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Learning and teaching in Immersive Virtual Worlds  [cached]
Frances Bell,Maggi Savin-Baden,Robert Ward
Research in Learning Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v16i3.10892
Abstract: This special issue comprises a number of exciting initiatives and developments that begin to put issues of learning in immersive virtual worlds centre stage. Although learning through specific types of serious games has been popular for some years, the pedagogical value of immersive worlds is currently not only inchoate but also under-researched. Whilst several of the articles here are not based on empirical research, what they do offer is new ways of considering the pedagogical purposes of using these kinds of digital spaces. The difficulty with the perception of immersive virtual worlds is that there is often a sense that they are seen as being dislocated from physical spaces, and yet they are not. Web spaces are largely viewed as necessarily freer locations where there is a sense that it is both possible and desirable to ‘do things differently'.
Is Learning in Low Immersive Environments Carried over to High Immersive Environments?  [PDF]
Dror David Lev,Miriam Reiner
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/521521
Abstract: One of the more debated issues regarding training simulators is their validity for transfer of skills to sensory environments that differ from the simulator. In two experiments, the advantages of three-dimensional (3D) and collocated (Col) visual displays were evaluated in a realistic and complex visuomotor task. The two factors were evaluated independently, comparing Col-2D with dislocated-2D (experiment 1) and with Col-3D (experiment 2). As expected, in both cases the more immersive presentation condition facilitated better performance. Furthermore, improvement following training in the more immersive condition carried over to the following less immersive condition but there was no carry over in the opposing order of presentation. This is taken as an indication for the differential development of skills conditioned by the level of immersiveness of the training environment. This further suggests that learning of complex realistic tasks is not carried over from less immersive simulator to the complex sensory environment of reality, due to the large gap in sensory patterns. 1. Introduction Virtual environments of various levels of immersiveness are widely used for training. One of the more debated issues regarding training simulators is their validity for transfer of skills to sensory environments that differ from the simulator. The question of validity is composed of two underlying questions: what is the quality of learning using training simulators, and what is the quality of transfer of manual skills from a training simulator to real life tasks. The first relates to the characteristics of the simulator—whether it provides the sensory cues needed for optimal learning. The second is especially crucial: it is the newly acquired skills exported to new, less or more immersive sensory environments? For instance does training on surgical incisions in “Flatandia” type of world [1], a two-dimensional screen without touch, carry over to space-land (ibid), a 3-dimensional virtual world with haptics? The first being evolutionary alien, while the second is friendly and well experienced. The skills for successful performance in each do not overlap. An additional level of learning and transfer difficulty is added when haptics is dislocated from the visual cues. For instance, if playing virtual tennis, you feel the ball hitting your arm, but see the hit on your iphone. Dislocation and flatness change drastically the sensory input in the active exploration cycle [2]. The active exploration cycle refers to the continuous cyclic process that involves sensory scanning,
The role of immersive informal science programs  [PDF]
Jacob Noel-Storr
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Immersive informal environments (such as summer camps, residential programs at museums and science centers, etc.) can provide a venue for young people to explore their scientific thinking in a less formalized context than is available in most traditional classrooms. While class instruction is beneficial for children to develop formal science skills and content knowledge, venues that offer more opportunities for experimentation and exploration can promote deeper understandings. In this article I explore the background of science learning and venues where this learning can take place followed by a review of the benefits and necessary components of well designed immersive informal programs.
Design and Test of Flipped Classroom Learning Support Model in Mobile Learning Environment  [PDF]
Xiulin Ma, Youyuan Su, Jingjing Liu, Sheng Li
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.102020
The coverage of wireless network and the popularization of mobile communication devices enable mobile learning to happen anytime and anywhere; short and refined micro-course resources are more popular in mobile learning environments, and the flipped classroom teaching mode based on mobile learning environment also presents a more extensive application momentum. However, flipped classroom teaching practice based on mobile learning environment has also encountered some problems in recent years, mainly manifested as unstable knowledge system of learners and short retention time of learning motivation. This study referred to the existing flipped classroom teaching model; discussed the characteristics and problems of learning resources in mobile learning environment, and put forward the teaching design idea of “further structuring micro-learning resources, visualizing knowledge system and giving full play to teachers’ dominance with the help of instant messaging tools” in the mobile learning environment. With the help of practical teaching activities, the value of this design idea in improving the learning efficiency of flipped classroom was verified, and a relatively stable “flipped classroom learning support model under mobile learning environment” was finally formed. Finally, the relevant theories of mobile learning environment supporting autonomous learning are improved.
A Flipped Learning Approach Using Social Media in Health Informatics Education  [PDF]
Ali H. Alharbi
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.613147
Abstract: Social media have become an important aspect of people’s everyday life. Despite the popularity of social media networks and applications, only few educators utilize them to improve teaching and learning. A flipped learning is an innovative approach that changes the traditional way of delivering lectures in the classroom by inverting the instructional cycle so that students can gain knowledge before the class. This paper presents a flipped learning approach for teaching using social media. Students were exposed to the lecture content before the class in a collaborative and interactive learning environment using a well-known social media application. The course instructor served as a facilitator rather than a dominator for the instructional process. The proposed approach was applied to teach an undergraduate introductory course on health informatics, a dynamic and emerging academic discipline. In this paper, a focus group research technique was utilized to evaluate the educational effectiveness of this approach. The results of the evaluation revealed that students were comfortable and satisfied that this approach helped them understand the course concepts in an interactive and collaborative learning environment. The results of the study also identified some educational benefits as well as limitations and drawbacks of using social media as a flipped learning approach. These results can provide an educational framework to improve the implementation of flipped learning approaches using social media.
Remote Laboratory Experiments in a Virtual Immersive Learning Environment  [PDF]
Luca Berruti,Franco Davoli,Sandro Zappatore,Gianluca Massei,Amedeo Scarpiello
Advances in Multimedia , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/426981
Abstract: The Virtual Immersive Learning (VIL) test bench implements a virtual collaborative immersive environment, capable of integrating natural contexts and typical gestures, which may occur during traditional lectures, enhanced with advanced experimental sessions. The system architecture is described, along with the motivations, and the most significant choices, both hardware and software, adopted for its implementation. The novelty of the approach essentially relies on its capability of embedding functionalities that stem from various research results (mainly carried out within the VICOM national project), and “putting the pieces together” in a well-integrated framework. These features, along with its high portability, good flexibility, and, above all, low cost, make this approach appropriate for educational and training purposes, mainly concerning measurements on telecommunication systems, at universities and research centers, as well as enterprises. Moreover, the methodology can be employed for remote access to and sharing of costly measurement equipment in many different activities. The immersive characteristics of the framework are illustrated, along with performance measurements related to a specific application.
From cognitive capability to social reform? Shifting perceptions of learning in immersive virtual worlds  [cached]
Maggi Savin-Baden
Research in Learning Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v16i3.10894
Abstract: Learning in immersive virtual worlds (simulations and virtual worlds such as Second Life) could become a central learning approach in many curricula, but the socio-political impact of virtual world learning on higher education remains under-researched. Much of the recent research into learning in immersive virtual worlds centres around games and gaming and is largely underpinned by cognitive learning theories that focus on linearity, problem-solving and the importance of attaining the ‘right answer' or game plan. Most research to date has been undertaken into students' experiences of virtual learning environments, discussion forums and perspectives about what and how online learning has been implemented. This article reviews the literature relating to learning in immersive virtual worlds, and suggests that there needs to be a reconsideration of what ‘learning' means in such spaces.
Extended Immersive Learning Environment: A Hybrid Remote/Virtual Laboratory  [cached]
Roderval Marcelino,Juarez Bento da Silva,Gustavo Ribeiro Alves,Lírio Shaeffer
International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE) , 2010, DOI: 10.3991/ijoe.v6s1.1386
Abstract: This paper presents a collaborative virtual learning environment, which includes technologies such as 3D virtual representations, learning and content management systems, remote experiments, and collaborative learning spaces, among others. It intends to facilitate the construction, management and sharing of knowledge among teachers and students, in a global perspective. The environment proposes the use of 3D social representations for accessing learning materials in a dynamic and interactive form, which is regarded to be closer to the physical reality experienced by teachers and students in a learning context. A first implementation of the proposed extended immersive learning environment, in the area of solid mechanics, is also described, including the access to theoretical contents and a remote experiment to determine the elastic modulus of a given object.These instructions give you basic guidelines for preparing camera-ready papers for conference proceedings. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word 6.0 or later. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract.
An evaluation of implementing problem-based learning scenarios in an immersive virtual world
Maggi Savin-Baden,Cathy Tombs,Terry Poulton,Emily Conradi
International Journal of Medical Education , 2011, DOI: 10.5116/ijme.4e92.b22f
Abstract: Objectives: This paper will describe a project adopting a pedagogical approach that implemented and evaluated a problem-based learning project in an immersive virtual world. The project involved an iterative process of testing scenarios using student feedback to improve upon the scenarios. Methods: The study used illuminative evaluation which is argued to take account of wider contexts than more traditional evaluation and, is primarily concerned with description and interpretation rather than measurement and prediction. The evaluation encompassed formative elements to inform the project team and summative elements to establish the worth of what was achieved. Results: The findings in many ways were more positive than initially anticipated, but there were also a number of challenges. The themes that emerged for the data were technological challenges, pedagogical design, usability and avatar identity, collaboration and Interaction. Conclusions: Students appreciated the value of Second Life as a collaborative environment, but also viewed such practice-based simulations as valuable for individual work. An interesting consequence of the richness and authenticity of the Second Life scenarios is the large amount of detail provided, much more than is usual in paper-based face-to face problem-based learning sessions.
大学翻转课堂教学效果实证研究   ——以《财务学及技术基础》课程翻转教学为例
An Empirical Study on the Flipped College Classroom

- , 2017,
Abstract: 通过对翻转课堂研究文献的梳理,总结国内外翻转课 堂教学改革的主要经验和不足,结合“财务学及技术基础” 课程翻转教学实践,对学生学习行为、效果及其相互关系的 实证研究发现,大学翻转课堂的教学效果取决于线上、线下 两个讨论的设计和组织。大学翻转课堂教学的关键是微课建 设;基础是“题库”建设;慕课平台是重要条件;课程考核设 计是“牛鼻子”;知识系统性是短板;关注学习困难群体是难 点。
Reviewing the related literatures about the “flipped classroom", it is found that the concept of "flipped classroom" originated from the USA in the 1990s, which required teachers to make teaching design and explore class learning materials based on the questions raised by students in advance before the lesson, and to guide the students to discuss together to solve problems in class. In China, the "flipped classroom" has become increasingly popular since 2007, which holds the core idea that discussion-based learning could strengthen students' initiative and motivation in learning, and give students a better understanding about the knowledge they learn, and finally improve students' capability of solving practical problems. However, the "flipped classroom" has not achieved the efficiency as expected. On the contrary, under the influence of Chinese traditional culture inertia and the present framework of educational evaluation; it results in alienation or worse situation in teaching. Some "flipped classrooms" have simply been another version of "homework sea” tactics. Some others provide no problems to discuss in "flipped classrooms". A few "flipped classrooms" are dominated by a few students, which affect the overall effect. Even some teachers are inexperienced in control “flipped classrooms", which make the course inefficient and knowledge fragmented. With the multiple linear regression model, the paper makes an empirical study on the flipped college classroom implemented in the course of the “Financial technology” in four semesters from the autumn in 2014 to the spring in 2016. At the stage of Moocs-helped teaching, there is a significant correlation between the final test scores and the variables of “visit times” and “online discussion”, because every added visit could improve 0.032 points and every added participation in discussions could improve 0.096 points in the final examination. At the beginning stage of the "flipped classroom", the data showed there was no correlation between the final test scores and online-learning. Three reasons were found through after-class interviews as following: the first was the cultural conflict of education; the second was the process opportunism; the last was the result formalism. At the stage of improving flipped-teaching, the correlation between “final exam scores" and “offline discussion” obviously became significant
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