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Corporate greenhouse gas emissions inventories: methods and uses
Gutemberg Hespanha Brasil,Paulo Ant?nio de Souza Junior,Jo?o Andrade de Carvalho Junior
Sistemas & Gest?o , 2008,
Abstract: Corporate inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the biomass stock, contain relevant information for the decision makers at the private sector to support their policies related to climate change. A methodology for the calculation of emissions from processes and services is presented. This methodology includes the expressions of uncertainties associated to the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions. The importance of the knowledge of these uncertainties is also discussed.
Managing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Airport Inventories: An Overview  [cached]
Orazio Giuffre’,Anna Grana
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v4n5p67
Abstract: For some years now, problems relating to gas emissions that affect climate and result from human activities have assumed a global dimension of large importance. The climate is, indeed, influenced by the concentrations of some pollutants in the atmosphere; these pollutants trap the long wave radiation emitted by the Earth and alter the energy balance, causing an accentuation of the natural greenhouse effect. In this view an inventory of greenhouse gases can become the benchmark against which to measure the achievement of quantitative targets set at the political level in the fight against climate change. Contrary to a general inventory of emissions related with air quality objectives and local effects of pollutants, a greenhouse gas inventory does not set objectives purely local, but it directs efforts towards the quantification of the liability of an area compared to a global problem as climate change, also in view of possible improvements. The inventory is thus the reference for the evaluation of pre-and post-operam actions aimed at reducing the greenhouse effect as well as for their monitoring over time. The article in an overview of the main issues of air pollution associated with airport operations and a review of the airport sources and components contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. After an brief description of the most recent international and national standard and recommendations on this topic, the article focuses on reasons for developing a greenhouse gas emission inventories and traces the essential elements in the methodology to be followed by airport operators for preparing an airport-specific inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. Methods for calculating emissions are also summarized and reviewed. Finally, the new references to the environmental sustainability at airports, as well as the main measures to be taken to reduce emissions are also identified and commented on.
Air Emission Inventories Methodology for Port and Air Quality Simulation
Bang Q. Ho
Modern Transportation , 2013,
Abstract: Port activities can be a major source of air pollution. Conducting an air emission inventory is essential to design effective emission abatement strategies. The aims of this study are to calculate air emissions, modeling of air quality and discuss emission abatement strategies for Saigon port, Vietnam. Saigon Port within the port system of the Vietnam Maritime sector is one the port having the highest throughput and productivity in the country. The air quality in the area around the port is polluted. Then the air emissions results are used for modelling air quality in Saigon Port. The results of air quality modelling are used to design emissions abatement strategies. The results of air emission inventories show that total emissions of all pollutants are dominated by OGVs and harbor cranes. Emissions from OGVs are mainly during hotelling due to the long times spent at berth, while harbor cranes emissions are high because of the extended usage and high power rating. The results of air quality modeling using only air emission inventories from the port as input parameter show that concentration of air pollutants is lower than the Vietnamese technical regulation on ambient air quality. Only air emissions from Saigon port don’t pollute the air surrounding area but if combined with other sources of emissions cause air pollution to the surrounding area.
Teaching mathematics in rural schools through the Dialectic Mediation Methodology  [cached]
Jaqueline Zdebski da Silva Cruz,Maria Lidia Sica Szymanski
Práxis Educativa , 2012,
Abstract: This paper approaches the need for pedagogical work within the scope of Rural Education, mainly Mathematics teaching. It seeks to justify the defense of a differentiated work, which takes as its starting point, the students’ mathematical knowledge and allows its broadening in such a way that the mathematical knowledge acquired is really useful in their everyday life. Taking the Rural Education Curricular Guidelines into account, this study presents the main points for the development of a dialectic mediation methodology, which establishes relations between the different knowledge of teachers and students, so that the students can overcome their immediate knowledge of the world, through mathematical knowledge historically built by humankind.
LOADS INTERACTION DOMAINS METHODOLOGY FOR THE DESIGN OF STEEL GREENHOUSE STRUCTURES  [cached]
Sergio Castellano
Journal of Agricultural Engineering , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/jae.2007.1.21
Abstract: Aim of this research is to develop a design methodology which correlates main structural design parameters, whose production is characterised by high levels of standardization, such as the height of gutter or the distance between frames, with actions on the greenhouse. The methodology, based on the use of charts and abacus, permits a clear and a direct interpretation of the structural response to design load combinations and allows the design of structural improvements with the aim of the optimization of the ratio benefits (structural strength)/costs. The study of structural interaction domains allowed a clear and a direct interpretation of the structural response to design load combinations. The diagrams highlight not only if the structure fulfils the standard requirements but also the safety levels with respect to design load combinations and allow the structural designer how to operate in order to optimize the structural response with standard requirements achieving the best ratio benefits (structural safety)/ costs. The methodology was developed basing on criteria assigned by EN13031 on two different kinds of greenhouse structures: an arched greenhouse with a film plastic covering and a duo pitched roof greenhouse cover with rigid plastic membranes. Structural interaction domains for arched greenhouse showed a better capability of the structure to resist to vertical loads then to horizontal one. Moreover, the climatic load distribution on the structure assigned by EN13031 is such that the combination of climatic actions is less dangerous for the structure then their individual application. Whilst, duo pitched roof steel greenhouse interaction domains, showed a better capability of the structure to resist to vertical loads then to horizontal one and that, in any case, the serviceability limit states analysis is more strict then the ULS one. The shape of structural domains highlighted that the combination of actions is more dangerous for the structure then the application of single loads. Charts and abacus very easy to interpret and can be used also by non technicians in order to arrange a quick and reliable estimate of the costs of the structure. For instance, it is sufficient to know characteristic values of snow loads and wind speed to evaluate what is the distance of frame of the arched greenhouse to fulfil EN13031 requirements.
Inventories of N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils
M. Kesik, P. Ambus, R. Baritz, N. Brüggemann, K. Butterbach-Bahl, M. Damm, J. Duyzer, L. Horváth, R. Kiese, B. Kitzler, A. Leip, C. Li, M. Pihlatie, K. Pilegaard, S. Seufert, D. Simpson, U. Skiba, G. Smiatek, T. Vesala,S. Zechmeister-Boltenstern
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2005,
Abstract: Forest soils are a significant source for the primary and secondary greenhouse gases N2O and NO. However, current estimates are still uncertain due to the still limited number of field measurements and the herein observed pronounced variability of N trace gas fluxes in space and time, which are due to the variation of environmental factors such as soil and vegetation properties or meteorological conditions. To overcome these problems we further developed a process-oriented model, the PnET-N-DNDC model, which simulates the N trace gas exchange on the basis of the processes involved in production, consumption and emission of N trace gases. This model was validated against field observations of N trace gas fluxes from 19 sites obtained within the EU project NOFRETETE, and shown to perform well for N2O (r2=0.68, slope=0.76) and NO (r2=0.78, slope=0.73). For the calculation of a European-wide emission inventory we linked the model to a detailed, regionally and temporally resolved database, comprising climatic properties (daily resolution), and soil parameters, and information on forest areas and types for the years 1990, 1995 and 2000. Our calculations show that N trace gas fluxes from forest soils may vary substantial from year to year and that distinct regional patterns can be observed. Our central estimate of NO emissions from forest soils in the EU amounts to 98.4, 84.9 and 99.2 kt N yr 1, using meteorology from 1990, 1995 and year 2000, respectively. This is <1.0% of pyrogenic NOx emissions. For N2O emissions the central estimates were 86.8, 77.6 and 81.6 kt N yr 1, respectively, which is approx. 14.5% of the source strength coming from agricultural soils. An extensive sensitivity analysis was conducted which showed a range in emissions from 44.4 to 254.0 kt N yr 1 for NO and 50.7 to 96.9 kt N yr 1 for N2O, for year 2000 meteorology. The results show that process-oriented models coupled to a GIS are useful tools for the calculation of regional, national, or global inventories of biogenic N trace gas emissions from soils. This work represents the most comprehensive effort to date to simulate NO and N2O emissions from European forest soils.
Inventories of N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils  [PDF]
M. Kesik,P. Ambus,R. Baritz,N. Brüggemann
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: Forest soils are a significant source for the primary and secondary greenhouse gases N2O and NO. However, current estimates are still uncertain due to the still limited number of field measurements and the herein observed pronounced variability of N trace gas fluxes in space and time, which are due to the variation of environmental factors such as soil and vegetation properties or meteorological conditions. To overcome these problems we further developed a process-oriented model, the PnET-N-DNDC model, which simulates the N trace gas exchange on the basis of the processes involved in production, consumption and emission of N trace gases. This model was validated against field observations of N trace gas fluxes from 19 sites obtained within the EU project NOFRETETE, and shown to perform well for N2O (r=0.68, slope=0.76) and NO (r2=0.78, slope=0.73). For the calculation of a European-wide emission inventory we linked the model to a detailed, regionally and temporally resolved database, comprising climatic properties (daily resolution), and soil parameters, and information on forest areas and types for the years 1990, 1995 and 2000. Our calculations show that N trace gas fluxes from forest soils may vary substantial from year to year and that distinct regional patterns can be observed. Our central estimate of NO emissions from forest soils in the EU amounts to 98.4, 84.9 and 99.2 kt N yr-1, using meteorology from 1990, 1995 and year 2000, respectively. This is <1.0% of pyrogenic NOx emissions. For N2O emissions the central estimates were 86.8, 77.6 and 81.6 kt N yr-1, respectively, which is approx. 14.5% of the source strength coming from agricultural soils. An extensive sensitivity analysis was conducted which showed a range in NO emissions from 44.4 to 254.0 kt N yr-1 for NO and 50.7 to 96.9 kt N yr-1 for N2O, for year 2000 meteorology. The results show that process-oriented models coupled to a GIS are useful tools for the calculation of regional, national, or global inventories of biogenic N-trace gas emissions from soils. This work represents the most comprehensive effort to date to simulate NO and N2O emissions from European forest soils.
Inventories, Interest Rates, and Markups  [PDF]
David G. Bivin
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.12010
Abstract: This note explains why inventories might rise with interest rates. Higher real interest rates not only increase the carrying cost of inventories they also reduce the present value of the markup on delayed sales. When the markup is large enough, it is profitable to increase stocks in order to avoid sales delays. Another possibility is that the firm has an incentive to smooth its total stocks so that an increase in the real interest rate causes finished goods to fall but the reduction is partially offset by an increase in raw materials.
Intercultural Mediation  [PDF]
Dragos Marian Radulescu,Denisa Mitrut
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The Intercultural Mediator facilitates exchanges between people of different socio-cultural backgrounds and acts as a bridge between immigrants and national and local associations, health organizations, services and offices in order to foster integration of every single individual. As the use mediation increases, mediators are more likely to be involved in cross-cultural mediation, but only the best mediators have the opportunity to mediate cross border business disputes or international politics conflicts. This article attempts to provide a new perspective about the intercultural mediation.
Axion Mediation
Baryakhtar, Masha;Hardy, Edward;March-Russell, John
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: We explore the possibility that supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the Standard Model sector through the interactions of a generalized axion multiplet that gains a F-term expectation value. Using an effective field theory framework we enumerate the most general possible set of axion couplings and compute the Standard Model sector soft-supersymmetry-breaking terms. Unusual, non-minimal spectra, such as those of both natural and split supersymmetry are easily implemented. We discuss example models and low-energy spectra, as well as implications of the particularly minimal case of mediation via the QCD axion multiplet. We argue that if the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong-CP problem is realized in string theory then such axion-mediation is generic, while in a field theory model it is a natural possibility in both DFSZ- and KSVZ-like regimes. Axion mediation can parametrically dominate gravity-mediation and is also cosmologically beneficial as the constraints arising from axino and gravitino overproduction are reduced. Finally, in the string context, axion mediation provides a motivated mechanism where the UV completion naturally ameliorates the supersymmetric flavor problem.
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