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Motorcycle Ban and its Economic Implications on Uyo Metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ikot, A. S.,Akpan, U. U.,Benson, P. J.,Etim, O. P.
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2011,
Abstract: This survey was conducted with the primary aim of assessing the Economic Implications of Motorcycle Ban in Uyo Metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire, personal observations and interviews; and analyzed using simple percentage and frequency counts. The population of the study comprised all tricycle operators in Uyo metropolis. Stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting one hundred respondents from the study area. The result revealed among others that though government has made tremendous efforts in tackling the problems of urban transportation within Uyo municipality, yet the spate of insecurity and crime in the State may not be unconnected with the recent ban of motorcycle operation in the municipality. Based on this, it was recommended amidst others that government should create more job opportunities as well as skill acquisition centres where most of the motorcyclists who have been affected can be trained on various trades and empower the graduates to kick start small businesses of their own so as to be able to carter for themselves and families.
Study on Policy Adjustments ---Based on Changing Policy from “Ban” to “Limit Fireworks in Beijing  [cached]
Lizhen Zhang
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v4n9p113
Abstract: Any policy adjustment has profound reasons, and policy of “ban” on fireworks and firecracker in Beijing changed to “limits” is also a response to specific issue under the concrete space and time. The discussion on the reasons of policy adjustment is helpful to understanding of the influencing factors of policy execution so as to bring the suitable policy into full display and unsuitable policy an end. Beijing city forbade setting off fireworks and firecrackers during1993-2005, while now Beijing lays a limit to set off fireworks and firecracker, which is interact ional result of policy environment, policy itself as well as policy subject and others.
Perception of Parties to Third Party Motorcycle Insurance Policy in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria
Folake Olowokudejo,Kunle Aduloju
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to find out people's perception of motorcycle insurance while comparing the perceptions of insurance companies' staff with that of their customers (the motorcyclists) and also find out the major causes of motorcycle accidents in Nigeria. A total of 140 respondents were sampled using the questionnaire. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test was used to test the hypothesis. Findings show a general negative perception of insurance services by the motorcyclist and a large disparity in the responses of the motorcyclists and the insurance companies' staff. The major causes of motorcycle accidents are also found to be over speeding, carelessness and poor driving skills.
Smoke-free policy development in Italy through the legislative process of the ban 2000-2005, and press media review 1998-2008
Gorini,Giuseppe; Currie,Laura; Spizzichino,Lorenzo; Galeone,Daniela; Lopez,Maria J.;
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità , 2011, DOI: 10.4415/ANN_11_03_04
Abstract: the objective of this article is to describe the process of approval of the italian smoking ban, enacted in 2005. the method is to conduct a review of proposed and approved legislation 20002005, and of articles published in italian newspapers, 1998-2008. enabling factors in the process were: the leadership of two consecutive health ministers, both physicians, who introduced the bill four times between 2000-2002; the repeated presentation and final approval of the bill as an amendment within a bill on public administration which enabled timely approval of the ban; and the stringent air quality standards in the 2003 regulation that made building smoking rooms impracticable and prohibitively expensive. limiting factors in the process were: the 6-month delay in approving the regulation on smoking rooms; the 1.5-year delay in approving the regulation establishing owners' responsibility for enforcing the ban in hospitality premises and the legal action in august 2005, which shifted responsibility for enforcement to police. eighty-three percent of the 808 articles published on smoking in 1998-2008 were released between 2000-2005, during the policy process. while the press devoted considerable attention to the issues raised by the hospitality sector, the long legislative process of the bill and its regulations also stimulated coverage on tobacco control issues.
Failing Georgia—The Case Against the Ban on Social Promotion
Donald R. Livingston,Sharon M. Livingston
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2002,
Abstract: Our analysis begins with an examination of the state of Georgia's rationale for the decision regarding social promotion that was based on the perceived views that teachers have on the issue. Research suggests, however, that teachers hold contradictory opinions concerning the use of standardized tests for high stakes decisions, such as promotion, and are not aware of the consequences most children suffer when they fail a grade. Following a discussion that challenges the claims of success in Chicago, Baltimore, and Texas, we explore the viability of choosing litigation as a strategy to stop the use of high stakes tests given the adverse impact they have on protected minorities. From a study of the thirty-nine poorest counties in rural Georgia, the relationships between poverty, race and the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test Results suggest that these tests do have an enormously disparate impact on impoverished African American children. Because chances for educational attainment will be severely limited by this test, most African American children will be discouraged from achieving a high school diploma. As a way to put a face on the data, a case study of a young girl who would probably fail her grade in school if the law was enforced is presented followed by recommendations that argue for changes in education policy and teaching. Rather than mandate a ban on social promotion, the state of Georgia should pursue improvement of socio-economic conditions, education policy and pedagogy.
Public attitudes towards the türban ban in Turkey  [cached]
Ali ?arko?lu
Utrecht Law Review , 2010,
Abstract: This paper looks at the türban ban controversy in Turkish politics from an empirical and behavioural perspective. With the aid of a number of nationwide surveys I aim to clarify how the ban on the türban in public spaces is being evaluated by different segments of Turkish society. Who supports which policy options and who opposes these options for what reasons? The policy implications of these findings will be evaluated in the concluding section.
Repeal of the Pennsylvania motorcycle helmet law: reflections on the ethical and political dynamics of public health reform
Robert A Cherry
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-202
Abstract: Prior to the repeal, and in the years that have followed, there has been intense debate and controversy regarding Pennsylvania's decision to repeal the law that required universal and mandatory use of motorcycle helmets for all riders. Proponents of the helmet repeal have argued in favor of individual rights and freedom, whereas advocates for mandatory helmet laws have voiced concerns over public health and safety based on available data.This commentary will discuss the policy-making process that led to Pennsylvania's repeal of the motorcycle helmet safety law from an ethical, political, and economic perspective.Just prior to the repeal of the Pennsylvania motorcycle helmet law in 2003, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released a number of interesting findings that are worth mentioning: 1) there were 3,244 motorcycle deaths and 65,000 injuries in 2002 on US highways; 2) motorcyclists are 27 times more likely to die in motorcycle crash (MCC) per mile traveled than an occupant in an automobile; 3) head injury is the leading cause of death for MCC; 4) motorcycle helmets reduce the likelihood of death in a MCC by 37%; 5) the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) study demonstrated that motorcycle helmets are 67% effective in the prevention of traumatic brain injury and; 6) motorcycle helmet use saved $1.3 billion in 2002 and an additional $853 million could have been saved if helmets were worn in all MCC.In the face of such compelling data, why did Pennsylvania repeal its motorcycle helmet safety law? In 2002, there were 134 motorcycle-related crash fatalities. After the repeal of the law, this number increased to 205 in 2005. Is this an example of public policy gone awry?Anti-helmet advocates argued for the repeal of the Pennsylvania motorcycle helmet law for several reasons: 1) freedom of choice and individual rights, 2) the pleasure of riding without a helmet, and 3) helmet use increases the odds of spinal cord damage. In response, th
The Effect of Public Support on College Attainment
Philip A. Trostel
Higher Education Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/hes.v2n4p58
Abstract: This study estimates the extent that state financial support for higher education raises college attainment. Despite its manifest importance for policy, this is the first study to estimate this effect directly. Many studies have estimated the effect of college price on attendance, but state support for higher education and college price do not have a one-to-one correspondence. Moreover, state support for higher education can affect enrollment through college quality, not just price. A two-stage instrumental-variables approach is employed to account for the possibility that state funding for higher education may endogenously depend on anticipated college enrollment. Using 22 years of U.S. interstate data (1985-2006) and controlling for fixed state effects, the results of this study indicate that state funding for higher education has significant causal effects on both college enrollment and degree attainment. The estimated state-support elasticity of college enrollment and college degree attainment is about 0.35.
To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis  [cached]
Alex Wellington
Australasian Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.
Study on the Ban on Free Plastic Bags in China  [cached]
Xiufeng Xing
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v2n1p156
Abstract: On Jun 1st, 2008, the production, sale and use of plastic shopping bags 0.025 millimeters thick or thinner will be banned in China under a State Council decree, and retailers will be prohibited from providing customers with free plastic bags, which is called by the general public the ban on free plastic bags (or plastic limit order). Since the implementation of the policy, the use of plastic bags has decreased dramatically, meanwhile, the public awareness of environmental protection has also been enhanced. Nevertheless, there still leaves much to be desired, for instance, some plastic bags provided to the consumers do not meet the national standards, and auxiliary bag without carrying function has been double-charged. According to Polluter pays principle, coupling with the means of product charge, the paper analyzes the impact of the ban, evaluates on its results and then puts forward some relevant measures on the above basis.
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