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Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Practices on Ebola Virus Disease in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Charles Zandoh, Edward Apraku Anane, Mahama Abukari, Francis Agbokey, Awurabena Q. Dadzie, Mathilda Tivura, Dennis Adu-Gyasi, Lawrence Gyabaa Febir, Kenneth A. Ae-Ngibise, Timothy Letsa, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814146
Abstract: This study describes community members’ knowledge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), their attitudes and preventive practices. A mixed methods approach was used. A random sample of 1028 community members aged 15 - 65 years was interviewed in a quantitative survey. This was complemented with a qualitative study involving 24 opinion leaders who were carefully selected. The study was conducted in Kintampo North and South districts of Ghana from August 2014 to October 2014. 83% of respondents had heard of EVD, but 62.5% did not know the duration between the time of infection and onset of clinical symptoms. The most popular symptom mentioned spontaneously was bleeding through body orifices (48.6%). Majority of respondents mentioned handshake or skin contact as a mode of transmission (57.3%) and reduced contact with bats as a means to prevent the spread of EVD (58.1%). Knowledge of transmission of body fluids such as faeces, blood or urine was low (<10%), though this varied significantly by socio-demographic group. Majority (94%) of respondents acknowledged that EVD was a serious disease, however, only 58% saw themselves at risk. Current preventive behaviours included: improved hand hygiene (83%) and avoidance of handshakes and physical contact with people (81%). Community members in the Kintampo districts have high level of awareness of EVD, but important gaps in knowledge of EVD still exist, especially concerning body fluids as a mode of transmission. There is the need to intensify educational messages as part of Ghana’s preparedness towards a potential EVD outbreak.
Clustering of childhood mortality in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Ghana
Obed Ernest A. Nettey,Charles Zandoh,Abubakari Sulemana,Robert Adda
Global Health Action , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v3i0.5258
Abstract: Background: Childhood mortality in Ghana has generally declined in the last four decades. However, estimates tend to conceal substantial variability among regions and districts. The lack of population-based data in Ghana, as in other less developed countries, has hindered the development of effective programmes targeted specifically at clusters where mortality levels are significantly higher. Objective: This paper seeks to test for the existence of statistically significant clusters of childhood mortality within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) between 2005 and 2007. Design: In this study, mortality rates were generated using mortality data extracted from the health and demographic surveillance database of the KHDSS and exported into STATA. The spatial and spatio-temporal scan statistic by Kulldorff was used to identify significant clusters of childhood mortality within the KHDSS. Results: A significant cluster of villages with high under-five mortality in the south-eastern part of the KHDSS in 2006 was identified. This is a remote location where poverty levels are relatively higher, health facilities are more sparse and these are compounded by poor transport services in case of emergencies. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential of the surveillance platform to demonstrate the spatial dimensions of childhood mortality clustering. It is apparent, though, that further studies need to be carried out in order to explore the underlying risk factors for potential mortality clusters that could emerge later.
ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTAINABLE COMMERCIAL FUELWOOD COLLECTION IN DAWADAWA AND KUNSU IN KINTAMPO NORTH DISTRICT OF GHANA  [PDF]
Raymond Aabeyir et al
The IIOAB Journal , 2011,
Abstract: This paper examines factors affecting sustainable commercial fuelwood collection in the Kintampo North District of Ghana for the purposes of sustainable woodland management and fuelwood collection. Over dependence on fuelwood collection for livelihood by the rural people in Kintampo North District leads to over exploitation of the woodlands in the area. This situation is a source of concern to managements of woodland and traditional energy sub-sector in the country. Biophysical and socio-economic factors contribute to woodland management in diverse ways: by hindering the exploitation of woodland thereby facilitating sustainable fuelwood collection; and by promoting exploitation of woodland. Focus group discussion was employed to identify factors affecting fuelwood collection in Dawadawa and Kunsu communities of Kintampo North District. Pair-wise comparison was used to rank the factors. Participatory mapping was used to map fuelwood collection sites for relating the collection sites to biophysical factors. Large tracks of land have been exploited at Dawadawa compared to Kunsu, mainly due to the type of land tenure system. Land tenure and low producer price of fuelwood were ranked first in Dawadawa and Kunsu respectively among the factors affecting commercial fuelwood collection. Current collection sites are over 24km and 10km respectively from settlements in Dawadawa and Kunsu. The land tenure system practised in Kunsu promotes effective management system for sustainable fuelwood collection in the Kintampo North District of Ghana; which can be adopted in the other districts of Ghana.
Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System
Seth Owusu-Agyei,Obed Ernest A. Nettey,Charles Zandoh,Abubakari Sulemana
Global Health Action , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v5i0.19033
Abstract: Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.
Analysis of the Processes behind Woodland Transition in Commercial Charcoal Producing Areas: A Case Study of Kintampo North District of Ghana
Raymond Aabeyir,William Oduro,Jonathan Arthur Quaye-Ballard
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study examined the processes behind woodlands transition in Dawadawa, a major charcoal producing community in the Kintampo North District (KND) of Ghana. It is argued that commercial charcoal production plays a significant role in woodland degradation because of the manner in which the trees are harvested. Such arguments are informed by simplistic analysis of land cover change because they focused on the change in quantity of the land cover excluding the processes behind the change in quantity in the analysis process. The study has demonstrated that focusing land cover analysis on solely the quantity of change is misleading since a large change in the quantity of a land cover type does not necessarily mean that the process initiating the change is systematic which has always been the assumption in conventional land cover change analysis. Image classification was applied to map land cover types in 2000 and 2007 and post-classification change detection technique was used to detect land cover change between the two timelines. The analysis of the processes of change was based on the changed matrix. The analysis of the processes of land covers change. This revealed that the transitions from riparian to woodland and bareland to shrubland have the largest ratio of 0.3; thus woodland and shrubland gained systematically from riparian and bareland respectively more than any of the other land cover types. Also, the transition of woodland to shrubland is random. The study concluded that the gap in systematic transition between woodland and shrubland is the cause of the worsening degradation of the woodland. It is recommended that woodland management should focus on shrubland to bridge the gap between the woodland and the shrubland in order to sustain the woodlands.
Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors: A Retrospective Study in the Kintampo Municipal Hospital, Ghana  [PDF]
Williams Walana, Patrick Hokey, Samuel Ahiaba
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41007
Abstract:
Background: Hepatitis B virus is one of the transfusion transmission infectious agents of public health relevance. Its prevalence varies across the globe. Establishing the sero-prevalence of the disease is critical to informing the direction of preventive and control strategies. Objective: The aim of this study therefore was to establish the hepatitis B surface antigen sero-prevalence among blood donors in the Kintampo municipality of Ghana. Methodology: This three-year hospital based retrospective study was conducted at the laboratory unit of the Kintampo Municipal Hospital. The laboratory uses one step immunochromatographic test kits to detect the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen in the sera of blood donors. Records on blood donors were reviewed for hepatitis B sero-positivity. Results: A total of 3402 blood donors were studied, out of which 3238 (95.2%) were males and 164 (4.8%) were females. The overall sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 9.6% (327/3402). Majority of the sero-positive donors were less than 40 years, with higher prevalence of 16.4% (35/214) in donors less than 20 years. The sero-prevalence in males and females was 9.7% (313/3238) and 8.5% (14/164) respectively. Conclusion: The Kintampo municipality has a relatively high prevalence of hepatitis B among blood donors. The probability of hepatitis B viral infection was age inclined as the youth seem to be at greater risk of contracting the disease.
Epidemiological Dynamics of a Bacterial Meningitis Outbreak in Two Districts in Northern Ghana
Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Gideon Kwarteng Acheampong
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102993
Abstract:
Background: The Northern region of Ghana experienced an outbreak of bacterial meningitis between December, 2015 and May, 2016 with majority of cases recorded in Bole and Sawla-Tuna-Kalba districts. The epidemiological features of this outbreak were explored in these two districts. Methods: Data on the meningitis outbreak that occurred in the Northern region of Ghana between December, 2015 and May, 2016 was obtained from the Ghana Health Service’s Department of Disease Surveillance. Specifically that on Sawla-Tuna-Kalba and Bole districts was extracted and analyzed. Results: Two different meningitis outbreaks occurred in two districts in Northern Region. Bole district had an outbreak due to S. pneumoniae while N. meningitids (N.m. W135) caused an outbreak in Sawla-Tuna-Kalba district. S. pneumoniae cases peaked earlier than N. meningitidis. The highest number of cases occurred in age groups 6-14 years followed by 15-44 years with deaths occurring in under 5 years and above 60 years. There was an association between outcome and age group, at a p value of 0.027. Conclusion: Bacterial meningitis due to S. pneumoniae is increasingly becoming a major cause of meningitis outbreaks in Ghana. The differential periods of onset of pneumococcus and meningococcus outbreaks suggest that climatic factors responsible for these two diseases may be different and therefore it is prudent for studies to be carried to define more specific weather conditions favoring the spread of these two diseases in Ghana. With the extreme age groups recording fatalities, there is the need to give children and the elderly more attention to mitigate the effects of any future outbreak.
Insects observed on cowpea flowers in three districts in the central region of Ghana
WHK Hordzi
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Globally, it has been estimated that more than 100,000 species of wild plants depend on insects for pollination and reproduction. In Africa, and for that matter Ghana, not much is known about crop pollinators, especially legumes such as cowpea. In Ghana, little is known about even insects that visit the cowpea flowers. However, if the insects that visit the cowpea flowers are known it would serve as a platform to investigate insects that can possibly cause pollination in cowpea. Hence, this study was undertaken to verify the types of insects that visit cowpea flowers in three districts in the Central Region of Ghana. As a result, insects that visited cowpea flowers on surveyed, and the researcher’s own established farms were observed on the petals, tip of the stigma and inside the flowers. Samples of insects collected were identified. Also, percentage frequency of occurrence of the insects on the various parts of the flowers was determined. Differences between total frequencies were determined using chi square (÷2) analysis. The main insects observed on the cowpea flowers were bees such as Apis mellifera, Ceratina sp, Megachile sp, Xylocopa calens, Xylocopa imitator, Braussepis sp., .Lipotriches sp., Melecta sp and Amegilla sp. and other insects, such as thrips, flies, butterflies / moths, beetles, and Dysdercus sp. Thrips were the insects most often observed on the cowpea flowers in the surveyed farms, followed by flies or dipterans, Lasioglossium sp and butterflies/moths. From the researcher’s own established farm, during the minor rainy season, the most active insect observed on the tip of stigmas of the flowers was Megachile sp whilst thrips, butterflies / moths, Lasioglossum sp. and flies were active on the petals of the flowers. The differences between the total frequencies were highly significant (÷2 = 154.61; P = 0.001). Indications are that Ceratina is most likely to be cowpea flower pest rather than a pollinator. However, further research into the role of Ceratina on cowpea flowers is recommended.
Adolescents’ Willingness and Intentions to Use Contraceptives in Rural Ghana  [PDF]
Sulemana Abubakari, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, George Adjei, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Robert Adda, Francis Dzabeng, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311029
Abstract: Efforts made to improve the availability and access to family planning services to adolescents in Ghana have not yielded the desired results. Adolescents in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area are no exception. This study explored contraceptive use intentions, preferences and their determinants among adolescents in rural Ghana. This was to contribute evidence towards achieving universal access to reproductive health. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect Sexual and Reproductive Health data in the Kintampo districts in 2011. A total of 1805 female adolescents were randomly sampled from a resident female adolescent population of 16,795. This study used intention and/or willingness of adolescents to use contraceptives as the outcome variable and the explanatory variables were demographic and socioeconomic factors. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were done. The findings indicated 54.3% of adolescents’ were willing to use contraceptives. Injectable was the most preferred contraceptive method among adolescents (48.6%); this was followed by the pill (29.6%) with the least being foam or jelly (0.2%). The most commonly cited reason for not intending to use contraception was adolescents’ opposition to family planning (31.5%) followed by a fear of side effects (25.8%). Age and education influenced adolescents’ willingness to use contraceptives in the future. Formal education of the young generation coupled with knowledge of contraceptive methods could yield positive outcomes for contraceptive use and ultimately reproductive health of the adolescent population in the near future.
Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical Assessment of Basin Granitoids in Assin and Breman Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Asare Asante- Annor, Joseph Acquah, Ebenezer Ansah
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.69004
Abstract: Hydrogeological and hydrochemical assessments were carried out in Assin and Breman districts of Ghana. A multi-criteria approach was used in the assessment of the basin granitoids including; electrical resistivity survey, pumping test and water quality analysis. A total of twenty-five (25) representative boreholes were drilled, developed and pumped; obtaining data for aquifer hydraulic parameters estimation. Correlation analysis was used to determine relationships that exist between aquifer hydraulic parameters. Schoeller, Piper, Stiff plot and Gibbs diagrams were used to determine the hydrogeochemical facies, water types and the mechanism that control groundwater quality. The statistical analysis determined that aquifer hydraulic parameters discharge rate (Q), hydraulic conductivity (K) and Transmissivity (T) showed a strong positive correlation with specific capacity (Q/Sw) with R value 0.8462, 0.8738 and 0.8332 respectively. The K and T were respectively between 0.02 - 0.90 m/day and 0.36 - 13.47 m2/day with mean of 0.24 m/day and 3.03 m2/day respectively. The K values indicate a hydrogeological condition of aquiclude with relatively low permeability and medium water bearing capacity. The aquifer T magnitude is very low to low, groundwater potential is adequate for local water supply with limited and private consumption. All physicochemical parameters were within the permissible limits of Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) except for apparent colour, pH, Fe and Mn. Distribution of major ions in groundwater samples was calculated and the general trend among cations and anions was found to be Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ and Cl > HCO3 > SO42 respectively. The study area shows five main water types namely; Ca-HCO3, Na-Mg-HCO3-SO4, Ca-SO4, Na-Cl and Mg-Na-Cl. Weathering of rock-forming minerals as the mechanism controlling the groundwater chemistry. Microbiological parameters were above the permissible limits. Groundwater is suitable for drinking after treatment with chlorination, aeration and slow sand filtration methods.
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