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BIODEGRADATION OF DIAZINON AND METHOMYL PESTICIDES BY WHITE ROT FUNGI FROM SELECTED HORTICULTURAL FARMS IN RIFT VALLEY AND CENTRAL KENYA  [PDF]
W.O. NYAKUNDI,G. MAGOMA,J. OCHORA,A.B. NYENDE
Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation , 2011,
Abstract: The aim was to investigate the potential for biodegradation of methomyl and diazinon (pesticides) by white rot fungi through enrichment and isolation of methomyl and diazinon biodegraders from horticultural soils. Five white rot fungal isolates labeled WR1, WR2, WR4, WR9 and WR15 were cultured in a medium containing methomyl and diazinon pesticides as the only carbon source and incubated at 280C and monitored for biodegradation at intervals of 10 days for a period of 100 days. Gilson HPLC system was used for the separation and quantification of the pesticides. The pesticide methomyl was detected at 4.9 minutes while the methomyl metabolite was detected at 4.1 minutes. Diazinon was detected at 11 minutes while the diazinon metabolites; diazoxon and oxypyrimidine were detected at 2.3 and 2.6 minutes. The rate of biodegradation of pesticides was much higher for mixtures of fungi (approximately 50 days) compared to individual isolates (60- 100 days) for diazinon while methomyl was 22-25 days. This shows that fungal mixtures in soil fasten the rate of biodegradation of pollutants compared to individual isolates. The isolates are good biodegraders due to their ability to degrade methomyl or diazinon hence making the isolates good agents for bioremediation. The authors recommend more studies to be done in the fields before their potential application by farmers.
BIODEGRADATION OF AGRO-WASTES BY SOME NIGERIAN WHITE-ROT FUNGI  [PDF]
Oluseyi Damilola Adejoye,Isola. O. Fasidi
BioResources , 2009,
Abstract: Three white-rot fungi: Daedalea elegans, Polyporus giganteus, and Lenzites betulina were screened for their lignin degrading abilities on rice straw, maizecob, sawdust of Terminalia superba, and sugarcane bagasse at different time intervals (30, 60, and 90 days). All the fungi demonstrated varying levels of ligninolytic capability with different degrees of lignin degradation in all the fermented substrates. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the mycelia extension of Daedalea elegans grown on the different agro-industrial wastes. D. elegans gave maximum extension of 4.5 cm on sugarcane bagasse. The highest lignin reduction of 92.9% (p<0.05) was recorded in maize cob fermented with Daedalea elegans after 90 days. On the basis of lignocellulosic material degraded, it is concluded that the white-rot fungi offer a better alternative to conventional ways of disposing these waste substances. This paper considers the ability of indigenous white-rot fungi to degrade lignin as a way of using them in effective waste management.
Effect of Surfactants on Biodegradation of PAHs by White-Rot Fungi
表面活性剂对白腐真菌降解多环芳烃的影响

CHEN Jing,WANG Xue-jun,HU Jun-dong,TAO Shu,
陈静
,王学军,胡俊栋,陶澍

环境科学 , 2006,
Abstract: The impacts of surfactants(Tween80,Trition X-100,LAS and SDS) on PAHs degradation by white-rot fungi in aqueous system and soil-water system were studied.Results show that the type and concentration of surfactants,PAHs statues,pH value of the systems and temperature have impacts on the degradation of PAHs.In aqueous system,all the four surfactants restrained the degradation of PAHs.In soil-water system,Trition X-100 and SDS restrained the degradation of PAHs,while the impacts of Tween80 and LAS on PAHs degradation were influenced by the concentration of the surfactants.Low concentration Tween80 and LAS didn't promote the degradation of PAHs,and even played minor effects of restrain.But the degradation of PAHs could be enhanced with the increasing of the concentrations of Tween80 and LAS to certain levels.However,Tween80 and LAS with significant higher concentrations didn't show higher abilities on the promotion of PAHs degradation.
Biodegradation of some agricultural residues by fungi in agitated submerged cultures
AAS Sinegani, G Emtiazi, S Hajrasuliha, H Shariatmadari
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Digestibility of agricultural residues in animal feeding is deeply dependent on the amounts and types of their fibers. Biological treatment of agricultural residues is a new method for improvement of digestibility. Therefore, the capacity of a few fungi in biodegradation of some agricultural residues was studied. Losses of crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of wheat, barley, rice, wood, and pea straw were investigated in agitated submerged culture during biodegradation by fungi. Biodegradation of the plant residues is dependent on the plant and fungus species. The biodegradation order of plant residues was pea>barley>wheat>rice>wood. A. terreus and T. reesei were more able to degrade the easy degradable plant residues. Rice and wood were degraded more by Armillaria sp., Polyporus sp. and P. chrysosporium. Crude fiber, NDF and ADF of agricultural residues were reduced more by P. chrysosporium. Generally, the reduction of agricultural residues NDF by fungi was more than their ADF. However, Polyporus sp. decreased ADF of wheat straw more. Thus, for improvement of digestibility of agricultural residues, the treatment by white-rot fungi may be recommended.
Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood
EA Emerhi, BA Ekeke, BA Oyebade
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Wood samples were collected from a ten-year old plantation of Pinus caribaea (morelet) in Ijaiye Forest Reserve, 38 km northwest of Ibadan, Nigeria. The wood samples were inoculated separately with two species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brownrot fungi; Lentinus lepideus and Gleophyllum, striatum. Wood weight loss due to biodegradation varied from 1.5 – 48.1% for Corioliopsis polyzona, 9.6 – 58.0% for Pleurotus squarrosulus, 40.4 – 78.1% for Lentinus lepideus and 6.8 – 49.2% for Gleophyllum striatum degrading activities. The mode of wood degradation was peculiar with each fungus. Wood decay varied along the tree bole but was not related to height above the ground. The results indicated that biodegradation by rot fungi differs in intensity according to the fungus species and this suggested that preservative impregnation and retention may be the best way to control the rots to make P. caribaea a utility wood.
Root rot diseases of sugar beet  [PDF]
Jacobsen Barry J.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0610009j
Abstract: Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV), R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.
BIODEGRADATION OF DISTILLERY EFFLUENT BY FUNGI  [PDF]
Prajakta A. Maygaonkar
Bioscience Discovery , 2012,
Abstract: In the present work biodegradation ability of Chaetomium globosum and Aspergillus nidulans have been evaluated. Physical and chemical analysis of effluent collected from Sanjivani distillery industry located at Kopergaon, Dist Ahemadnagar. (M.S) India were carried out to observe the changes in Turbidity, pH, TSS,TDS, COD, Sodium and Magnesium using Chaetomium globosum and Aspergillus nidulans. Chaetomium globosum and Aspergillus nidulans were isolated from soil sample collected from Bhavan’s College campus and purified by serial soil dilution method. Both the fungi were found to reduce the pollutant dynamically. The reduction was noticed at 4hrs, 8hrs, 12hrs, and 24 hours of time interval. Quantity of fungal inoculum in terms of discs, showed its quantitative effect for reduction of pollutants. In case of Chaetomium globosum with one disc of inoculum showed more significant changes (P< 0.05) with TSS and COD level, whereas addition of two and three discs of inoculum more significant changes were noticed in pH, turbidity, TSS, COD level and Mg reduction. For Aspergillus nidulans when only one disc of inoculum was added only two parameters (TSS, and COD) showed the significant changes. (P< 0.05) by adding Two discs of inoculum parameters like TSS, TDS and COD showed the significant changes. While with three discs of inoculum, the significant changes were noticed in pH, TSS, and COD.
BIODEGRADATION OF CELLULOSE BY WOOD DECAYING FUNGI  [PDF]
JAGRATI PARIHAR,C.K.TIWARI,AKHILESH AYACHI,R.K. VERMA
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2012,
Abstract: In the present study 212 specimens of wood decaying fungi were collected from Chhattisgarh, India, during survey in rainy season, 2009- 2010. These were identified, brought in pure culture by tissue culture method on Potato dextrose agar medium. Out of these, 33 species were screened and tested for cellulose degradation capability using filter paper cellulose. The ability of host fungus to utilize insoluble form of cellulose was measured. It was found that, all the 33 wood decaying fungi were able to decompose cellulose at varying degree. Biodegradation of cellulose and CAI were observed maximum with Navisporus floccosus whereas, Pyrofomes tricolor showing minimum biodegradation of cellulose and Flavodon flavus show minimum CAI. It is concluded that cellulose decomposition pattern was vary not only among the genera but also between the species of same genus.
Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n) of sugar beet in province Vojvodina  [PDF]
Stoj?in Vera B.,Bagi Ferenc F.,Jasni? Stevan M.,Bala? Ferenc F.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0610103s
Abstract: Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Ba ka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.
Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi  [PDF]
Harish.R,Supreeth.M,Jyoti Bala Chauhan
Advanced Biotech , 2013,
Abstract: In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion) was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion) as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental molecule (technical grade) in 21 days period of incubation. Further, efficiency of degradation was increased by 10-20% with the supplementation of 0.1% dextrose to the mineral media. Desertion of Chloropyrifos, Ethion and its metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas Chromatography. It was evident from the result that the isolated fungi could be used to bioremediate the area contaminated with organophosphorous pesticide.
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