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Developments and Applications of Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Sensors Based on Micro- and Nanomaterials  [PDF]
Sandra G. Hazelton,Xingwang Zheng,Julia Xiaojun Zhao,David T. Pierce
Sensors , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/s8095942
Abstract: A variety of recent developments and applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) for sensors are described. While tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)-ruthenium(II) and luminol have dominated and continue to pervade the field of ECL-based sensors, recent work has focused on use of these lumophores with micro- and nanomaterials. It has also extended to inherently luminescent nanomaterials, such as quantum dots. Sensor configurations including microelectrode arrays and microfluidics are reviewed and, with the recent trend toward increased use of nanomaterials, special attention has been given to sensors which include thin films, nanoparticles and nanotubes. Applications of ECL labels and examples of label-free sensing that incorporate nanomaterials are also discussed.
Applications of Nanomaterials in Electrochemical Enzyme Biosensors  [PDF]
Huihui Li,Songqin Liu,Zhihui Dai,Jianchun Bao,Xiaodi Yang
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91108547
Abstract: A biosensor is defined as a kind of analytical device incorporating a biological material, a biologically derived material or a biomimic intimately associated with or integrated within a physicochemical transducer or transducing microsystem. Electrochemical biosensors incorporating enzymes with nanomaterials, which combine the recognition and catalytic properties of enzymes with the electronic properties of various nanomaterials, are new materials with synergistic properties originating from the components of the hybrid composites. Therefore, these systems have excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events through electronic signal transduction so as to design a new generation of bioelectronic devices with high sensitivity and stability. In this review, we describe approaches that involve nanomaterials in direct electrochemistry of redox proteins, especially our work on biosensor design immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6), hemoglobin (Hb), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The topics of the present review are the different functions of nanomaterials based on modification of electrode materials, as well as applications of electrochemical enzyme biosensors.
Applications of radiotracer techniques for the pharmacology and toxicology studies of nanomaterials
ZhiYong Zhang,YuLiang Zhao,ZhiFang Chai
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-009-0016-7
Abstract: With the rapid development of nanosciences and nanotechnology, a wide variety of manufactured nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. While nanomaterials possess more novel and unique physicochemical properties than bulk materials, they also have an unpredictable impact on human health. In the pharmacology and toxicology studies of nanomaterials, it is essential to know the basic behavior in vivo, i.e. absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of these newly designed materials. Radiotracer techniques are especially well suited to such studies and have got the chance to demonstrate their enchantment. In this paper, radiolabeling methods for carbon nanomaterials, metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, etc. are summarized and the applications of the radiolabeled nanomaterials in pharmacology and toxicology studies are outlined.
Applications of Nanomaterials in Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Biosensors  [PDF]
Honglan Qi,Yage Peng,Qiang Gao,Chengxiao Zhang
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90100674
Abstract: Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (also called electrochemiluminescence and abbreviated ECL) involves the generation of species at electrode surfaces that then undergo electron-transfer reactions to form excited states that emit light. ECL biosensor, combining advantages offered by the selectivity of the biological recognition elements and the sensitivity of ECL technique, is a powerful device for ultrasensitive biomolecule detection and quantification. Nanomaterials are of considerable interest in the biosensor field owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, which have led to novel biosensors that have exhibited high sensitivity and stability. Nanomaterials including nanoparticles and nanotubes, prepared from metals, semiconductor, carbon or polymeric species, have been widely investigated for their ability to enhance the efficiencies of ECL biosensors, such as taking as modification electrode materials, or as carrier of ECL labels and ECL-emitting species. Particularly useful application of nanomaterials in ECL biosensors with emphasis on the years 2004-2008 is reviewed. Remarks on application of nanomaterials in ECL biosensors are also surveyed.
Nanomaterials for biosensing applications: a review  [PDF]
Michael Holzinger,Alan Le Goff,Serge Cosnier
Frontiers in Chemistry , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2014.00063
Abstract: A biosensor device is defined by its biological, or bioinspired receptor unit with unique specificities toward corresponding analytes. These analytes are often of biological origin like DNAs of bacteria or viruses, or proteins which are generated from the immune system (antibodies, antigens) of infected or contaminated living organisms. Such analytes can also be simple molecules like glucose or pollutants when a biological receptor unit with particular specificity is available. One of many other challenges in biosensor development is the efficient signal capture of the biological recognition event (transduction). Such transducers translate the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into electrochemical, electrochemiluminescent, magnetic, gravimetric, or optical signals. In order to increase sensitivities and to lower detection limits down to even individual molecules, nanomaterials are promising candidates due to the possibility to immobilize an enhanced quantity of bioreceptor units at reduced volumes and even to act itself as transduction element. Among such nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles, semi-conductor quantum dots, polymer nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and graphene are intensively studied. Due to the vast evolution of this research field, this review summarizes in a non-exhaustive way the advantages of nanomaterials by focusing on nano-objects which provide further beneficial properties than “just” an enhanced surface area.
Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

Shulin JI,Changhui YE,

材料科学技术学报 , 2008,
Abstract: This article reviews recent progresses in growth mechanism, synthesis, and applications of zinc oxide nanomaterials (mainly focusing on one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials). In the first part of this article, we briefly introduce the importance, the synthesis methods and growth mechanisms, the properties and applications of ZnO 1D nanomaterials. In the second part of this article, the growth mechanisms of ZnO 1D nanomaterials will be discussed in detail in the framework of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), vapor-solid (VS), and aqueous solution growth (ASG) approaches. Both qualitative and quantitative information will be provided to show how a controlled synthesis of ZnO 1D nanomaterials can be achieved. In the third part of this article, we present recent progresses in our group for the synthesis of ZnO 1D nanomaterials, and the results from other groups will only be mentioned briefly. Especially, experiment designing according to theories will be elaborated to demonstrate the concept of controlled synthesis. In the fourth part of this article, the properties and potential applications of ZnO 1D nanomaterials will be treated. Finally, a summary part will be presented in the fifth section. The future trend of research for ZnO 1D nanomaterials will be pointed out and key issues to be solved will be proposed.
Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nanomaterials
Ali Mostofizadeh,Yanwei Li,Bo Song,Yudong Huang
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/685081
Abstract: In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nanodiamond, and onion-like carbons), one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes), and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene and carbon nanowalls) are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nanomaterials.
Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Applications  [PDF]
Juan L. Vivero-Escoto,Yu-Tzu Huang
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12063888
Abstract: Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted.
Biomedical applications of functionalized fullerene-based nanomaterials
Ranga Partha, Jodie L Conyers
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S5964
Abstract: iomedical applications of functionalized fullerene-based nanomaterials Review (8892) Total Article Views Authors: Ranga Partha, Jodie L Conyers Published Date November 2009 Volume 2009:4 Pages 261 - 275 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S5964 Ranga Partha, Jodie L Conyers Center for Translational Injury Research, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA Abstract: Since their discovery in 1985, fullerenes have been investigated extensively due to their unique physical and chemical properties. In recent years, studies on functionalized fullerenes for various applications in the field of biomedical sciences have seen a significant increase. The ultimate goal is towards employing these functionalized fullerenes in the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. Functionalized fullerenes are one of the many different classes of compounds that are currently being investigated in the rapidly emerging field of nanomedicine. In this review, the focus is on the three categories of drug delivery, reactive oxygen species quenching, and targeted imaging for which functionalized fullerenes have been studied in depth. In addition, an exhaustive list of the different classes of functionalized fullerenes along with their applications is provided. We will also discuss and summarize the unique approaches, mechanisms, advantages, and the aspect of toxicity behind utilizing functionalized fullerenes for biomedical applications.
Upconversion Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications in Sensing  [PDF]
Jiao Chen,Julia Xiaojun Zhao
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120302414
Abstract: Upconversion is an optical process that involves the conversion of lower-energy photons into higher-energy photons. It has been extensively studied since mid-1960s and widely applied in optical devices. Over the past decade, high-quality rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the rapid development of nanotechnology and are becoming more prominent in biological sciences. The synthesis methods are usually phase-based processes, such as thermal decomposition, hydrothermal reaction, and ionic liquids-based synthesis. The main difference between upconversion nanoparticles and other nanomaterials is that they can emit visible light under near infrared irradiation. The near infrared irradiation leads to low autofluorescence, less scattering and absorption, and deep penetration in biological samples. In this review, the synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the mechanisms of upconversion process will be discussed, followed by their applications in different areas, especially in the biological field for biosensing.
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