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Ocular Morbid Conditions in the Rural Area of Central India  [PDF]
Vaishali K Shrote (Brahmapurkar),Sushma S Thakre,Ashok G. Lanjewar,Kishor P Brahmapurkar
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Ocular morbid conditions are responsible for partial or total blindness. Ocular morbidities by its sheer magnitude form an enormous problem, not only in human suffering, but also in terms of economical loss and social burden. Aim: The aim of present study was to find the prevalence of ocular morbidities in rural area. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in area covered by Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC), Hingna which is under the administrative control of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College [IGGMC], Nagpur, was carried out in 194 families with 925 study subjects during February 2005-December 2005. The study focuses on ocular examination and diagnosis of ocular morbid conditions. Both eyes were examined and all the relevant clinical findings were recorded in predesigned proforma. Chi Square test was used for the analysis of data .Results: The results revealed that out of 925 study subjects 297(32.11%) were had ocular morbidity. Common ocular morbidity was Myopia (13.62%), Conjunctival xerosis (12.11%), Hypermetropia (11.68%), Xerophthalmia (3.46%), Pterygium (2.92%), immature senile cataract (2.70%), Eye strain (2.49%), mature senile cataract (1.84%) and Presbyopia (0.86%). Females were more affected (36.58%) as compared to males (28.37%), [χ2 = 7.09; d.f. =1, P< 0.05]. It was observed that as the age increases the prevalence of ocular morbidity increases [χ2=318.03; d.f =7, p<0.001].Higher prevalence of ocular morbid conditions was found in Illiterates 122 (40.94%) [χ2 = 16.47; d.f. =3, p<0.001] Conclusion: High prevalence of ocular morbidities was found in rural areas of central India with greater predominance among women and illiterates.
Ocular aberrations after wavefront optimized LASIK for myopia  [cached]
Padmanabhan Prema,Basuthkar Subam,Joseph Roy
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: To study the change in ocular aberrations after wavefront optimized (WFO) laser in situ keratomileusis ( Lasik ) for correction of myopia and to analyze causative factors that may influence them. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective case series. WFO Lasik was performed for the correction of myopia, using the hansatome (Bausch and Lomb) microkeratome to create the flap and the Allegretto laser (Wavelight Technologie) to perform the ablation. The Allegretto wave analyser (Tscherning-type) measured the ocular aberrations prior to Lasik , one month and six months postoperatively. Results: The mean age of the 59 patients included in the study was 25±5.64 years and the mean spherical equivalent of the 117 eyes that underwent Lasik0 was -5.33±1.22 preoperatively and -0.21±0.38 postoperatively. Hundred and two eyes of 117 (87%) achieved uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/20 or better after WFO Lasik and 104 of 117 eyes (89%) were within ±0.5D of the attempted refractive correction. There was a 1.96-fold increase in total root-mean-square of higher order aberrations. Induced changes in seven of the 22 higher order Zernike terms showed a significant linear correlation with the refractive correction attempted. Larger ablation zones induced less spherical aberration. Conclusion: In spite of an excellent visual outcome, WFO Lasik induces significant higher order aberrations. Large ablation zones reduce the induction of spherical aberration.
Prevalence of Ocular Morbidity Among School Adolescents of Gandhinagar District, Gujarat  [cached]
Prakash Prajapati,,Jaydeep Oza,,Jagruti Prajapati,,Geeta Kedia
Online Journal of Health & Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity (abnormal condition) and various factors affecting it among school attending adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study abnormal ocular conditions like refractive errors, vitamin A deficiency, conjunctivitis, trachoma, ocular trauma, blephritis, stye, color blindness and pterygium among school adolescents of 10-19 years age in rural and urban areas of Gandhinagar district from January to July, 2009. Systematic sampling was done to select 20 schools having 6th to 12th standard education including 12 schools from rural and 8 from urban areas. Six adolescents from each age year (10-19) were selected randomly to achieve sample size of 60 from each school. In total, 1206 adolescents including 691 boys and 515 girls were selected. Information was collected from selected adolescents by using proforma. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen’s chart and all participants underwent an ophthalmic examination carried out by a trained doctor. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity among school adolescents was reported 13% (7.8% in boys, 5.6% in girls); with 5.2% have moderate visual impairment. Refractive error was most common ocular morbidity (40%) both among boys and girls. Almost 30% of boys and girls reported vitamin A deficiency in various forms of xerophthalmia. Prevalence of night blindness was 0.91% and of Bitot`s spot 1.74%. Various factors like, illiterate or lower parents’ education, lower socio-economic class and malnutrition were significantly associated with ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Ocular morbidity in adolescents is mainly due to refractive error, moderate visual impairment and xerophthalmia.
Prevalence of Ocular Morbidities among School Children in Rural Area of North Maharashtra in India  [PDF]
Deshpande Jayant D, Malathi K
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The global initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness sets a major challenge to work relentlessly to avoid the preventable blindness. Effective methods of vision screening in school children are useful in detecting correctable causes of decreased vision. Present study was conducted with the objective of estimating the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children in rural area. A cross sectional study was conducted among school going adolescents studying from 5th to 10th standard in the age group 10-16 years in rural area. The ocular examination of school children was done at the respective schools. All the data obtained was analyzed using the software StatistiXL version 1.8. Chi square test was used to observe the association of the ocular morbidities with respect to age, sex, education of father, occupation, class, and nutritional status. Prevalence of ocular morbidities was found to be 27.65 %. Refractive errors and Vitamin A deficiency were the most common ocular disorders. The prevalence of ocular morbidity showed significant association with socio-economic status (?2=29.8, p<0.001), education and occupation of parents, while no significant association was found between ocular morbidity and sex of the school children (?2=0.162, p=0.687), family type (?2=2.41, p=0.121), and religion (?2=6.77, p=0.08) of the school children. Nutritional status of children was significantly associated with the occurrence of ocular morbidity. High prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children in rural area was observed. Periodic screening of school children is very essential to improve the quality of eye-sight.
Assessment of the Association of Matrix Metalloproteinases with Myopia, Refractive Error and Ocular Biometric Measures in an Australian Cohort  [PDF]
Maria Schache, Paul N. Baird
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047181
Abstract: Extracellular matrix proteins have been implicated in protein remodelling of the sclera in refractive error. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) falling into the collagenase (MMP1, MMP8, MMP13), gelatinase (MMP2, MMP9) and stromelysin (MMP3, MMP10, MMP11) functional groups are particularly important. We wished to assess their association with myopia, refractive error and ocular biometric measures in an Australian cohort. A total of 543 unrelated individuals of Caucasian ethnicity were genotyped including 269 myopes (≤?1.0D) and 274 controls (>?1.0D). Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 53) were chosen to encompass these eight MMPs. Association tests were performed using linear and logistic regression analysis with age and gender as covariates. Spherical equivalent, myopia, axial length, anterior chamber depth and corneal curvature were the phenotypes of interest. Initial findings indicated that the best p values for each trait were 0.02 for myopia at rs2274755 (MMP9), 0.02 for SE at both rs3740938 (MMP8) and rs131451 (MMP11), 0.01 for axial length at rs11225395 (MMP8), 0.01 for anterior chamber depth at rs498186 (MMP1) and 0.02 at rs10488 (MMP1). However, following correction for multiple testing, none of these SNPs remained statistically significant. Our data suggests that the MMPs in the collagenase, gelatinase and stromelysin categories do not appear to be associated with myopia, refractive error or ocular biometric measures in this cohort.
Genetic Variants on Chromosome 1q41 Influence Ocular Axial Length and High Myopia  [PDF]
Qiao Fan,Veluchamy A. Barathi,Ching-Yu Cheng,Xin Zhou,Akira Meguro,Isao Nakata,Chiea-Chuen Khor,Liang-Kee Goh,Yi-Ju Li,Wan'e Lim,Candice E. H. Ho,Felicia Hawthorne,Yingfeng Zheng,Daniel Chua,Hidetoshi Inoko,Kenji Yamashiro,Kyoko Ohno-Matsui,Keitaro Matsuo,Fumihiko Matsuda,Eranga Vithana,Mark Seielstad,Nobuhisa Mizuki,Roger W. Beuerman,E.-Shyong Tai,Nagahisa Yoshimura,Tin Aung,Terri L. Young,Tien-Yin Wong,Yik-Ying Teo equal contributor ,Seang-Mei Saw equal contributor
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002753
Abstract: As one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness, myopia poses a significant public health burden in Asia. The primary determinant of myopia is an elongated ocular axial length (AL). Here we report a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies on AL conducted in 1,860 Chinese adults, 929 Chinese children, and 2,155 Malay adults. We identified a genetic locus on chromosome 1q41 harboring the zinc-finger 11B pseudogene ZC3H11B showing genome-wide significant association with AL variation (rs4373767, β = ?0.16 mm per minor allele, Pmeta = 2.69×10?10). The minor C allele of rs4373767 was also observed to significantly associate with decreased susceptibility to high myopia (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.68–0.84, Pmeta = 4.38×10?7) in 1,118 highly myopic cases and 5,433 controls. ZC3H11B and two neighboring genes SLC30A10 and LYPLAL1 were expressed in the human neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and sclera. In an experimental myopia mouse model, we observed significant alterations to gene and protein expression in the retina and sclera of the unilateral induced myopic eyes for the murine genes ZC3H11A, SLC30A10, and LYPLAL1. This supports the likely role of genetic variants at chromosome 1q41 in influencing AL variation and high myopia.
Optic Nerve Head Drusen, Myopia and Ocular Hypertension: A Case Report  [PDF]
Arzu Taskiran Comez, Baris Komur
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2014.41001

A 20-year-old male patient presented at our clinic complaining of strange visual experiences (neither decreased nor blurred) and a mild headache while reading. His best corrected visual acuity revealed 20/20 with a fort myopic correction. Intraocular pressures measured with Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT) (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Port, Switzerland) were 23.3 mmHg in the right eye (OD) and 27.4 mmHg in the left eye (OS) with cenral corneal thicknesses (CCTs) of 588 (OD) and 591 (OS) microns, respectively. Optic discs were bilateral pale with indistinct and scalloped margins without cupping. Red free photos showed autofluorescence of both optic discs, representative of optic disc drusen. Visual field analysis (VFA) of both eyes revealed sensitivity depression with localized defects consistent with the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) findings. Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD), myopia and high intraocular pressures (IOPs), may cause ganglion cell damage resulting in RNFL thinning and visual field loss. Because of the difficulty in detecting the exact cause and the extent of the damage, patients with ONHD associated with high IOPs and myopia should be examined closely with serial monitoring using OCT and VFA. In case of RNFL thinning and visual field

Stress and Anger of Rural and Urban Adolescents  [PDF]
Biplob Kumar Dey, Abdur Rahman, Arunavo Bairagi, Kishor Roy
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.53028

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between stress and anger of rural and urban adolescents of Chittagong district in Bangladesh. The sample of the study consisted of 120 respondents of whom 60 were male (30 rural and 30 urban) and 60 were female (30 rural and 30 urban). Their age levels were 13 - 19. They were selected purposively from different areas of Chittagong district in Bangladesh. Bengali version of Life Stress Scale (Fahim, 2001) was used to measure life stress and Bengali version of Adolescents Anger Rating Scale (AARS) (Islam & Chowdhury, 2011) was used to measure adolescents’ anger. The obtained data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, t-test and Pearson product moment correlation. Results revealed that the stress of urban adolescents was greater than rural; the anger of urban adolescents was more than the rural; the stress of female adolescents was more than the male and the anger of female adolescents was more than male. Results also showed that adolescents’ stress was positively correlated (r = .86, p < .01) with their anger.

Ocular morbidity in the rural areas of Allahabad, India  [PDF]
A Singh,S Dwivedi,SB Dabral,V Bihari,AK Rastogi,D Kumar
Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/nepjoph.v4i1.5850
Abstract: Background: Although there has been a considerable reduction in the infective causes of ocular morbidity, the global burden of blindness has not significantly altered for over a decade. Objectives: To find the extent of ocular morbidity in different subgroups of the rural population and to study the factors associated with ocular morbidity. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Jasra and Saidabad blocks of Allahabad District. A total of eight villages were selected by multistage random sampling technique. The data were analyzed with SPSS Software. Results: Among 9,736 people surveyed, 931 cases of eye diseases were identified. Ocular morbidity was highest (40.92 %) among those aged above 60 years. A higher morbidity was also observed among females (53.60 %), illiterates (69.50 %) and those belonging to low socioeconomic strata (42.86 %). The main causes of ocular morbidity in the study population were cataract (41.89 %), uncorrected refractive errors (21.59 %), xerophthalmia (10.20 %) and glaucoma ( 4.83 %). Conclusions: Programs for cataract surgery, detection and treatment of glaucoma, correction of refractive errors and vitamin A prophylaxis for xerophthalmia need to be targeted to further reduce the burden of ocular morbidity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/nepjoph.v4i1.5850 NEPJOPH 2012; 4(1): 49-53
Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents  [PDF]
E.L. Petroski,A. Pelegrini,M.F. Glaner
Motricidade , 2009,
Abstract: To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence), anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness) and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: <18,5 kg/m2; normal weight: between 18,5 and 25,0 kg/m2; overweight: > 25 kg/m2) and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: <16 mm, ideal: between 16 and 36 mm, high: >36 mm; boys: low: <12 mm, ideal: between 12 and 25 mm, high: >25 mm) were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05) among rural (64,2%) and urban adolescents (62,8%). Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%), whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5%) (p<0,001). Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.
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