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ISO 2789 and ISO 11620: Short Presentation of Standards as Reference Documents in an Assessment Process  [cached]
Pierre-Yves Renard
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show how international standards dealing with library statistics and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and others projects which are still under development) can be used as reference documents and strategic tools in a performance assessment process. The task is not an easy one, because it requires linking up somewhat complex entities such as the standardization work characteristics, the capacity of statistics to account for reality and, lastly, the variety and speed of libraries’ advancement. Nevertheless, ISO 2789 (International Library Statistics) and ISO 11620 (Performance indicators for libraries), which are based on an international consensus of experts, take into account, as much as possible, the recent evolutions in library structures and services. In addition, they are related to classical and shared assessment models. So, although their aim is not to draw up an assessment framework, they reveal themselves useful for basic operations in such a framework: to define objects and services, and to classify, count and build appropriate indicators. Moreover, as the issue of quantifying and promoting intangible assets becomes a concern in the public sector, these standards can be seen as a first attempt to define library resources and services as such intangible assets. Finally, the challenge of forthcoming evolutions of these standards is the ability to stay up-to-date in a very quickly evolving context. More precisely, the increase in the usability of these standards must be based on an ongoing search for more consistent data and relevant indicators. The question of improvement of the general design of the statistics and indicators standards family should also be addressed.
The impact of ISO/TS 16949 on automotive industries and created organizational capabilities from its implementation  [cached]
Bakhtiar Ostadi,Mohammad Aghdasi,Reza Baradaran Kazemzadeh
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.3926/jiem..v3n3.p494-511
Abstract: ISO/TS 16949 is an ISO Technical Specification. ISO/TS 16949 achieves the objectives which are continually to improve the production of automobile parts and related services, and to strengthen the international competition for the automotive industry and its suppliers. By applying this quality system standard, automotive manufacturers could offer superior products and good services to customers. The more the companies know about the benefits if quality management systems such as ISO/TS 16949, better they can seek interest and determine indices of these systems. So, this standard has been implemented in companies considering a number of benefits. In this paper, we carry out an empirical study in order to verify the importance these benefits and ranking them based on the value of importance. Finally, the study tends to provide a reference guide considering benefits assessment and created organizational capabilities from this standard for the automotive industry in pursuing ISO/TS 16949 and procuring maximum benefit from the results.
Time and Place Calibration of the Hargreaves Equation for Estimating Monthly Reference Evapotranspiration under Different Climatic Conditions  [cached]
Houshang Ghamarnia,Vahid Rezvani,Erfan Khodaei,Hossein Mirzaei
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n3p111
Abstract: The standardized FAO-56 Penman–Monteith (PM) equation requires a great number of input parameters that are difficult to record. The Hargreaves method is another approach. It has high accuracy, while it requires fewer input parameters. In the present study, the Hargreaves-Samani method was calibrated by the PM equation under different climate conditions, in the western Iran. Different correction coefficients were used for each station under study instead of the constant coefficient 0.0023 in the Hargreaves equation based on monthly and annual scales. The corrected coefficients obtained for different regions can be used to estimate ETo for the PM method under the same climates where reliable data are available. The results also showed that as a larger study area with more weather stations is used and a larger amount of data is obtained, the coefficient of 0.0023 in the Hargreaves equation does not need further corrections for local calibration purposes.
Design and Simulation of UPQC by Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Considering Loading of Series and Shunt Inverters  [PDF]
Y. Mohamadrezapour,M.B. Bana Sharifian,M.R. Feyzi,S.H. Hosseini
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is designed and simulated by synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed system is comprised of series and shunt inverters which can compensate the sag, swell and unbalance voltage, harmonics and also the reactive power. PI controller is used to stabilize DC link voltage and balance the active power between the shunt and series inverters. The capacity of series and shunt inverters is calculated through loading calculations of these inverters applying phasor diagram to increase the design accuracy. The results of simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK software show that the system compensates current and voltage distortion correctly.
Estimación de evapotranspiración de referencia a nivel mensual en venezuela: Cuál método utilizar? Estimation of monthly reference evapotranspiration in Venezuela: Which method to be used?
Ricardo Trezza
Bioagro , 2008,
Abstract: La determinación de las necesidades de riego de los cultivos se basa en la estimación precisa de la evapotranspiración de referencia (ETo) de cada zona en particular, y a su vez, las posibles alternativas para la estimación están sujetas a la limitación de la información meteorológica existente en cada país. En este trabajo se analizaron varias metodologías disponibles para realizar estimaciones de ETo a nivel mensual en Venezuela a partir de la información de estaciones meteorológicas ubicadas en diferentes regiones del país. Se encontró que los procedimientos más aplicables para estas condiciones climáticas son los incluidos en la publicación de la FAO-56, especialmente el método de FAO Penman-Monteith. La ecuación de Thornthwaite no resultó apropiada, ni tampoco las ecuaciones de la publicación FAO-24 como son la de Radiación y la de Penman-modificada, debido a que sobrestiman considerablemente los valores de ETo. El método de Blaney-Criddle puede aplicarse en zonas de baja altitud cuando sólo se cuente con datos de temperatura media del aire. El método de Hargreaves presentó potencial para su aplicación debido a que sólo utiliza información de temperatura máxima y mínima del aire, aunque requiere del cálculo de parámetros de ajuste climático para cada zona. The calculation of crop water needs is based on accurate estimate of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) for each particular zone, and in turn, the possible alternatives for estimations are subject to the limitation of meteorological information in each country. The purpose of this work was to analyze several available methodologies for the estimation of monthly reference evapotranspiration in Venezuela using meteorological data from different weather stations located in the country. It was found that the methodologies included in the publication FAO-56, particularly the Penman-Monteith, are the most applicable for the climatic conditions of the country. The Thornthwaite equation was not appropriate, nor the equations of the publication of FAO-24 such as Radiation and modified Penman, because they notably overestimate ETo. The method of Blaney-Criddle could be considered for low altitude regions when just mean air temperature data are available. The FAO-56 Hargreaves method has a potential for application due to it just needs minimum and maximum air temperature data, although requires the calculation of adjusting parameters for each region.
Terminologia de referência em enfermagem: a Norma ISO 18104
Marin, Heimar de Fátima;
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-21002009000400016
Abstract: this article describes the iso 18104 standard, published in 2003 by the international organization for standardization technical committee 215 (iso/tc). the standard consists of reference terminology model for nursing diagnoses and interventions. the reference terminology is an instrument that facilitates the mapping of several available terminologies, which promotes the integration of the healthcare information systems and electronic medical records.
Pulse Wave Velocity as Marker of Preclinical Arterial Disease: Reference Levels in a Uruguayan Population Considering Wave Detection Algorithms, Path Lengths, Aging, and Blood Pressure  [PDF]
Ignacio Farro,Daniel Bia,Yanina Zócalo,Juan Torrado,Federico Farro,Lucía Florio,Alicia Olascoaga,Walter Alallón,Ricardo Lluberas,Ricardo L. Armentano
International Journal of Hypertension , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/169359
Abstract: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American) population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV) disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender); asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects (=429) were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time). All subjects represented the “reference population”; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the “normal population.” Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes.
Pulse Wave Velocity as Marker of Preclinical Arterial Disease: Reference Levels in a Uruguayan Population Considering Wave Detection Algorithms, Path Lengths, Aging, and Blood Pressure  [PDF]
Ignacio Farro,Daniel Bia,Yanina Zócalo,Juan Torrado,Federico Farro,Lucía Florio,Alicia Olascoaga,Walter Alallón,Ricardo Lluberas,Ricardo L. Armentano
International Journal of Hypertension , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/169359
Abstract: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American) population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV) disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender); asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects ( ) were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time). All subjects represented the “reference population”; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the “normal population.” Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes. 1. Introduction Noninvasive assessment of arterial stiffness has been proposed for individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and early detection of vascular damage associated with hypertension and/or atherosclerosis [1–4]. Among the different noninvasive methods used to assess arterial stiffness the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) has emerged as a gold standard due to its accuracy, reproducibility, relative easy measurement, and low costs [3, 4]. Furthermore, PWV has yielded prognostic value beyond and above traditional risk factors [3, 4]. However, and in spite of its recognized value the evaluation of PWV in the clinical practice has been hampered among other factors by the absence of standardized methodologies of study and the lack of established normal/reference values for different populations [3–8]. PWV assessment involves measuring the pulse wave transit time along the analyzed arterial segment and the distance on the skin between the pulse wave recording sites. Therefore, PWV values depend on both the path length measurement and the algorithm used to detect “the foot” of the analyzed waves [4]. The algorithms most frequently used are the intersecting tangent algorithm
Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms  [PDF]
V. K. C. Venema,O. Mestre,E. Aguilar,I. Auer
Climate of the Past Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/cpd-7-2655-2011
Abstract: The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data. Training was found to be very important. Moreover, state-of-the-art relative homogenization algorithms developed to work with an inhomogeneous reference are shown to perform best. The study showed that currently automatic algorithms can perform as well as manual ones.
Research of Security Constrained Dispatching for Monthly Generation Plan  [PDF]
Rui Ge, Hai-chao Wang, Dun-nan Liu
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B118
Abstract:

The dispatching for monthly generation plan is to manage the congestion considering the security constrains of the power grid, where the monthly generation plan is the result of vary monthly power exchange, including long-term power contract, power exchange among provinces and generation constitution exchanges. The application of monthly security constrained dispatching is with significant meaning for the security and stability of power grid. This paper brings forward the purpose and contents of security dispatching and introduces the working procedure and mathematic models. At last, the practical example of the Anhui Province power grid is introduced to explain the models.

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