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Estimation of Carbon Emission Reductions by Managing Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest: Case Study in Popa Mountain Park  [PDF]
Yu Ya Aye, Savent Pampasit, Chanin Umponstira, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Nophea Sasaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.52009

Global efforts in mitigating climate change are increasingly important as more evidence of climate change impact is apparent. Reducing carbon emissions under the United Nations’ reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have multiple implications for climate change mitigation and sustainable development. However, implementing REDD+ project requires understanding of the magnitude of emissions in the absence of project activities (baseline) and vice versa (projectline). This study attempted to estimate carbon emission reductions by reducing deforestation in dry mixed deciduous forests in Popa Mountain Park in Myanmar. Baseline deforestation was determined using the 1989-2005 forest cover data, while carbon stocks were derived from forest inventory data. Our results show that about 25% to 63% of forest area in the study site will be lost between 2013 and 2043 if no REDD+ project is implemented. Our study results suggest that managing4220 haof dry mixed deciduous forest in Popa Mountain Park could reduce emissions of about 104023.8 - 241991.0 tCO2 over a 30-year project cycle or about 3467 - 8066 tCO2 annually depending on deforestation rates. In terms of carbon revenues, the project would generate about US $349503.3 - $846968.6 per 30 years or US $11650.1 - $28232.3 annually depending on the assumption of carbon price. It is therefore important that carbon financing be made available to protect the forests in the Popa Mountain Park as well as other parts in Myanmar.

Floristic analysis of the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape  [cached]
U. Pond,B.B. Beesley,L.R. Brown,H. Bezuidenhout
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2002, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v45i1.18
Abstract: As part of a larger project to assess the vegetation dynamics and conservation potential of the enlarged Mountain Zebra National Park, a checklist was produced to determine the plant species richness for this area. Six hundred and eighty species, represented by 333 genera and 87 families were identified. One hundred and eighty species belong to the Monocotyledoneae and 479 species to the Dicotyledoneae. By far the largest families are the Asteraceae with 129 and the Poaceae with 82 species. Thirteen Red Data species were recorded. A number of fynbos elements were encountered, the most noteworthy being two families endemic to the Cape Floristic Region, the Penaeaceae and Grubbiaceae. A very high species to square kilometre ratio of 5.05 supports the area’s rich floristic composition.
A floristic analysis of forest and thicket vegetation of the Marakele National Park
P.J. van Staden,G.J. Bredenkamp
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2006, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v49i1.109
Abstract: One of the major plant communities identified in the Marakele National Park was forest. It became clear that this major forest community contained various forest and thicket communities. Relevés compiled in the forest were classified by TWINSPAN and Braun-Blanquet procedures identified six communities that are hierarchically classified. The forests dominated by Podocarpus latifolius and Widdringtonia nodiflora represent Afromontane Forests, whereas the Buxus macowanii-dominated dry forests and Olea europaea subsp. africana represent Northern Highveld Forests. A further group of communities represent thickets on termitaria with floristic affinities to both savanna and forest. The floristic composition and relationships of the forest and thicket communities are discussed.
Floristic gradient of the northeast Paraense secondary forests
Prata, Shirley Soares;Miranda, Izildinha de Souza;Alves, Sérgio Augusto Oliveira;Farias, Flavia cardoso;Jardim, Fernando Cristovam da Silva;
Acta Amazonica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672010000300011
Abstract: this study describes a floristic gradient of secondary forest chronosequence in northeast of pará state - brazil, from 19 sites of different ages, evaluated in different years. we used density data and carried out regression analysis for richness, diversity, density, maximum relative density and equitability in relation to the age. we used the hierarchic grouping method of analysis and the euclidean distance as dissimilarity measure, and applied a principal component analysis (pca) for confirming the groups. after defining the groups, we made an indicating species analysis (indval) on the same matrix used for the grouping analysis. we found a geographic gradient in the chronosequence analyzed and the species tapirira guianensis, vismia guianensis, inga alba, lacistema aggregatum, croton maturensis, abarema jupunba, inga rubiginosa, guateria poepigiana and thyrsodium paraense to be indicators of the northeast para (brazil) secondary forests analyzed in this study.
Comparative studies of the spruce tree stand in the Tatrzański National Park  [PDF]
Tomasz Staszewski,Aldona Katarzyna Uzi?b?o,Piotr Kubiesa,W?odzimierz ?ukasik
?asopis Beskydy , 2012,
Abstract: The paper presents the results of an investigation carried out at a permanent plot in spruce stand of the Tatrzański National Park in the years 1998--2006. Concentrations of phytotoxic gases in the air together with the load of acidifying compounds reaching the forest soil were characterized. The forest ecosystem response was evaluated by analysing the chemistry of the needles, changes in health status of trees and floral composition. Neither exceedances of the critical SO2 and NO2 concentration levels in the air nor the critical load of acidity were found. Only ozone concentration level was recognised as a potential threat to the trees. Heavy metal concentrations in spruce needles represented levels concerned as non-hazardous for the health status of the tree stand. The use of the spruce needles as a cumulative bioindicator showed the presence of PAHs with carcinogenic properties in the air. The investigated spruce stand belongs to the slightly damaged class, however in the period of 1998--2004 a deterioration of the spruce trees condition was observed expressed by a diminishing number of health trees. A comparative investigation carried out in the years 2001 and 2006 proved stability of the floral composition at the permanent plot.
Annali di Botanica , 1999,
Abstract: This study was carried out on all the Etna beech distribution area and consists of a phytosociological analysis. Moreover data relating to various pysiognomical and structural aspects was collected from 12 sample areas selected on the different expositions of the volcano. From the phytosociological analysis it emerged that it is very difficult to define the Etna beech forests syntaxonomically: in most cases it can be seen that they belong to the class Querco-Fagetea, but it is not always possible to identify the association, the alliance and the order. Some communities seem to belong to the Quercetalia pubescentis rather than to the Fagetalia sylvaticae. Other communities do not even belong to the class Querco-Fagetea. These are in fact relict forests surviving in extreme life conditions. They are at the southern limit of its distribution area and are subject to unfavorable environmental conditions: a volcanic substrata, the Mediterranean climate, the high level of man’s intervention. The study of the tree and stump density, stem diameter, basal area, litter cover and litter thickness and seedling density, carried out on 12 sample areas, shows that these forests have a very variable physiognomy and structure. The forests with a more balanced physiognomy and structure are made up of forests with high trunks of different ages. The seedling density, correlated with the litter thickness and cover, was found to be significant in areas located on the east side of Etna, where there are better light conditions and greater rainfall. This study brought to light the presence of a species: Monotropa hypopytis L. not previously reported as having been found on Mt. Etna.
Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?
Rodal, MJN.;Barbosa, MRV.;Thomas, WW.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842008000300003
Abstract: floristic analyses (principal component analysis and analysis of group indicators) at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern brazil. the presence - absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. the analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the atlantic coastal forest (mata atlantica) and the other to the xerophytic formations (caatinga) of the region. the driest seasonal forest group experiences more than 8 dry months per year and/or a total annual rainfall of <1000 mm, and is found on the ancient eroded peaks in the semi-arid core and on the western slopes of the borborema plateau.
Floristic diversity of beech, fir and spruce forest (Piceo-Fago-Abietetum oli 1965) in the Tara“ national park
Cvjeti?anin Rade,Novakovi? Marijana
Glasnik ?umarskog Fakulteta , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/gsf1002129c
Abstract: This paper deals with the forest plant community of beech, fir and spruce (Piceo-Fago-Abietetum oli 1965), which is the most widely distributed plant community on the territory of national park Tara“. Spectrum of life forms and floristic elements are specified for this community. Spectrum of life forms shows that hemicryptophytes are the most frequent, with high occurrence of geophytes, which is characteristic of this mesophilous plant community. Spectrum of floristic elements show that centraleuropean floristic element is dominant and that this plant community is under strong influence of subcentraleuropean region. Five subassociations are set apart on the basis of floristic composition and site conditions: typicum, drymetosum, aceretosum, pinetosum silvestrae and vaccinietosum. Spectrum of life forms is made for every subassociation separately in aim to compare their floristic compositions. Subassociations aceretosum and vaccinietosum are characterized by the highest occurence of phanerophytes, and the lowest occurence of this life form is represented in subassociation drymetosum. The highest occurence of geophytes is in subassociation aceretosum, and the lowest in pinetosum silvestrae and vaccinietosum. Occurence of hemicryptophytes is the highest in subassociations drymetosum and pinetosum silvestrae, and the lowest in aceretosum. Subassociation typicum is stable plant community, subassociations drymetosum and vaccinietosum grow on poorer sites, while subassociations aceretosum and pinetosum silvestrae represent degradation of beech, fir and spruce forest (Piceo-Fago-Abietetum oli 1965).
Floristic Composition and Diversity of Freshwater Swamp Forests in the Niger Basin of Nigeria  [PDF]
Nwabueze I. Igu, Robert Marchant
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84035
Abstract: Freshwater swamp forests are wetland ecosystems with poorly understood ecology. With increasing degradation across the Niger basin (where it is the most extensive across West Africa), it is deemed important to understand its distribution, patterns and composition. This is aimed at both increasing botanical inventories in the ecosystem and also elucidate vital steps that could guide its effective conservation. This study assessed the floristic composition and diversity across 16 one hectare forest plots and sought to show how varied the sites were in terms of diversity, stem density and basal area. The survey showed that the area had 116 species within 82 genera and 36 families. The number of species found in each of the disturbed sites was generally higher than the intact forest sites, which was not diverse but comprised many trees with higher basal area. While the stem density which ranged from 94 - 409 stems·ha-1 is comparable with that of other tropical forests, species richness was low (ranging from 8.65 - 0.52). Diversity ranged from 3.38 - 0.98 and was higher in disturbed sites than in intact locations. Species richness was generally low and implies that loss of species in the ecosystem could threaten species’ existence and conservation in the ecosystem. Disturbed locations had more species than the intact zones and as such show the importance of targeted conservation not only in the undisturbed locations but also in the disturbed locations with a higher species value and potential for species stability of the ecosystem.
Assessment of Floristic Composition of Kilim Geoforest Park, Langkawi, Malaysia  [cached]
G. Fatheen Nabila,I. Faridah-Hanum,Kamziah Abd Kudus,M. Nazre
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n3p23
Abstract: The present study was carried out to analyze the species diversity and quantitative analysis of mangrove forest in three riverine ecosystems at River Kisap, River Ayer Hangat and River Kilim at Kilim Geoforest Park. One hundred plots, each of size 20 m × 20 m, were established at a distance of 250 m apart along the three rivers. Every existing species that occurred within the plot and trees of diameter at breast height of 1 cm and above were enumerated and identified. The data were analyzed for species richness, diversity and evenness. The species richness were computed based on the Jacknife method, species diversity index were calculated using Simpson’s Index, Shannon-Wiener Index and Brillouin’s Index. The evenness indexes were measured by Simpson’s measure of evenness, Camargo’s index of evenness and Smith and Wilson’s index of evenness. A total of 11488 individual trees representing 58 species, 39 genus, and 23 families were recorded. The most abundant species was Rhizophora apiculata (3449) and Ceriops tagal (2060). The diversity results show that Shannon-Wiener, Simpson’s index of diversity and Brillouin index was high (2.0 to 3.0), (0.7 to 0.8), to (2.0 to 3.0) respectively and the evenness index however was low (0.1 to 0.2).
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