d, with irrigation water saving and no yield improvement under a2 scenario in both growing seasons. whereas under b2 scenario yield improvement by 2% occurred with 3% saving in the applied irrigation water in the 1st growing season and in the 2nd growing season yield could improved by 8% with less than 1% increase in the applied irrigation water and higher water productivity. changing irrigation schedule was an effective adaptation option for maize, where yield improvement could occur under both climate change scenarios in both growing seasons by up to 9% with less than 3% increase in the applied irrigation water and higher water productivity.
Crop production management practices as a cause for low water productivity at Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme
M Fanadzo, C Chiduza, P.N.S Mnkeni, L van der Stoep, J Steven
Water SA , 2010,
Abstract: Generally, smallholder irrigation schemes (SIS) in South Africa have performed poorly and have not delivered on their development objectives of increasing crop production and improving rural livelihoods. Limited knowledge of irrigated crop production among farmers has been identified as one of the constraints to improved crop productivity, but research that investigates the relationship between farmer practices and productivity is lacking. A monitoring study was therefore conducted at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme (ZIS) in the Eastern Cape to identify cropping systems and management practices used by farmers and to determine how these were related to performance. Evidence from 2 case studies showed that water management limited crop productivity. Irrigation application and system efficiencies were below the norm and irrigation scheduling did not take crop type and growth stage into account. Monitoring of 20 farmers over a 3-yr period showed that cropping intensity averaged only 48% and that the yields of the 2 main summer crops, grain maize (Zea mays L.) and butternut (Cucurbita moschata) averaged only 2.4 and 6.0 t ha-1, respectively. In addition to poor water management, other main constraints to crop productivity were inadequate weed and fertiliser management and low plant populations. The results indicated that a lack of basic technical skills pertaining to irrigated crop production among farmers was a possible cause of inadequate management. In this regard, it is expected that farmers could benefit from ‘back to basics’ training programmes in the areas of crop and irrigation water management. Research needs to focus on labour-saving production technologies, establishing farm-specific fertiliser recommendations, the identification and use of affordable sources of nutrients, as well as strategies to improve plant population in maize by preventing bird damage to newly-planted stands.
Potential productivity, yield gap, and water balance of soybean-chickpea sequential system at selected benchmark sites in India  [PDF]
Piara Singh,D Vijaya,K Srinivas,SP Wani
Journal of SAT Agricultural Research , 2006,
Abstract: Before any improvements to crop management practices are made, it is useful to know the potential yield of crops in the region of interest, and the gap between the potential yield and the actual yield obtained by the growers. This analysis helps to know the major factors causing the difference between the actual and the attainable yield for a given site. Under the Asian Development Bank (ADB)-supported project on integrated watershed management we carried out such analysis for soybean-chickpea sequential system for the regions where the project is operational. We used CROPGRO models of soybean and chickpea to determine the yield potential (water-limited yields) and yield gap of the two crops for several sites within the soybean production zones of India. The simulation study showed that the average potential productivity of the soybean-chickpea sequential system under rainfed situation ranged from 1390 to 4590 kg ha-1 across sites. The current level of productivity of the system across sites ranges from 970 to 1780 kg ha-1. The yield gap of 200 to 3300 kg ha-1 for the system indicates the potential to increase productivity with improved management under rainfed situation. However, higher increases in yields would be possible in good rainfall years or with supplemental irrigation. Water balance analysis showed that 35 to 70% of rainfall was used by the crop as evapotranspiration, whereas 25 to 40% was lost as surface runoff indicating the need for water harvesting for supplemental irrigation or to recharge the groundwater in the target region. Various constraints limiting crop yields in these regions have been highlighted. It is suggested that location-specific integrated approaches would be needed to bridge the yield gap of the predominant crops grown in the target regions.
An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation
Mohammad K Moslemi, Mojtaba Rajaei
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S13525
Abstract: n improved delivery system for bladder irrigation Original Research (5834) Total Article Views Authors: Mohammad K Moslemi, Mojtaba Rajaei Published Date September 2010 Volume 2010:6 Pages 459 - 462 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S13525 Mohammad K Moslemi1, Mojtaba Rajaei2 1Department of Urology, 2Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran Introduction: Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. Materials and methods: In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. Results: In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two-fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse effects such as bladder perforation due to our high-pressure, high-flow system. Conclusion: A pressurized irrigant system has better visualization during endourologic procedures, and prevents clot formation after open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB without any adverse effects.
Improving the water productivity of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation through water saving irrigation treatments  [PDF]
Joko Sujono, Naoki Matsuo, Kazuaki Hiramatsu, Toshihiro Mochizuki
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.24066
Abstract: Rice grows well under certain condition and environment including soil, water and nutrients. Some researches have shown that traditional method with continues flooding need tremendeous amount of water for rice cultivation and gives low water productivity. To increase the water productivity, number of water saving irigation techniques have been studied and applied. Study on effect of number of water irrigation treatments on water productivity of rice was carried out. Eight irrigation treatments were conducted for growing rice in pot experiment i.e. shallow intermittent irrigation (SII), alternate wetting and drying (AWD1, AWD2, AWD3 and AWD4), shallow water depth with wetting and drying (SWD1 and SWD2), and semi-dry cultivation (SDC). The performance of those treatments in terms of agronomic and water parameters was compared to the shallow intermittent irrigation as a control method. The study reveals that the shallow intermittent irrigation needs the highest amount of water compare with other treatments. The lowest amount of water was achieved under the semi-dry cultivation. It could save water up to 18.4% compare to the control treatment. By using the alternate wetting and drying and the shallow water depth with wetting and drying treatments, irrigated water can be reduced up to 13.1% and 5.4%, respectively. The highest grain was obtained by alternate wetting and drying (AWD4) and the semi-dry cultivation yielded the smalest grain. On average the alternate wetting and drying and shallow water depth with wetting and drying increased the grain yield by 22.9% and 17.9%, whereas the semi-dry cultivation reduced the yield up to 14% compare to the shallow water depth treatment. The alternate wetting and drying treatments have significantly improved the water productivity by 41.6%, shallow water depth with wetting and drying increased by 24.2% relative to the shallow intermittent irrigation treatment, whereas the most saving water treatment i.e. the semi-dry cultivation performed quite similar with the shallow water depth treatment, as a result of low grain yields under the treatment.
Analysis of cotton water productivity in Fergana Valley of Central Asia  [PDF]
J. Mohan Reddy, Shukhrat Muhammedjanov, Kahramon Jumaboev, Davron Eshmuratov
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.36100
Abstract: Cotton water productivity was studied in Fergana Valley of Central Asia during the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Data was collected from 18 demonstration fields (13 in Uzbekistan, 5 in Tajikistan). The demonstration field farmers implemented several improved agronomic and irrigation water management practices. The average values of crop yield, estimated crop consumptive use (ETa) and total water applied (TWA) for the demonstration sites were, respectively, 3700 kg/ha, 6360 m3/ha, and 8120 m3/ha. The range of values for TWA and ETa were, respectively, 5000 m3/ha to 12,000 m3/ha and 4500 m3/ha to 8000 m3/ha. A quadratic relationship was found between TWA and ETa. The average yield of the adjacent fields was 3300 kg/ha, whereas the average yield of cotton in Fergana Valley as a whole was 2900 kg/ha, indicating 28% and 14% increase in crop yield, respectively, from, demonstration fields and adjacent fields. There was no significant difference in crop yields between the wet years (2009 and 2010) and the dry year (2011), which is explained by the quadratic relationship between TWA and ETa. The water productivity values ranged from 0.35 kg/m3 to 0.89 kg/m3, indicating a significant potential for improving water productivity through agronomic and irrigation management interventions. The ratio of average ETa divided by average TWA gave an average application efficiency of 78% (some fields under-irrigated and some fields over-irrigated), the remaining 22% of water applied leaving the field. Since more than 60% of the water used for irrigation in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan is pumped from, even if all this 22% of water returns to the stream, substantial energy savings would accrue from improving the average application efficiency at field level. The range of values for TWA indicates the inequity in water distribution/accessibility. Addressing this inequity would also increase water productivity at field and project level.
An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation
Mohammad K Moslemi,Mojtaba Rajaei
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2010,
Abstract: Mohammad K Moslemi1, Mojtaba Rajaei21Department of Urology, 2Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranIntroduction: Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes.Materials and methods: In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases.Results: In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two-fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse effects such as bladder perforation due to our high-pressure, high-flow system.Conclusion: A pressurized irrigant system has better visualization during endourologic procedures, and prevents clot formation after open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB without any adverse effects. Keywords: cystoscopy, drainage, pressure, open prostatectomy, sphygmomanometer, transurethral lithotripsy, transurethral resection, prost
IMPACT OF IRRIGATION ON AGRICULTURE PRODUCTIVITY IN SOLAPUR DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA STATE
Todkari G.U.
International Journal of Agriculture Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Irrigation is identified as a decisive factor in Indian agriculture due to high variability and inadequacy of rainfall. Irrigation is essential for successful agriculture particularly in the area, where rainfall is inadequate uncertain, and unpredictable. These areas are prone to drought and famine condition due to partial failure and delayed arrival or early withdrawal of monsoon. Importance of irrigation has substantially increased after the adoption of High yielding varieties in developing countries. Irrigation is basic determinants of Agriculture because its inadequacies are the most powerful constraints on increase of Agricultural production. In the study region the variation of an annual rainfall from year to year is fairly large. The rainfall is irregular and uncertain in the Study region, here agriculture is gamble with monsoon. If rainfall is scare it results into crop failure. For the assure agriculture production irrigation is most important factor. There fore attempt is made here to examine the impact of irrigation on agriculture productivity in Solapur district.
Influence of Supplemental Irrigation and Applied Nitrogen on Wheat Water Productivity and Yields  [cached]
Aliasghar Montazar,Maliheh Mohseni
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v3n1p78
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted for three growing seasons to study the effects of seasonal water use and applied N fertilizer on yield attributes and water productivity indices of wheat in an arid region of Iran. The results revealed that yield attributes were significantly affected by irrigation and nitrogen treatments and year, and their interactions. Crop height, maximum leaf area index and biological yields were increasingly affected by the available water and N fertilizer. The findings indicated that the grain yield response to N was associated with water application levels. The water productivity indices were influenced by irrigation strategies and deficit irrigation effectively boosted productivity of irrigation water (WI). The highest WI was obtained at a seasonal irrigation water of 156 mm for different levels of applied nitrogen. For levels of applied N1 (application 70% of the required nitrogen), N2 (required nitrogen), and N3 (application 120% of the required nitrogen), WI ranged between 0.93 and 2.28, 1.30 and 2.75, and 0.98 and 2.47 kg m-3, respectively. The data generated here suggest that under deficit irrigation, maximum water productivity (WET) would be achieved when 98 kg N ha?1 is combined with a 156 mm of supplemental irrigation. In this seasonal water use, WET value may be increased to 30% with N appropriate practice (practice N2). Consequently, when limited irrigation water is combined with N fertilizer appropriate management, wheat water productivity can be substantially and consistently increased in the region.
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