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Bee flora in mid hills of Central Nepal  [PDF]
Subodh Adhikari,Nar B Ranabhat
Botanica Orientalis: Journal of Plant Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/botor.v8i0.5558
Abstract: Beekeeping is one of the promising ventures for economically poor families in Nepal. Knowledge about the bee flora of a certain area is very crucial for the farmers. A study was conducted in mid hills of Central Nepal during 2003-04 and 2008-09 to monitor the common plant species visited by bees with their visiting time and seasons. The flowering period of those plant species were also observed. Observations were made on the bees’ activities on flowers of different plant species. Relevant information was also collected through informal key informant interviews. The plant species visited by the bees and the bee species (mainly Apis cerena with some Apis melifera ) themselves were collected, preserved and identified. Plants were categorized as major, medium and minor sources of pollen and/or nectar. The pollen and nectar statuses in different plants were also determined. A total of 158 plant species were identified as main bee flora in the study area. Among them, 19 species were horticultural plants, 42 species were crop plants, 15 species were ornamental plants and 82 species were wild plants. In total, 38 species were recognized as major, 35 as medium and 30 as minor sources for both nectar and pollen. Months from March to May and August to October were the honey flow periods. Species of Brassica, Citrus, Pyrus, Berberis, Rubus, Callistemon, Bombox and Artemisia were some of the important plants which bloomed during those months. Winter (mid November to January) and rainy (June and July) seasons were identified as the dearth periods for bees to collect honey. Some of the plants that bloom during winter were Pisum sativum, Ipomoea batata and Eupatorium sp. Similarly, Lagerstroemia sp . , Impatiens balsamina , Sesamum indicum , Zea mays and many cucurbits bloomed during rainy season. Study has shown that mid-hills of Central Nepal is rich in bee flora and has great potential for beekeeping as many plants bloomed even in dearth periods. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/botor.v8i0.5558 Botanica Orientalis – Journal of Plant Science (2011) 8: 45-56
Yield Interactions of Wheat Genotypes to Dates of Seeding in Eastern Mid Hills of Nepal
Rudra Bhattarai, Bedanand Chaudhary, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa, Ramesh Raj Puri, Ram Nath Chaudhary, Bibek Sapkota, Kiran Baral, Shukra Raj Shrestha and Surya Prasad Adhikari
Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council , 2015,
Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major cereal crops and staple food sources in Nepal. Wheat varieties being popular in mid hill regions are still in the early stages of adoption. Identification of appropriate date of seeding plays important role in enhancing the adoption rate ensuring the sustainable production. Therefore, three dates viz 15th November, 1st and 15th December for seeding and twenty eight wheat genotypes were evaluated in a split plot design with two replications for two consecutive seasons in 2011/12 and 2012/13 at an altitude of 2200 masl of eastern Nepal. The results showed genetic differences and interaction effect of genotypes with the dates of sowing on grain yield, panicle length and effective tillers per square meter. The wheat sown on 1st December showed the highest yield as compared to other sown dates. Similarly, WK1907, WK1911, WK1803, WK1915, WK1909, WK1714 and WK1803 produced highest yield among the tested genotypes with retaining maximum number of effective tillers and posed suitable maturity across all sowing date.
Impact of Mulching on Wheat Yield and Weed Floras in the Mid-hills of Nepal  [PDF]
Jagat D. Ranjit,Robin Bellinder,Julie Lauren,John M. Doxhbury
Nepal Agriculture Research Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11638
Abstract: Studies on the effect of mulching and weed management strategies in wheat? were initiated at Khumaltar during the winter season of 2000-2002. The? treatments were weedy check, handweed alone, post emergence application? of sulfosufuron, and NPK application together with or without mulching.? Rice straw mulch was applied at the rate of 4 t/ha. Phalaris minor,? Alopecuros sp., Chenopodium album, Rumex crispus, Polygonum? hydropiper, Stellaria media, Cannabis sativa, and Soliva anthemifolia were? the dominant species. Among them, C. album, P. minor and Alopecuros? aqualis were the dominant species. The effect of mulching was seen six? weeks after wheat planting. The weedy check with mulch suppressed the? weeds about fifty percent compared to that of without mulching. Wheat? yields together with yield attributing characters were also higher in the? treatments with straw mulch. Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009, pp. 21-26 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/narj.v9i0.11638 ?
Determinants of Adoption and Extent of Agricultural Intensification in the Central Mid-hills of Nepal  [cached]
Nani Raut,Bishal K. Sitaula,Arild Vatn,Giridhari S. Paudel
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v4n4p47
Abstract: This study analyzed the adoption and extent of agricultural intensification at household level in Ansikhola watershed in mid-hills. Structured questionnaire survey of 310 households, key informants interviews and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect the necessary information. The results revealed that 63% of the sampled households were practicing AI, with differences in the area under cropping intensification. The binary logistic regression model carried out to determine the factors influencing the adoption of AI, indicated five significantly influencing variables to the adoption process, namely, irrigation facility, higher crop yield, landholding size, access to credit and distance to market for chemical fertilizer purchase. Likewise, the Linear Regression performed to find out the determinants of the extent of AI revealed three significantly influencing variables, namely, total amount of fertilizer application, net income from cereals and vegetables and distance to chemical fertilizer store. The results of this study could help in formulating policies based on farmers’ need, interest, capacity and limitation in promoting sustainable AI.
On-farm evaluation of upland rice genotypes at Bajhang district, mid western hills of Nepal  [PDF]
BR Ojha
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7525
Abstract: A set of eight rice ( Oryza sativa L.) genotypes in upland condition were evaluated in Bhajhang district. They were compared with popular local and standard check varieties of upland rice with an objective of selecting them to be suited to Bhajhang and similar agro-ecological domains. The genotypes included were; Tauliya, Chhomroung, Kalo Nathre, Rato Ghaiya, Pakhe Jhinuwa, Radha- 32, IR78877-208-B-1-2, and CT- 65110-24-1-1. They were evaluated in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replication at Rayal VDC-3, Deura, Bajhang, Nepal during 2010 upland paddy growing season. Highly significant variation was observed for traits recorded. Grain yield ranged from 2.1 kg/plot (Radha- 32 and Rato Ghaiya) to 0.52 kg/plot (Pakhe Jhinuwa). Radha- 32 and Rato Ghaiya were found superior to Local checks. Likewise, significant variation was also observed in the morpho-physiological traits such as days to anthesis and days to maturity which varied from 100 days (Tauliya) to 114 days (CT 65110-24-1-1) and 126 days (Tauliya) to 148 days (CT 65110-24-1-1), respectively. Genotype Tauliya was early maturing while CT 65110-24-1-1 was late maturing one. There was a variation in grain filling period which ranged from 24 days (Pakhe Jhinuwa) to 36 days (Chhomroung and IR 78877-208-B-1-2) after anthesis to physiological maturity. Similarly, significant variation was also recorded for plant height, panicle length, and peduncle length. Highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.85, 0.69, 0.54 and 0.83) was found for panicle length, peduncle length, grain filling period and numbers of grains/panicle with grain yield. Likewise, significant positive correlation was found between days to maturity and grain filling duration (0.81), numbers of grains/panicle and panicle length (0.81), 1000 seeds weight, and grain filling duration (0.53). The result of the study revealed that Radha- 32 and Rato Ghaiya were found as the best genotypes so far as farmers and breeders are concerned in the tested site of Bajhang. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7525 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.102-110
Simulating farm income under the current soil management regime in the mid-hills of Nepal  [PDF]
Gopal Datt Bhatta,Nilhari Neupane
Himalayan Journal of Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/hjs.v6i8.3243
Abstract: Farmers in the mid-hills of Nepal follow diverse farming systems. The peri-urban area of this region, where population density is higher, faces several problems in farming. While hills suffer from erosion because they are erodible, the peri-urban areas face the problem of decline in factor productivity, particularly in intensively cultivated farmlands. The present study is concerned with simulating farm income on a regional scale based on soil management practices. Spatial explicit simulation shows that the loss of farm income due to degradation is substantially higher in hills while it is lower in valley bottoms. Strategy formulation and testing in the spatial environment indicates that Geographic Information System is an appropriate methodological tool for simulating the consequences of particular interventions.
Participatory variety slection of cold tolerant rice in the western hills of Nepal  [PDF]
TB Karki, KB Koirala, SB BK
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7545
Abstract: To verify and up scale promising cold tolerant rice genotypes in the western hills, participatory variety selection (PVS) activities viz; coordinated farmer’s field trials (CFFTs), FFTs prepared from Lumle , farmers’ acceptance tests (FATs), larger plot demonstrations, and upscaling activities were conducted during 2008 to 2009. Yield and yield related parameters considering farmers’ preferences were also recorded and analyzed for PVSs under FATs. In 2008, genotypes NR10481-B-11-1-1-1, NR10479-B-33-2-1-1 and NR10482-B-10-3-2-2 had been preferred by farmers because of high grain yield and desired parameters. In 2008, grain yield of Machapuchhre-3, Chhomrong Dhan, and Lumle 5- 2 over yielded Farmers’ Local (2.2 mt/ha) by 83, 89 and 81%, respectively whereas in 2009, grain yield increment of Machapuchhre- 3, Chhomrong Dhan, Lumle- 2, and Chandannath-3 over Farmers’ Local (2.1 t/ha ) was 98 %, 97%, 1078% and 49 %, respectively. Farmers of upper high hills (>2000-m) and high hills (1500-2000-m) preferred Chandannath-3, Machapuchhre- 3, and Chhomrong Dhan while Lumle-2 was liked by farmers of mid hills (1000-1500-m ). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7545 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.74-79
Response of Pole Type French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes to Sowing Dates in the Mid Hills of Western Nepal  [PDF]
YR Pandey,DM Gautam,RB Thapa,MD Sharma,KP Paudyal
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v13i2.7708
Abstract: Three pole-type French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes (Four season, Trishuli & Makwanpur) were sown in different three dates, i.e., August 16, 31 and September 15 during autumn seasons of 2010 and 2011 at the Agriculture Research Station, Malepatan, Pokhara (848 msl) to assess the fresh pod yield and yield attributes of the genotypes in different dates of sowing. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. The temperature ranged from 14° to 32°C during the growth period. The results showed significant variations in fresh pod yield and yield attributes. Flowering was earlier in Makwanpur genotype. About 50% plants flowered within 39 days in Makwanpur while it took more than 48 days for Trishuli. Tallest plants were produced by Makwanpur (271.7 cm) and shortest by Trishuli (256.2 cm). The pod length was highest (18.34 cm) in Four season and lowest in Makwanpur (15.07 cm). Pod width was highest in Trishuli (9.04 mm) and lowest in Makwanpur (7.10 mm). Highest fresh pod yield was produced by Four season (25.08 t/ha) followed by Makwanpur (23.11t/ha) and the lowest by Trishuli (19.97 t/ha). Sowing date also showed significant effect on yield and yield attributes. Earliest sowing (16 August) showed better results in early flowering (42.63 days), tallest plants (280.4 cm), longest pods (18.51 cm), widest pods (9.21 mm) and the highest fresh pod yield (31.13 t/ha) than 31 August and 15 September sown conditions. Fresh pod yield was highest in 16 August sown (31.13 t/ha) followed by 31 August (21.74 t/ha) and lowest in 15 September (15.29 t/ha). Four season sown on 16 August produced the highest fresh pod yield with an average of 35.35 t/ha. The result revealed that Four season is the best genotype and mid August is the appropriate sowing time for higher fresh pod yield of French bean in the mid hills of western Nepal. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 13, No. 2 (2012) 15-20 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v13i2.7708
Living knowledge of the healing plants: Ethno-phytotherapy in the Chepang communities from the Mid-Hills of Nepal
Arun Rijal
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-4-23
Abstract: The close and traditional dependence of many indigenous and local communities on biological resources and its importance in conservation and development is now being recognised widely. The growing appreciation of the value of traditional knowledge is due to its importance to development, conservation and other wide range of uses also for other people than those who are traditionally dependent on it [1-4].Traditional knowledge that built upon the long experiences of people was adopted in social, economic, environmental, spiritual and political practices. Since traditional knowledge is developed through a long trail and error, this could guide search for new drugs. Together with the recognition of importance of traditional knowledge, serious concern about the loss of knowledge could be observed in last few years throughout the world [4,5].Chepangs lived a semi-nomadic life, more dependent on the forests. They have generated enormous knowledge on a large number of plants species on which they have depended for centuries. Due to this, forests were most important resources for them in terms of food, fibre, medicine, housing materials, fodder and various other needs [6,7]. The loss of knowledge could also threat the existing balance between these people and natural environment.Despite many studies on various uses of plants a large number of plants and associated traditional uses still wait proper documentation [8]. This is perhaps because of the fact that these studies do not fully represent the wide range of environments in Nepal, where topography has created diverse ecological niches for species and stirred localized cultural constructions. In Chepang areas also documentation of ethonobotanical knowledge was limited to a few medicinal plants [9,10]. This study helped to document knowledge of several medicinal herbs use including many new reports for Nepal.There are approximately 52,000 Chepangs in 2000 [11] and their habitats are quite identical and found along the Tris
Evaluation of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) Genotypes under Rainfed Mid Hill Environments of Nepal  [PDF]
S. R. Upadhyay,D. B. Gurung,D. C. Paudel,K. B. Koirala,S. N. Sah,R. C. Prasad,B. B. Pokhrel,R. Dhakal
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2803
Abstract: Maize ( Zea mays L.) is the second most important staple food crop after rice and a major food crop of the resource poor people in the hills of Nepal. Prevailing normal maize (non-QPM) is deficient in two essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. The majority of hill farm families are suffering from protein malnutrition as their major diet is maize and cannot afford animal protein. QPM contains opaque-2, a single gene mutation that alters the protein composition of the endosperm portion and nearly double the essential amino acids concentrations than the normal maize grain. The biological value of protein in QPM maize is about 80%, that of milk is about 90% and in normal maize (non-QPM) is about 45% only. A series of experiments were conducted in RCB Design during 2004/2005 summer season and superior genotypes selected and promoted from Observation Nurseries to IYT and CVT (Coordinated Varietal Trial) respectively. CVTs were evaluated across mid-hills of Nepal. Based on four environmental mean results in CVT: the genotype S99TLWQ- HG-AB (QPM maize) produced the highest mean grain yield (4899 kg ha -1 ) followed by Population 44 C 10 (4552 kg ha -1 ) and Manakamana-3 (4436 kg ha -1 ) respectively. However, most of the tested QPM genotypes were at par with improved check for grain yield production and significantly highest grain yielder than the farmres’ variety (local check). Concluding results revealed that the genotype S99 TLWQ-HG-AB performed very well across the mid hills. Findings of the present study will help to reduce protein malnutrition problem in the hills of Nepal. Key words: GGE-biplot; Genotype x environment interaction; Normal maize; Open pollinated varieties (OPV); Quality protein maize (QPM). DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2803 Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Volume 10, 2009 December Page: 9-14
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