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Flood Resilient Cities: A Syntactic and Metric Novel on Measuring the Resilience of Cities against Flooding, Gothenburg, Sweden  [PDF]
Ehsan Abshirini, Daniel Koch, Ann Legeby
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.95032
Abstract: Flooding is one of the most destructive natural disasters which have rapidly been growing in frequency and intensity all over the world. In this view, assessment of the resilience of the city against such disturbances is of high necessity in order to significantly mitigate the disaster effects of flooding on the city structures and the human lives. The aim of this paper is to develop a method to assess the resilience of a river city (the city of Gothenburg in Sweden), which is prone to flood Hazard, against such disturbances. By simulating flood inundation with different return periods, in the first step, the areas of impact are determined. To assess the resilience, two different methods are followed. One is a syntactic method grounded in the foreground network in space syntax theory and the other is based on measuring accessibility to the essential amenities in the city. In the first method, similarity and sameness parameters are defined to quantitatively measure the syntactic resilience in the city. In the next step, accessibility to amenities and the minimum distance to amenities before and after each disturbance is measured. The results, in general, show that such disturbances affect the city structure and the resilience of the city differently. For instance, the city is more resilient after flooding according to accessibility measures. This clearly means that the answer to the question of resilience is mainly dependent on “resilience of what and for what.”
The Method of Flood Disaster Risk Evaluation Based Upon Data of Grid Square
基于格网数据的洪水灾害风险评估方法--以日本新川洪灾为例

ZHANG Chao WAN Qing ZHANG Jiquan,Norio Okada LI Huiguo,
张超
,万庆,张继权,NorioOkada,励惠国

地球信息科学 , 2003,
Abstract: In this paper the flood inundation caused by the Tokai heavy rainfall in Sept 2000 in the district of Nagoya City of Japan is used as a case of study Firstly, the history and structure of grid square statistical data in Japan is reviewed in detail, and the methods of creating these grid squares of different levels automatically are developed using geographical information system technique And then based on the theory of two dimensional shallow flow hydrodynamics, the numeric model is developed which is used to stimulate flood inundation after dike broken of Shin River Through integrating the GIS and hydrodynamic model, the values of velocity and depth in each 50m mesh are calculated at different time intervals These factors can be used as the flood risk indicator in practice and are very useful for decision making in the emergency period Then the three dimensional visualization of the inundation process is finished Also the exposure value of different properties are evaluated in each 500m mesh And then the economic losses caused by flood disaster are evaluated The results will be beneficial to evaluate the risk of every place in the flood plain and determine the insurance rate in the future because it can provide the common standard which is based on the same kinds of mesh Also it provides an example which will be helpful to using the grid square statistical data in the other study fields such as urban planning and disaster reducing
Social resilience: the forgotten dimension of disaster risk reduction  [cached]
Guy Sapirstein
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2006, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v1i1.8
Abstract: The current thinking in the Disaster Risk Reduction field emphasizes assessment and reduction of vulnerability and especially social vulnerability as an important factor in mitigating the effects of disasters. In the process of emphasizing vulnerability, the role and complexity of social resilience was somewhat lost and at times minimized. For example, Terry Cannon and his colleagues include resilience as a factor of social vulnerability in a report to United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) (Cannon, Twigg and Rowell, 2002). The United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) delineates “Social Vulnerability” and “Individual Vulnerability” as working areas, but does not mention Social or Individual Resilience (Bogardi, 2006).
Resilience: The New Paradigm in Disaster Management—An Australian Perspective  [PDF]
Stephen Jenkins, Stephen Jenkins
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C020
Abstract:

During past decades, frameworks relating to emergency and disaster management have been based on a risk management approach to prevention/mitigation and preparedness coupled with a strong emphasis on response by police and emergency service organisations. Numerous reviews and inquiries of significant events however have identified significant issues relating to the preparation for such events and the management thereof; in particular, critical shortcomings in the capability of emergency response agencies, their leaders and senior decision-makers. In 2008, the Australian Government, through The First National Security Statement to the Australian Parliament by Prime Minister Rudd, has incorporated non-traditional threats and hazards, such as those posed by the impact of climate change, on the national security agenda. In doing so, the Government has announced a paradigm shift in policy for the nation’s approach to emergency and disaster management, namely a move from “response” to “resilience”. In support of this policy shift, the Australian Government, through the Council of Australian Governments, has endorsed the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience and the Critical Infrastructure Resilience Strategy. These documents make resilience the responsibility of all levels of government, private industry, emergency response agencies, and the community. A review of the reports published following Australian reviews and inquiries into significant events has identified that existing frameworks do not provide the necessary mechanisms for baselining and assessing community resilience, that is, their ability to respond to and recover from significant events. Internationally, indices have been developed for assessing community resilience, however, inherent limitations have also been identified in their scope and application. This paper will review Australian and international events which have led to inquiries that have resulted in criticisms of the emergency and disaster response, as well as introducing the organisational capability and resilience of organisations particularly in the context of climate change.

Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction  [PDF]
RK Kamble,Abhinav Walia,MG Thakare
International Journal of Environment , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v2i1.9209
Abstract: India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life support systems in the country. India has 40 million hectares of the flood-prone area, on an average, flood affect an area of around 7.5 million hectares per year. Knowledge of environmental systems and processes are key factors in the management of disasters, particularly the hydro-metrological ones. Management of flood risk and disaster is a multi-dimensional affair that calls for interdisciplinary approach. Ecosystem based disaster risk reduction builds on ecosystem management principles, strategies and tools in order to maximise ecosystem services for risk reduction. This perspective takes into account the integration of social and ecological systems, placing people at the centre of decision making. The present paper has been attempted to demonstrate how ecosystem-based approach can help in flood disaster risk reduction.
Disaster Preparation and Recovery: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development
Ann S. Masten,Jelena Obradovi?
Ecology and Society , 2008,
Abstract: Four decades of theory and research on resilience in human development have yielded informative lessons for planning disaster response and recovery. In developmental theory, resilience following disaster could take multiple forms, including stress resistance, recovery, and positive transformation. Empirical findings suggest that fundamental adaptive systems play a key role in the resilience of young people facing diverse threats, including attachment, agency, intelligence, behavior regulation systems, and social interactions with family, peers, school, and community systems. Although human resilience research emphasizes the adaptive well-being of particular individuals, there are striking parallels in resilience theory across the developmental and ecological sciences. Preparing societies for major disasters calls for the integration of human research on resilience with the theory and knowledge gained from other disciplines concerned with resilience in complex, dynamic systems, and particularly those systems that interact with human individuals as disaster unfolds.
Enhancing flood resilience through improved risk communications  [PDF]
J. J. O'Sullivan,R. A. Bradford,M. Bonaiuto,S. De Dominicis
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-2271-2012
Abstract: A framework of guiding recommendations for effective pre-flood and flood warning communications derived from the URFlood project (2nd ERA-Net CRUE Research Funding Initiative) from extensive quantitative and qualitative research in Finland, Ireland, Italy and Scotland is presented. Eleven case studies in fluvial, pluvial, coastal, residual and "new" flood risk locations were undertaken. The recommendations were developed from questionnaire surveys by exploring statistical correlations of actions and understandings of individuals in flood risk situations to low, moderate and high resilience groupings. Groupings were based on a conceptual relationship of self-assessed levels of awareness, preparedness and worry. Focus groups and structured interviews were used to discuss barriers in flood communications, explore implementation of the recommendations and to rank the recommendations in order of perceived importance. Results indicate that the information deficit model for flood communications that relies on the provision of more and better information to mitigate risk in flood-prone areas is insufficient, and that the communications process is very much multi-dimensional. The recommendations are aimed at addressing this complexity and their careful implementation is likely to improve the penetration of flood communications. The recommendations are applicable to other risks and are transferrable to jurisdictions beyond the project countries.
Resilience? Insights into the role of Critical Infrastructures Disaster Mitigation Strategies Resilience? Insights into the role of Critical Infrastructures Disaster Mitigation Strategies  [cached]
Sara Bouchon,Carmelo Di Mauro
TeMA : Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.6092/1970-9870/944
Abstract: Critical infrastructures (CI) systems provide essential services “for the maintenance of critical societal functions, including the supply chain, health, safety, security and economic or social well-being of the people” (European Commission, 2008). These systems are exposed to a great number of hazards and threats, which may result in severe consequences for the population, the socio-economic system, and the environment. The issue is particularly relevant at urban level, where the disruption of one CI system can propagate to the other systems and paralyze the entire area. It is therefore necessary, not only to protect CIs through Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) strategies, but also to enhance the resilience of these areas. This article aims thus at providing some insights related to the evolution of the critical infrastructures disaster mitigation strategies from the sole protection towards resilience: what kind of strategies based on resilience can be developed to address CIs disruption at local or regional level? To what extent do these strategies contribute to increase the resilience level of the entire urban or metropolitan area? The first section focuses on the urban critical infrastructures systems as well as on the way their disruption can impact urban areas. The second section provides with some examples of key measures to operationalize resilience in the field of critical infrastructure disaster mitigation strategies. The last section highlights how the key measures developed to enhance the resilience against CI disruptions can benefit also to broader urban resilience. Critical infrastructures (CI) systems provide essential services “for the maintenance of critical societal functions, including the supply chain, health, safety, security and economic or social well-being of the people” (European Commission, 2008). These systems are exposed to a great number of hazards and threats, which may result in severe consequences for the population, the socio-economic system, and the environment. The issue is particularly relevant at urban level, where the disruption of one CI system can propagate to the other systems and paralyze the entire area. It is therefore necessary, not only to protect CIs through Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) strategies, but also to enhance the resilience of these areas. This article aims thus at providing some insights related to the evolution of the critical infrastructures disaster mitigation strategies from the sole protection towards resilience: what kind of strategies based on resilience can be develop
Flood hazards and masonry constructions: a probabilistic framework for damage, risk and resilience at urban scale
A. Mebarki, N. Valencia, J. L. Salagnac,B. Barroca
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012,
Abstract: This paper deals with the failure risk of masonry constructions under the effect of floods. It is developed within a probabilistic framework, with loads and resistances considered as random variables. Two complementary approaches have been investigated for this purpose: – a global approach based on combined effects of several governing parameters with individual weighted contribution (material quality and geometry, presence and distance between columns, beams, openings, resistance of the soil and its slope. . .), – and a reliability method using the failure mechanism of masonry walls standing out-plane pressure. The evolution of the probability of failure of masonry constructions according to the flood water level is analysed. The analysis of different failure probability scenarios for masonry walls is conducted to calibrate the influence of each "vulnerability governing parameter" in the global approach that is widely used in risk assessment at the urban or regional scale. The global methodology is implemented in a GIS that provides the spatial distribution of damage risk for different flood scenarios. A real case is considered for the simulations, i.e. Cheffes sur Sarthe (France), for which the observed river discharge, the hydraulic load according to the Digital Terrain Model, and the structural resistance are considered as random variables. The damage probability values provided by both approaches are compared. Discussions are also developed about reduction and mitigation of the flood disaster at various scales (set of structures, city, region) as well as resilience.
Translating disaster resilience into spatial planning practice in South Africa: Challenges and champions  [cached]
Willemien van Niekerk
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v5i1.53
Abstract: It is highly likely that hazards and extreme climatic events will occur more frequently in the future and will become more severe – increasing the vulnerability and risk of millions of poor urbanites in developing countries. Disaster resilience aims to reduce disaster losses by equipping cities to withstand, absorb, adapt to or recover from external shocks. This paper questions whether disaster resilience is likely to be taken up in spatial planning practices in South Africa, given its immediate developmental priorities and challenges. In South Africa, issues of development take precedence over issues of sustainability, environmental management and disaster reduction. This is illustrated by the priority given to ‘servicing’ settlements compared to the opportunities offered by ‘transforming’ spaces through post-apartheid spatial planning. The City of Durban’s quest in adapting to climate change demonstrates hypothetically that if disaster resilience were to be presented as an issue distinct from what urban planners are already doing, then planners would see it as insignificant as compared to addressing the many developmental backlogs and challenges. If, however, it is regarded as a means to secure a city’s development path whilst simultaneously addressing sustainability, then disaster resilience is more likely to be translated into spatial planning practices in South Africa.
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