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Are We Losing the Art of Actively Listening to Our Patients? Connecting the Art of Active Listening with Emotionally Competent Behaviors  [PDF]
Michelle Doas
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.56060
Abstract: Active listening is an essential communication technique that requires the listener to focus and provide feedback on what is heard. The ability to listen actively demonstrates sincerity, and assumes that nothing is being shrugged or taken for granted. As a result, active listeners strive to improve professional and personal relationships, decrease misinterpretation of information, strengthen compliance, and foster understanding. Likewise, active listening can foster trust, mutual respect, and patient compliance. This paper will explore vital connections between active listening and displaying emotionally competent behaviors. Additionally, analysis of a case study as a means of strengthening these connections while improving patient outcomes will be assessed.
Addressing Nurse-to-Nurse Bullying to Promote Nurse Retention
Carol F. Rocker
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2008,
Abstract: Nurse-to-nurse bullying in the workforce is contributing to the current nursing shortage. The literature reveals both victims and witnesses of bullying suffer silently and are often confused as to what to do when presented with bullying behavior. This confusion frequently contributes to nurses leaving their chosen profession. Canadian lawmakers are now beginning to address workplace bulling behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of the challenges associated with workplace bullying among nurses by defining and describing the incidence and origin of workplace bullying; reporting the nature of and consequences of workplace bullying for both victims and witnesses; presenting the Canadian legal response, strategies to support victims, and approaches preventing workplace bullying; and considering the nurse manager’s role in addressing workplace bullying.
Causes of Victims of Campus Bullying Behaviors and Study on Solutions  [PDF]
Shao-I Chiu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2013.12003
Abstract: Campus bullying behavior is increasingly attracting people’s attention in recent years. The main objective is to discuss the causes of victims of campus bullying behaviors, to analyze their needs and correlation, and to offer suggestions on preventive strategies for victims. The research uses in-depth interview of the qualitative research methods, and directs the interview by a semi-structured interview outline from 5 participants. The research concludes the following main findings: Relevant factors influencing the students being bullied in the public junior high school, and the styles of bullying behavior are numerous, including verbal and physical bullying. Preliminarily, bullying behaviors mainly occurred after class, and the usual site was in the classroom.
Becoming a culturally competent nurse  [PDF]
Valarie F. Thomas
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.38A009

Cultural competence in nursing provides an ideal avenue to meet the various needs of our patients while providing them with safe, competent care. “Racial and ethnic differences in family expectations or preferences for care are not yet well identified and cataloged, but they may uniquely affect individual ratings or experience with care” [1]. The purpose of this article is to enlighten nurses as health care providers about cultural care in an effort to provide that safe, competent care. Many times patients present for care at hospitals and clinics with language barriers and preconceived ideas based on their own cultural beliefs and practices. It is ideal when we, as nurses have the ability to meet those needs in an effort to meet patient’s expectations and healthcare needs. In order to meet the diverse needs of our growing multi-cultural population, it is becoming apparent that we must not only provide care based on the physical needs, but the entire person’s needs relevant to their cultural beliefs regarding healthcare practices and the healing process.

Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors  [PDF]
Antonio Luchicchi,Bernard Bloem,John Noel M. Via?a,Lorna W. Role
Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnsyn.2014.00024
Abstract: Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. In the central nervous system, ACh transmission is mainly guaranteed by dense innervation of select cortical and subcortical regions from disperse groups of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain (BF; e.g., diagonal band, medial septal, nucleus basalis) and the pontine-mesencephalic nuclei, respectively. Despite the fundamental role of cholinergic signaling in the CNS and the long standing knowledge of the organization of cholinergic circuitry, remarkably little is known about precisely how ACh release modulates cortical and subcortical neural activity and the behaviors these circuits subserve. Growing interest in cholinergic signaling in the CNS focuses on the mechanism(s) of action by which endogenously released ACh regulates cognitive functions, acting as a neuromodulator and/or as a direct transmitter via nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The development of optogenetic techniques has provided a valuable toolbox with which we can address these questions, as it allows the selective manipulation of the excitability of cholinergic inputs to the diverse array of cholinergic target fields within cortical and subcortical domains. Here, we review recent papers that use the light-sensitive opsins in the cholinergic system to elucidate the role of ACh in circuits related to attention and emotionally salient behaviors. In particular, we highlight recent optogenetic studies which have tried to disentangle the precise role of ACh in the modulation of cortical-, hippocampal- and striatal-dependent functions.
Bullying Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: “An Ongoing Story”  [PDF]
Artemis Kimon Tsitsika,Elisabeth Andrie,Eleni C. Tzavela
Frontiers in Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00007
Abstract: Bullying in school-aged children is a universal problem, which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. This article highlights the prevalence, the common characteristics of bullies and victims, as well as the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement. Key areas highlighted include the efficacy of bullying prevention programs, which can help health care providers to assess and provide interventions to children and adolescents affected by bullying.
Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory  [PDF]
Donna A. Gaffney,Rosanna F. DeMarco,Anne Hofmeyer,Judith A. Vessey,Wendy C. Budin
Nursing Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/243210
Abstract: While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace. 1. Introduction The situations are subtle and can range from sarcastic comments to being set up with the wrong patient chart… these sorts of things undermine your work day… erode your sense of comfort and security that you need to do your job in a professional manner (Nurse 41, 2007). The consequences of workplace bullying are as evident today as they were one hundred years ago. In 1909 Leon Harris condemned the treatment of nurses by their managers in an article published in The New York Times. Dr. Harris, citing multiple examples of workplace mistreatment, emphasized how “head nurses abuse their position of power” [1]. A century later the workplace has changed for the better in many parts of the world [2]. Yet, in spite of such advances, nurses still experience bullying in the workplace. As the toll of workplace bullying has become more widely known in all work settings, research has dramatically increased. Many North American studies focus on behavioral categories, causes, and typologies of individual responses [3]. There is limited information on how nurses experience and resolve workplace bullying. While bullying in the healthcare setting has been internationally recognized and researched [4, 5], many
Are Rational Self-Interested Leadership Behaviors Contributing to the Workplace Bullying Phenomenon in Canada and the United States?  [PDF]
Lisa M. S. Barrow, Sandy Kolberg, Jim Mirabella, Annette Roter
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.36A004
Abstract: Workplace bullying is a phenomenon in American and Canadian organizations that has been ignored for many years and as a result targeted employees are suffering [1-3]. Workplace bullying is at epidemic proportions with little done to address the issue. The workplace for bullied employees has become an uncivilized and hostile environment [4]. Leaders who embrace a rational self-interested approach to leading are contributing to the workplace bullying phenomenon. Using Chi Square tests of independence, the study was conducted to determine the extent to which rational self-interested leaders rely on bullying behaviors when interacting with employees. Three hundred fifty-five employees were asked to complete a survey consisting of fifteen bullying behavior statements. The results of the Chi Square tests indicate a significant relationship exists between employee demographics vs. certain bullying behaviors associated with threats to personal standing, professional status and destabilization. The results further reveal that rational self-interested leaders are relying on bullying in three areas: threat to personal standing, threat to professional status and destabilization. It was also noted that if the rational self-interest leader did not make changes the problem of workplace bullying would continue to escalate. The recommendation was that rational self-interested leaders could benefit by changing their perspective on employees to include more personal and humane treatment, rewards, and recognition.
Using Yoga to Reduce Stress and Bullying Behaviors among Urban Youth  [PDF]
Erin E. Centeio, Laurel Whalen, Erica Thomas, Noel Kulik, Nate McCaughtry
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.93029
Abstract: Background/Purpose: Obesity and secondary conditions continue to disproportionally affect the health of children living in urban areas. Studies show that a lack of resources and physical activity-unfriendly communities discourage 60 minutes of daily activity, including strengthening exercises, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using Social Ecological theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the multi-level influences of a yoga-based intervention on urban, inner city youth. Method: Using a mixed-methods design, ninety-three 3 - 5th grade students at five urban elementary schools participated in a ten-week yoga intervention. Analysis/Results: RM-ANOVA results revealed a significant reduction in stress and bullying behaviors among participants, and multiple regression analyses revealed that program attendance, change in stress, and change in yoga enjoyment significantly predicted change in yoga participation outside PE, when controlling for gender and age F(5, 87) = 5.36, p < 0.01, adj. R2 = 0.19, but did not have a significant impact on physical activity participation outside of school. Student interviews and non-participant observations revealed strong enjoyment of yoga which led students to report substantial increases in yoga-related activities outside of school. Students also revealed that experience in yoga improved focus, attention, and reduced stress. Conclusions: Through convergence of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study showed a positive relationship between the number of yoga sessions attended (dose), enjoyment of yoga, and participation in yoga outside PE with friends and family. Findings suggest that urban PE should include more individual, non-competitive activities such as yoga, which students find to be stress-relieving, fun, inexpensive and easy to perform at home.
Effects of Bullying in Schools: The Teachers’ Perspectives
Clifford Gomba,Kuan Chen Tsai
Journal of Society and Communication , 2012,
Abstract: Bullying occurs largely at a school. A relationship exists between student bullying and school issues such as academic achievement, school bonding, and absenteeism were found in the literature. School bullying is also associated with numerous physical, mental and social problems. Prevention of school bullying should become a priority issue for schools, and many strategies can be used to solve bullying behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the bullying in the classroom from teachers’ views. Results showed that bullying is still a serious issue. Teachers believed guidance and counseling would help reduce bullying behaviors in schools.
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