Abstract:
Artificial spin ice arrays of micromagnetic islands are a means of engineering additional energy scales and frustration into magnetic materials. Despite much progress in elucidating the properties of such arrays, the `spins' in the systems studied so far have no thermal dynamics as the kinetic constraints are too high. Here we address this problem by using a material with an ordering temperature near room temperature. By measuring the temperature dependent magnetization in different principal directions, and comparing with simulations of idealized statistical mechanical models, we confirm a dynamical `pre-melting' of the artificial spin ice structure at a temperature well below the intrinsic ordering temperature of the island material. We thus create a spin ice array that has real thermal dynamics of the artificial spins over an extended temperature range.

Abstract:
Micromagnetic properties of monopoles in artificial kagome spin ice systems are investigated using numerical simulations. We show that micromagnetics brings additional complexity into the physics of these monopoles that is, by essence, absent in spin models: besides a fractionalized classical magnetic charge, monopoles in the artificial kagome ice are chiral at remanence. Our simulations predict that the chirality of these monopoles can be controlled without altering their charge state. This chirality breaks the vertex symmetry and triggers a directional motion of the monopole under an applied magnetic field. Our results also show that the choice of the geometrical features of the lattice can be used to turn on and off this chirality, thus allowing the investigation of chiral and achiral monopoles.

Abstract:
We perform micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization distribution in the inverse opal-like structures (IOLS) made from the ferromagnetic materials (nickel and cobalt). It is shown that the unit cell of these complex structures, which characteristic length is approximately 700 nm, can be divided into a set of structural elements some of which behave like the Ising-like objects. A spin-ice behavior of IOLS is observed in a broad range of external magnetic fields signifying an effective frustrating interaction between the Ising-like structural units. Numerical results describe successfully the experimental hysteresis curve of the magnetization of the Ni and Co based IOLS. We conclude that magnetic IOLS can be considered as the first realization of three-dimensional artificial spin ice.

Abstract:
Arrays of suitably patterned and arranged magnetic elements may display artificial spin-ice structures with topological defects in the magnetization, such as Dirac monopoles and Dirac strings. It is known that these defects strongly influence the quasi-static and equilibrium behavior of the spin-ice lattice. Here we study the eigenmode dynamics of such defects in a square lattice consisting of stadium-like thin film elements using micromagnetic simulations. We find that the topological defects display distinct signatures in the mode spectrum, providing a means to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze monopoles and strings which can be measured experimentally.

Abstract:
We report a magneto-optical Kerr effect study of the collective magnetic response of artificial square spin ice, a lithographically-defined array of single-domain ferromagnetic islands. We find that the anisotropic inter-island interactions lead to a non-monotonic angular dependence of the array coercive field. Comparisons with micromagnetic simulations indicate that the two perpendicular sublattices exhibit distinct responses to island edge roughness, which clearly influence the magnetization reversal process. Furthermore, such comparisons demonstrate that disorder associated with roughness in the island edges plays a hitherto unrecognized but essential role in the collective behavior of these systems.

Abstract:
We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloids is suppressed near the doping sites. These results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.

Abstract:
Artificial spin ice has become a valuable tool for understanding magnetic interactions on a microscopic level. The strength in the approach lies in the ability of a synthetic array of nanoscale magnets to mimic crystalline materials, composed of atomic magnetic moments. Unfortunately, these nanoscale magnets, patterned from metal alloys, can show substantial variation in relevant quantities such as coercive field, with deviations up to 6%. By carefully studying the reversal process of artificial kagome ice, we can directly measure the distribution of coercivities, and by switching from disconnected islands to a connected structure, we find that the coercivity distribution can achieve a deviation of only 3.3%. These narrow deviations should allow the observation of behavior that mimics canonical spin-ice materials more closely.

Abstract:
We address the recent advances on microwave quantum optics with artificial atoms. This field relies on the fact that the coupling between a superconducting artificial atom and propagating microwave photons in a 1D open transmission line can be made strong enough to observe quantum coherent effects, without using any cavity to confine the microwave photons. We investigate the scattering properties in such a system with resonant coherent microwaves. We observe the strong nonlinearity of the artificial atom and under strong driving we observe the Mollow triplet. By applying two resonant tones, we also observe the Autler-Townes splitting. By exploiting these effects, we demonstrate two quantum devices at the single-photon level in the microwave regime: the single-photon router and the photon-number filter. These devices provide essential steps towards the realization of an on-chip quantum network.

Abstract:
Recently, significant interest has emerged in fabricated systems that mimic the behavior of geometrically-frustrated materials. We present the full realization of such an artificial spin ice system on a two-dimensional kagome lattice and demonstrate rigid adherence to the local ice rule by directly counting individual pseudo-spins. The resulting spin configurations show not only local ice rules and long-range disorder, but also correlations consistent with spin ice Monte Carlo calculations. Our results suggest that dipolar corrections are significant in this system, as in pyrochlore spin ice, and they open a door to further studies of frustration in general.

Abstract:
We demonstrate how a colloidal version of artificial ice can be realized on optical trap lattices. Using numerical simulations, we show that this system obeys the ice rules and that for strong colloid-colloid interactions, an ordered ground state appears. We show that the ice rule ordering can occur for systems with as few as twenty-four traps and that the ordering transition can be observed at constant temperature by varying the barrier strength of the traps.