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Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand  [PDF]
Kerry E. Charles,Wayne L. Linklater
Animals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ani3030830
Abstract: The North Island kākā ( Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60–100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui ( Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics. Sap appears to be an important resource for kākā across sexes and life stages, and provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and tree damage in Wellington City.
Assessment of Infiltration rate of a Tank Irrigation Watershed of Wellington reservoir, Tamilnadu, India  [PDF]
American Journal of Engineering Research , 2013,
Abstract: A Study was attempted to assess the infiltration rate of a tank irrigated Wellington watershed of Tamilnadu, India. Different types of soil samples have been collected from 30 locations spread uniformly over study area in order to examine the infiltration rate of soils and its impact on the overall crop production process. Double ring infiltrometer was used to carry out the experimental study. Infiltration rates were taken at 0 to70minutes of 10 minutes intervals. The assessment or determination of infiltration rate was processed by laboratory analysis of soil samples for the particle size distribution. The infiltration rates were well above the recommended values for crop production. This will help improve the structure and restore soil potentials. Apart from these, suitability evaluation of land in order to effectively categorize soils on the basis of their potential for optimal use could as well be imperative.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2003,
Abstract: This study represents a synthesis of the results of 39 years of researches (1964-2002) regarding the water requirements of the principal field crops.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2003,
Abstract: This study represents a synthesis of the results of 39 years of researches (1964-2002) regarding the irrigation depth of the principal field crops (wheat, maize, soybean, potato, sugar beet).
Nobloedischia rasnitsyni, a new genus and species of Oedischiidae (Orthoptera) from the Lower Permian Wellington Formation of Oklahoma, USA  [cached]
Roy Beckemeyer
ZooKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.130.1327
Abstract: Nobloedischia rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n. (Oedischiidae) is described from the Lower Permian Wellington Formation of Noble County, Oklahoma. The genus is similar to both Petrelcana (Oedischiidae: Mezenoedischiinae) and Oedischia (Oedischiidae: Oedischiinae) and is left unplaced at the subfamily level. The new species is the twelfth Orthoptera species and the fourth species of Oedischiidae from these deposits.
Possible reduction of earthquake hazard on the Wellington Fault, New Zealand, after the nearby 1855, M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake and implication for interpreting paleoearthquake intervals  [cached]
Z. Han
Annals of Geophysics , 2003, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3450
Abstract: Based on the indicative modelling, the changes in Coulomb failure function (?CFS) suggest that the W-HV segment and the T-P segment could be stable in at least the future 300 years and 190 years respectively, for these periods should be needed to accumulate the stress released by the M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake, assuming that there is no influence from other sources, the earthquake did not alter the failure threshold, and that failure is a fairly deterministic process. The results also show that the influence on the W-HV segment and T-P segment of the Wellington Fault caused by the 1855, M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake is significant considering that the average fault rupture recurrence interval on the Wellington Fault is about 500-770 years. With our present understanding of the Wellington and Wairarapa faults, it can be concluded that the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake retarded earthquake occurrence on the W-HV segment and the T-P segment of the Wellington Fault. Thus the seismic hazard in the Wellington region may be over-estimated.
Beginnings: Puerto Rican Studies Revisited  [cached]
Maribel Ortiz Márquez
Centro Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The essay, "Puerto Rican Studies Revisited," examines the inaugural texts that were written during the development of the programs during the seventies. Through the study of a short essay written by Frank Bonilla (along with Emilio González), it examines the organizational axes that configured the field of studies and how they shaped the future discussions by its practitioners.
Neutron diffraction study of TbMnO3: Magnetic structure revisited  [PDF]
R. Kajimoto,H. Yoshizawa,H. Shintani,T. Kimura,Y. Tokura
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.012401
Abstract: Magnetic ordering in TbMnO3 was revisited by a neutron diffraction study. In addition to the previously reported A-type and G-type modulated structures with a propagation vector (0,q_Mn,0), we found C-type and F-type orderings of the Mn moments. All the components appear below T_N^Mn = 46 K, and the G, C,and F-type components are enhanced below T_lock = 28 K, where q_Mn ordering locks at its low temperature value. The locking of the propagation vector also yields the squaring up of the spin arrangement. The magnetic moments of Tb ions show a quasi long-range ordering below T_N^Tb = 7 K. It drastically promotes the development of the G, C, and F-type components while suppressing the A-type components.
Tolerance for Nutrient Imbalance in an Intermittently Feeding Herbivorous Cricket, the Wellington Tree Weta  [PDF]
Priscilla M. Wehi, David Raubenheimer, Mary Morgan-Richards
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084641
Abstract: Organisms that regulate nutrient intake have an advantage over those that do not, given that the nutrient composition of any one resource rarely matches optimal nutrient requirements. We used nutritional geometry to model protein and carbohydrate intake and identify an intake target for a sexually dimorphic species, the Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens). Despite pronounced sexual dimorphism in this large generalist herbivorous insect, intake targets did not differ by sex. In a series of laboratory experiments, we then investigated whether tree weta demonstrate compensatory responses for enforced periods of imbalanced nutrient intake. Weta pre-fed high or low carbohydrate: protein diets showed large variation in compensatory nutrient intake over short (<48 h) time periods when provided with a choice. Individuals did not strongly defend nutrient targets, although there was some evidence for weak regulation. Many weta tended to select high and low protein foods in a ratio similar to their previously identified nutrient optimum. These results suggest that weta have a wide tolerance to nutritional imbalance, and that the time scale of weta nutrient balancing could lie outside of the short time span tested here. A wide tolerance to imbalance is consistent with the intermittent feeding displayed in the wild by weta and may be important in understanding weta foraging patterns in New Zealand forests.
The Polarized Structure Function g_2: A Lattice Study Revisited  [PDF]
M. G?ckeler,R. Horsley,W. Kürzinger,H. Oelrich,P. Rakow,G. Schierholz
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: A recent lattice calculation of the spin-dependent structure function g_2 is revisited. It has been recognized that the twist-three operator, which gives rise to d_2, mixes non-perturbatively with operators of lower dimensions under renormalization. This changes the results substantially.
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