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Arsenic levels in tube-wells water, food, residents' urine and the prevalence of skin lesions in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso
Issa T. Somé, Abdoul K. Sakira, Moustapha Ouédraogo, Theodore Z. Ouédraogo, Adama Traoré, Blaise Sondo, Pierre I. Guissou
Interdisciplinary Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10102-012-0007-4
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic in tube-well water, food and residents' urines samples in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso. The prevalence of skin lesions was evaluated as well. The study was cross-sectional in design. It was conducted during April 2009. Permanent residents of 20 villages were included in the study. Water samples were collected from 31 tube-wells located in the selected villages. Tomatoes, cabbages, and potatoes produced in the selected village were randomly sampled. Arsenic content in water, food, and residents' urine was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using hydride generation method. Finally, 240 people were examined by a medical doctor for skin lesions. Arsenic concentrations from the tube-well water ranged from 1 to 124 μg/l. Arsenic concentrations of more than one-half (52%) of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 μg/l). No trace of arsenic was found in the samples of tomatoes, cabbages, and potatoes. Variation in arsenic concentrations in the urines was correlated to arsenic concentrations in tube-well water. Clinical examinations revealed that melanosis and keratosis were respectively identified in 29.26% and 46.34% of the population. Both conditions were observed in 24.39% of the population. The frequency of skin lesions was positively associated with the arsenic concentration in tube-well water. A great majority (89.53%) of those who had skin lesions were at least 18 years old. In conclusion, chronic arsenic poisoning remains a major public health problem in the province of Yatenga (Burkina Faso).
Economic Analysis of the Determinants of the Adoption of Water and Soil Conservation Techniques in Burkina Faso: Case of Cotton Producers in the Province of Bam  [PDF]
Dissani Badoubatoba Mathieu, Sanmang Wu, Goetswang Kealeboga Fredah
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.1010072
Abstract: Soil degradation is a major problem in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. To maintain or improve soil productivity levels and limit Water losses, especially with rainfall variability, adaptation strategies have been developed that focus on water and Soil Conservation techniques (WSC). Although their agronomic benefits have been proven, adoption rates for these techniques are generally low, particularly among cotton farmers in Bam province. The main objective of this study is to identify the socioeconomic and institutional determinants of the adoption of WSC among cotton farmers in Bam. The data used for our study were collected as part of the Semi-Arid Resilience Promotion Project (SARP) from cotton producers in the province. A probit model was used to analyze the factors that determine the adoption of WSC in Bam cotton producers. The results show that variables such as early warning, group membership, smartphone ownership, and cotton income positively influence the likelihood of producers adopting WSC techniques. On the other hand, technical assistance and access to the pesticide have a negative influence on the adoption of WSC by Bam cotton producers.
Arsenic in Drinking Water Toxicological Risk Assessment in the North Region of Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Jean Fidèle Nzihou, Médard Bouda, Salou Hamidou, Jean Diarra
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.58A007
Abstract:

Human health risks assessment were estimated by determining the nature and probability of adverse health effects in the North region’s populations who are now exposed to arsenic from drinking water or will be exposed in the future. Several questions were addressed in this study: what types of health problems may be caused by arsenic from drinking water? What is the chance that people will experience health problems when exposed to different levels of arsenic? What arsenic level are people exposed to and for how long? To answers these questions we have first identified the hazard by evaluating arsenic concentration in thirty-four (34) bore-hole water points among the region based on the assumption of clinical cases related to drinking water. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0 up to 87.8 micrograms per liter. Next we assessed the dose-response of exposure to arsenic. Dose-response relationship describes how the likelihood and severity of adverse health effects are related to the amount and condition of exposure to arsenic. This required us to choose toxicity reference values (TRVs) above which adverse effects may occur for noncarcinogenic and for carcinogenic effects. Exposure factors have been calculated in two scenarios: people from 0 to 14 years old and people from 15 to 70 years. Exposure has been estimated indirectly through consideration of measured concentrations of arsenic in drinking water. This study show that people in the Yatenga, Zondoma and Passore provinces are at very high risk for developing several pathologies such as hyper pigmentation, keratosis, cancer, etc. due by chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso
Karl Lorenz Dehane
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 1999,
Abstract: Knowledge and use of abortifacients were investigated in a remote ethnically heterogeneous area in the north of Burkina Faso. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 320 married women in 21 villages and supplemented with key informants' interviews, clinical observations at the provincial hospital, and observations in one of the villages. Almost half of the sampled women of all ethnic groups admitted to the existence of abortion carried out by their peers. Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects. Abortions were commonly induced by drinking a watery solution of the roots and leaves of a commonly found bush –– Securidaca longepedunculata. The plant contains uterine contraction stimulating ergot-alkaloids, but also strychnine-like toxic substances. It is reportedly effective in provoking abortions within one day of treatment, but its side-effects are severe and include heavy vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting, and death. There is a need for the rapid introduction of safer birth control methods in the region. (Afr J Reprod Health 1999; 3[2]: 40-50) Key Words: Burkina Faso, Fulbe, Gurmance, abortion, abortifacients, ergot-alkaloids
The rise of the “artist” in Burkina Faso
R Rousseau
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2007,
Abstract: It is only during the last twenty years that contemporary art has found actors in Burkina Faso. Thomas Sankara's revolutionary regime was the first to offer artists a frame to promote and perfect their technique. During the 1980s, the Semaine National de la Culture (National Week of Culture), the Pan-African Film Festival of Ouagadougou (Fespaco), and the Salon International de l'Artisanat de Ouagadougou (Ouagadougou International Handicraft Show) were the only major projects that allowed artists to learn new techniques and to be known. However, because Thomas Sankara's government expected the creators to participate in the revolutionary project, this left them little space for innovation and the expression of their artistic freedom. The early 1990s saw the rise of new events, which at last offered artists a space to practice their art, based on personal inspiration and competence in artistic technique. The Laongo symposium of granite sculpture, PIAMET (an event started by two well-known Burkinabè artists), and Ouaga'Art (organised by the French Cultural Centre of Ouagadougou) thus offered young artists the possibility of discovering the techniques of their colleagues from Africa and elsewhere in the world. However, except the Olorun Foundation, there is no permanent space dedicated to training and artistic exhibition. This lack is a source of obvious problems for the creator who, as a result, may find himself entrenched in a circuit where commercialism seems to dominate artistic research.
Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Kabore Fasnéwindé A,Zango Barnabé,Sanou Adama,Yameogo Clotaire
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-6-s2-s6
Abstract: Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE) result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB) were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106). The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86). Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59). Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60) had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58) had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.
Plants used in traditional beekeeping in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Schweitzer Paul, Nombré Issa, Aidoo Kwamé, Boussim I. Joseph
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.35040
Abstract:

Beekeeping is one of the recommended approaches in the implementation of poverty alleviation programs in rural areas of Burkina Faso. However, plants that are important in beekeeping have not been identified. The use of parts and organs of plants by beekeepers and their methods of harvesting remain unknown. These limit the conservation efforts of these important plants and affect beekeeping development. The study was carried out in the south-central, eastcentral regions and in Comoé and Boucle of Mouhoun regions ofBurkina Faso. The objective of the study was to identify the plants species used by traditional beekeepers, the different uses made of these plant parts and organs and then to discuss the impact of these activities on the survival of the plant resources. An ethnoapiculture survey was conducted in the main apiculture zone of Burkina Faso, using semi-structured interviews. The methodology of botanical coherence or convergence was applied to classify botanical species. Results showed that 35 botanical species were used in traditional beekeeping. The use of plant parts or organs in traditional hives construction represents 55%, attraction of wild swarms in new beehives is 37.50% and use as a torch or as a smoker, 7.50%. The barks are the organs most used. Trees are botanical type most used. The results are not exhaustive and therefore other additional studies need to be carried out. In order to sustain the use of these important plants, their growing in nursery and their planting in the field are recommended.

Molecular Variability and Genetic Structure of IYMV in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Moustapha Koala, Drissa Sérémé, Florence Vignols, Eric Lacombe, Martine Bantgratz, Bouma James Neya, Christophe Brugidou, Nicolas Barro, Oumar Traoré
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.92025
Abstract:

Imperata yellow mottle virus (IYMV, Sobemovirus) was first described in 2008 in the south-western region of Burkina Faso (West Africa). The genetic diversity of IYMV was not documented up to day. In this study, the variability of CP of IYMV was evaluated through the molecular characterization of 38 isolates collected in the western part of Burkina Faso. Comparison of sequences of these new isolates and one IYMV sequence available in GenBank revealed that the average nucleotide diversity was low. The ratio of non-synonymous over synonymous nucleotide substitutions per site was low, indicating a CP diversification under strong purifying selection. Despite of the low nucleotide diversity, phylogenetic analyses revealed segregation of IYMV isolates into six major clades. There was no correlation of phylogenetic grouping of isolates based on geographical location. This is the first study of the genetic diversity of IYMV.

Elderly Men Sexuality in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  [PDF]
Brahima Kirakoya, Moussa Kabore, Fanéwendé Aristide Kabore, Abdoul Karim Pare, Abubakar Babagana Mustapha, Ky Bienvenue Désiré, Barnabé Zango
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2019.93007
Abstract: Background: In general, sexuality is a taboo subject. It is more so in elderly people, as it is believed that they do not complain about sexual disorder. Objective: To analyse the sexual activity of elderly men in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study on the sexual activity of men aged at least 60 years old. The study was carried out in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from 1st June to 31st August 2014. All consenting males who were aged 60 and above at the time of the study were included. Results: We contacted 652 men, but only 200 responded i.e. a response rate of 30.67%. The age of the respondents was between 60 years and 89 years with a mean age of 66.38 ± 5.72 years. 80.15% of the respondents had at least one sexual intercourse in a month. Erection was considered satisfactory or very satisfactory in 45.8% (60/131) of respondents and 63.36% of them always had orgasm during sexual intercourse. Premature ejaculation was noted in 23.66% of respondents, while a decline in libido was noted in 82.44% of them. Conclusion: This study which is the first of its kind in Burkina Faso has helped reveal the importance of sexuality in the lives of elderly men.
To share or not to share: Hierarchy in the distribution of family meals in urban Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Liza Debevec
Anthropological Notebooks , 2011,
Abstract: Popular images of African family meals often present happy families who, despite great hardship, always share the little food they have among all family members. Through de- tailed ethnographic description of the various stages of the preparation and consumption of everyday meals of one extended urban family in Burkina Faso, this article discusses the complexities of the everyday food distribution of family meals. It shows that in urban Burkina Faso food is a both a means of bringing people together and of making clear distinctions between them, in terms of gender, age and economic hierarchy.
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