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Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer
Zsolt Kárpáti, Shannon Olsson, Bill S Hansson, Teun Dekker
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-286
Abstract: Projection neuron (PN) recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG). Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered between the two strains and their hybrids.Male pheromone preference in the ECB strains serves as a strong prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanism, and has contributed to population divergence in the field. Our results demonstrate that male pheromone preference is not directly affected by the topological arrangement of olfactory glomeruli itself, but that male preference may instead be mediated by an antennal factor, which causes the MGC glomeruli to be differentially sized. We postulate that this factor affects readout of blend information from the MGC. The results are an illustration of how pheromone preference may be 'spelled out' in the ALs, and how evolution may modulate this.Moth pheromone communication offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of behavior and its ol
Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis  [PDF]
Kevin W. Wanner,Andrew S. Nichols,Jean E. Allen,Peggy L. Bunger,Stephen F. Garczynski,Charles E. Linn Jr.,Hugh M. Robertson,Charles W. Luetje
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008685
Abstract: The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female's blend. A closely related species, the Asian corn borer (ACB), O. furnacalis, uses a 3:2 blend of Z12- and E12-tetradecenyl acetate, and is believed to have evolved from an ECB-like ancestor. To further knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of pheromone detection and its evolution among closely related species we identified and characterized sex pheromone receptors from ECB(Z).
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2003,
Abstract: The investigations were made in 2002 in the outskirts of two settlements: Balatonmagyaród (Zala county) and Várda (Somogy county). In the corn fields Jermy’s light- and Arco-Pheron MZ pheromone traps were placed in order to follow up the course of flight. From the material collected the corn borer specimens were isolated, then separated by sex. The generation number of the populations appearing on the respective areas, and the characteristics of the flight were determined. The meteorological data of the areas obtained from Keszthely and Kaposvár for the period concerned were compared woth the data of flight. In that way the effect of the different meteorological elements on the flight and on the trend of the female ratio could be established. The results showed the presence of two-generation corn borer populations in both places. In Balatonmagyaród the first- while in Várda the second generation proved larger. The meteorological elements significally influenced the possibility of trapping in the case of both sexes. As for the female sex ratio close correlations were found with the minimum (P=100%; r=0.297)-, maximum (P=99.9%; r=0.267)-, average (P=100%; r=0.308) temperature and precipitation (P=98.2%; r=0.187) data. Considerable asynchrony was observed between the data obtained with the two prognostic means that we ascribed to the unreliability of the pheromone trap.
Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) pheromone reception
Shannon B Olsson, Subaharan Kesevan, Astrid T Groot, Teun Dekker, David G Heckel, Bill S Hansson
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-285
Abstract: As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance.We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.In recent years, sensory systems have received significant attention as catalysts to establish reproductive isolation between populations [1]. Chemical signals are perhaps the most ubiquitous sensory system, mediating behaviors between systems as diverse as gametes [2], and plants [3]. The evolution of pheromone diversity is an excellent resource to evaluate the role of sensory systems in speciation, both for its prevalence among several taxa and its definitive signal [4].In insects, sex pheromones are typically blends of small numbers of volatile organic compounds (e.g. [5]). Minute changes in the ratio or identity of the blend can drastically alter the nature of the response. These characteristics result in both an extraordinary specificity in pheromone communication, as well as the potential for huge diversity in pheromone blends [4]. Sex pheromones thus provide an enticing evolutionary palette for the analysis of reproductive isolation and the development of species diversity.Perhaps the most well studied system for assessing the role of pheromone diversity in reproductive isolation is the European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis). This species consists of two sympatric races, e
Effects of deltamethrin on pheromone perception in male Asian corn borer(Ostrinia furnacalis)

ZHOU Hongchun,DU Jiawei,HUANG Yongping,

应用生态学报 , 2003,
Abstract: To investigate the effects of deltamethrin on male Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) to perceive sex pheromone, the electro-physiological and behavioral response of topically treated male Asian corn borer to sex pheromone were tested with EAG sets and wind tunnel. The results showed that the summit response of male moths to varied ratios of pheromone blends was at E/Z = 1/9, 5/5 and 9/1, which was similar to that of control, but the EAG values were only 0.25 mV to 0.45 mV, which were significant lower than control by 0.15 mV to 0.35 mV. The low threshold dose of pheromone for treated males to perception was 1 ng, and the highest was 10,000 ng, which was also similar to control, but low by 0.1 mV to 0.5 mV in EAG values. This suggested that deltamethrin mainly affected the sensibility of peripheral reception system, while the preliminary recognition to the ratio of pheromone blends by peripheral reception system are not disturbed heavily. In wind tunnel test, a relative higher amount of males shifted to response to pheromone with E/Z ratios of 7/3 from E/Z = 1/1 of control males, and keep on response at this level to blends with more E12-14: OAc. The lowest dosage of pheromone effectively elicited response of males also shifted from 10 ng to 100 ng, and the highest doses for response declined to about 50,000 ng from 100,000 ng of control, which might result in a narrower band of effective doses. It is suggested that the sublethal dosage of deltamethrin not only affected the sensibility of male moth to perceive the pheromone, but also affected the specificity of pheromone perception.
Silent genes and rare males: A fresh look at pheromone blend response specificity in the European corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis
Charles Linn Jr.,Marion O'Connor,Wendell Roelofs
Journal of Insect Science , 2003,
Abstract: The response of male moths from two pheromone races of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, was measured in a flight tunnel assay to different ratios of structurally different compounds that comprise the sex pheromone of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis. For both O. nubilalis races, between 1 and 5% of the males completed upwind flights to two different blends of the O. furnacalis pheromone components (the 2:1 Z/E12-14:OAc female-produced blend, and a 97:3 Z/E mix), confirming that rare males exist in the O. nubilalis populations that can detect and respond to mixtures of the O. furnacalis pheromone components. Rare males that responded to the O. furnacalis blends also responded to their own O. nubilalis blends (97:3 or 1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc), indicating that rare O. nubilalis males are not preferentially sensitive to mixtures of the O. furnacalis compounds, but rather that they have a broad range of response specificity, which includes recognition of a wide range of conspecific female-produced ratios, and also recognition of heterospecific mixtures. The results support the hypothesis that saltational shifts in pheromone blend composition (Roelofs et al., 2002) can lead to the evolution of a new species-specific communication system, in part because the broad response specificity of some males includes the ability to respond in an agonistic manner to novel mixtures of compounds.
Assortative Mating between European Corn Borer Pheromone Races: Beyond Assortative Meeting  [PDF]
Laurent Pélozuelo, Serge Meusnier, Philippe Audiot, Denis Bourguet, Sergine Ponsard
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000555
Abstract: Background Sex pheromone communication systems may be a major force driving moth speciation by causing behavioral reproductive isolation via assortative meeting of conspecific individuals. The ‘E’ and ‘Z’ pheromone races of the European corn borer (ECB) are a textbook example in this respect. ‘Z’ females produce and ‘Z’ males preferentially respond to a ‘Z’ pheromone blend, while the ‘E’ race communicates via an ‘E’ blend. Both races do not freely hybridize in nature and their populations are genetically differentiated. A straightforward explanation would be that their reproductive isolation is a mere consequence of “assortative meeting” resulting from their different pheromones specifically attracting males towards same-race females at long range. However, previous laboratory experiments and those performed here show that even when moths are paired in a small box – i.e., when the meeting between sexual partners is forced – inter-race couples still have a lower mating success than intra-race ones. Hence, either the difference in attractivity of E vs. Z pheromones for males of either race still holds at short distance or the reproductive isolation between E and Z moths may not only be favoured by assortative meeting, but must also result from an additional mechanism ensuring significant assortative mating at close range. Here, we test whether this close-range mechanism is linked to the E/Z female sex pheromone communication system. Methodology/Principal Findings Using crosses and backcrosses of E and Z strains, we found no difference in mating success between full-sisters emitting different sex pheromones. Conversely, the mating success of females with identical pheromone types but different coefficients of relatedness to the two parental strains was significantly different, and was higher when their genetic background was closer to that of their male partner's pheromone race. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the close-range mechanism ensuring assortative mating between the E and Z ECB pheromone races is unrelated to the difference in female sex pheromone. Although the nature of this mechanism remains elusive, our results show that it is expressed in females, acts at close range, segregates independently of the autosome carrying Pher and of both sex chromosomes, and is widely distributed since it occurs both in France and in the USA.
Oviposition Preference and Infestation of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice Varieties  [PDF]
Maqsood A. Rustamani,Muzaffar A. Talpur,Rab Dino Khuhro,Hussain Bux Baloch
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Five coarse grain rice varieties (IR-6, IR–6- 18, IR-8, Shadab, Shua-92) and five fine grain varieties (Basmati-370, Jajai-33, Jajai-77, Sonahri Sugdasi, Sonahri Sugdasi-5) were examined to determine the oviposition preferences and infestation of yellow stem borer in the experimental field of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) at Tandojam during (Kharif) 2001. A differential response of varieties was observed towards the ovipostion preference by borer. Shua-92 variety was least preferred and Sonahri Sugdasi as most preferred for oviposition. Two oviposition peaks were recorded, the first one during vegetative growth period and other during reproduction period. The population infestation trend showed that amongst the coarse grain varieties Shadab was comparatively less susceptible and IR-6 susceptible to borer attack, whereas, amongst the varieties of fine grain, Basmati-370 and Sonahri Sugdasi suffered less damage of borer. The oviposition had positive significant correlation with dead hearts and white heads whereas, borer infestation had negative significant correlation with yield.
Efficient Olfactory Coding in the Pheromone Receptor Neuron of a Moth  [PDF]
Lubomir Kostal,Petr Lansky,Jean-Pierre Rospars
PLOS Computational Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000053
Abstract: The concept of coding efficiency holds that sensory neurons are adapted, through both evolutionary and developmental processes, to the statistical characteristics of their natural stimulus. Encouraged by the successful invocation of this principle to predict how neurons encode natural auditory and visual stimuli, we attempted its application to olfactory neurons. The pheromone receptor neuron of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus, for which quantitative properties of both the natural stimulus and the reception processes are available, was selected. We predicted several characteristics that the pheromone plume should possess under the hypothesis that the receptors perform optimally, i.e., transfer as much information on the stimulus per unit time as possible. Our results demonstrate that the statistical characteristics of the predicted stimulus, e.g., the probability distribution function of the stimulus concentration, the spectral density function of the stimulation course, and the intermittency, are in good agreement with those measured experimentally in the field. These results should stimulate further quantitative studies on the evolutionary adaptation of olfactory nervous systems to odorant plumes and on the plume characteristics that are most informative for the ‘sniffer’. Both aspects are relevant to the design of olfactory sensors for odour-tracking robots.
Synthesis and Field Evaluation of the Sex Pheromone Analogues to Soybean Pod Borer Leguminivora glycinivorella  [PDF]
Dai-Hua Hu,Jun He,Yi-Wan Zhou,Jun-Tao Feng,Xing Zhang
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules171012140
Abstract: In order to develop efficient lures for soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) in China, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate (EE-8,10-12:Ac), the main component of the pheromone of L. glycinivorella, and 12 structurally-related compounds were synthesised in good overall yields, regiospecificities, and stereo-selectivities via coupling reactions catalysed by Li2CuCl4. The effect of different synthetic compounds, alone or in combination with EE-8,10-12:Ac, on numbers of captured L. glycinivorella males was evaluated. EE-8,10-12:Ac, (E)-10-dodecenyl acetate (E-10-12:Ac), (E)-8-dodecenol (E-8-12:OH), tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac), and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z-9-14:Ac) alone displayed different attractiveness to L. glycinivorella males. 14:Ac, E-8-12:OH, E-10-12:Ac, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienal (EE-8,10-12:Ald), (E)-8-dodecenal (E-8-12:Ald), (E)-10-dodecenal (E-10-12:Ald) and Z-9-14:Ac all showed a synergistic effect to EE-8,10-12:Ac at certain dosages. The binary mixtures of EE-8,10-12:Ac and E-10-12:Ald, Z-9-14:Ac,14:Ac, E-8-12:Ald, EE-8,10-12:Ald, E-8-12:OH, or E-10-12:Ac in suitable ratios give 17.00-, 10.98-, 10.67-, 6.73-, 5.54-, 4.30- and 4.50-fold increases in trap catch, respectively, over the standard pheromone lure, and as novel pheromone blends, demonstrated potential use in pheromone traps to monitor or control L. glycinivorella populations in China.
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