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Energy potentials worldwide and their importance in cellulose and paper industry  [PDF]
Valent Vladimir,Krgovi? Milorad,Kr?ikapa Marina,Nikoli? Sre?ko
Hemijska Industrija , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/hemind0804223v
Abstract: The available worldwide energy sources are presented. The applications of energy over the next period are considered in this study. The applications and the importance of alternative energy sources is reviewed. The emphasis is put on the necessity of developing new technologies and rationalization of energy use. The data regarding heat and electric energy, along with water applications in cellulose and paper industry are also given.
Ordering in red abalone nacre  [PDF]
Rebecca A. Metzler,Dong Zhou,Mike Abrecht,Susan N. Coppersmith,P. U. P. A. Gilbert
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Red abalone nacre is an intensely studied biomineral, and yet its formation mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report quantitative measurements probing the degree of order of the aragonite tablets in nacre, and show that order develops over a distance of about 50 microns. These observations indicate that the orientational order of aragonite tablets in nacre is established gradually and dynamically, and we show that a model of controlled assembly based on suppression of the crystal growth rate along a specific direction, when growth is confined in a layered structure, yields a tablet pattern consistent with those revealed by detailed experimental measurements. This work provides strong evidence that the organism s control of crystal orientation in nacre occurs via regulation of crystal nucleation and growth as opposed to direct templation or heteroepitaxial growth on organic molecules on the organic matrix sheets.
Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries and Culture  [cached]
Peter Cook
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: Although this book originated from the First International Symposium on Abalone Biology, which was held in La Paz, Mexico in 1989, it is far more than a collection of symposium papers. The symposium papers are included in the volume but, in addition to this, the editors solicited review articles on several of the more important aspects of abalone biology. One of the most attractive features of the book is the skilful way in which the editors have managed to cover a very broad range of subject material whilst at the same time treating individual topics in sufficient depth to satisfy specialists.
Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand  [PDF]
Chanyut Sudtongkong,Suwat Tanyaros
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.
Transcriptome characterization of the South African abalone Haliotis midae using sequencing-by-synthesis
Paolo Franchini, Mathilde van der Merwe, Rouvay Roodt-Wilding
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-59
Abstract: More than 25 million short reads generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer were de novo assembled in 22,761 contigs with an average size of 260 bp. With a stringent E-value threshold of 10-10, 3,841 contigs (16.8%) had a BLAST homologous match against the Genbank non-redundant (NR) protein database. Most of these sequences were annotated using the gene ontology (GO) and eukaryotic orthologous groups of proteins (KOG) databases and assigned to various functional categories. According to annotation results, many gene families involved in immune response were identified. Thousands of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were detected. Setting stringent parameters to ensure a high probability of amplification, 420 primer pairs in 181 contigs containing SSR loci were designed.This data represents the most comprehensive genomic resource for the South African abalone H. midae to date. The amount of assembled sequences demonstrated the utility of the Illumina sequencing technology in the transcriptome characterization of a non-model species. It allowed the development of several markers and the identification of promising candidate genes for future studies on population and functional genomics in H. midae and in other abalone species.Abalones (Haliotis spp., Haliotidae) are important fishery resources worldwide, with high commercial value. Because of their sedentary lifestyle along shallow rocky coastlines [1], these gastropods are vulnerable to capture. The subsequent over-exploitation resulted in a substantial decrease of wild populations. To compensate for the high demand of abalone, farming by means of aquaculture has been developed for several Haliotis species in different regions of their distribution area. Currently, abalone aquaculture is practiced on 12 species in 16 different countries [2].Haliotis midae is one of the six endemic abalone species of southern Africa. Being the largest and most abundant South African species, this a
Advances in molecular genetics of abalone

LI Zhong-Bao,

中国生态农业学报 , 2006,
Abstract: The advances in molecular genetics of abalone are stated.Genetic markers in molecular genetics of abalone include karyotype analysis,allozyme,microsatellite and minisatellite,RAPD,RFLP,MtDNA,ESTs and gene sequence markers.The application of these markers has made a good progress in investigations of genetic diversity,genetic differentiation,genetic structure,species and strain identification in abalone.It will be strengthened in aspect of proteomics, function genomics,genetic linkage maping,quantitative trait loci(QTL) and marker-assisted selection(MAS) in abalone.
Genetic Characterization of Five Hatchery Populations of the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Using Microsatellite Markers  [PDF]
Hye Suck An,Jang Wook Lee,Hyun Chul Kim,Jeong-In Myeong
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12084836
Abstract: The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is a popular food in Eastern Asia. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, the growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. We analyzed the genetic structures of five cultured populations in Korea using six microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 15 to 64, with an average of 23.5. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.797 and 0.904, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient F IS ranged from 0.054 to 0.184 (mean F IS = 0.121 ± 0.056). The genetic differentiation across all populations was low but significant (overall F ST = 0.009, P < 0.01). Pairwise multilocus F ST tests, estimates of genetic distance, and phylogenetic and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect extensive aquaculture, the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. Thus, for optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the abalone stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both H. discus hannai fisheries and the aquaculture industry.
Effects of a Range-Expanding Sea Urchin on Behaviour of Commercially Fished Abalone  [PDF]
Elisabeth M. A. Strain, Craig R. Johnson, Russell J. Thomson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073477
Abstract: Background Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. Conclusions/Significance The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour.
A Bacteriophage-Related Chimeric Marine Virus Infecting Abalone  [PDF]
Jun Zhuang,Guiqin Cai,Qiying Lin,Zujian Wu,Lianhui Xie
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013850
Abstract: Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV) can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin). The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB) protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria.
Detection and Localisation of the Abalone Probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and Its Extracellular Protease, VmproA, within the Digestive Tract of the South African Abalone, Haliotis midae  [PDF]
Robert J. Huddy, Vernon E. Coyne
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086623
Abstract: Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.
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