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Mycorrhizal status of Olea europaea spp. oleaster in Morocco
F Sghir, M Chliyeh, W Kachkouch, M Khouader, AO Touhami, R Benkirane, A Douira
Journal of Applied Biosciences , 2013,
Abstract: Objective: This study describes the mycorrhizal oleaster status (Olea europaea ssp. oleaster:) in the Moroccan ecosystems. Methodology and results: Soil samples were extracted from the rhizosphere of the oleaster tree groves in several regions of Morocco. The frequency and the levels of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inside the root bark were measured by assigning an index of mycorrhization from 0 to 5 (Derkowska et al., 2008). The results showed that the AM fungal colonization structures were hyphae, coils and vesicles. The mycorrhizal frequency and intensity reached respectively 70 and 6% in the Bnifougass site. The highest spore density was in the order of 364 g soil spores/100 g and the genus Glomus was the dominant one. The tentative identification test of VAM (Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) species, isolated from the rhizosphere of the oleaster trees, revealed the presence of five fungus species: Glomus intraradices, Glomus clarum, Glomus versiforme, Acaulospora colossica, Scutellospora heterogama. Conclusion: In all the studied sites the oleaster roots were Mycorrhized. These results open up many opportunities for the application of the controlled mycorrhization in the oleaster plants nurseries production
Biological Significance of Seed Oil and Polyphenolic of Olea europaea  [PDF]
Mohammad Asif
International Journal of Herbal Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: The olive tree Olea europaea have beneficial properties. Mainly used parts of the olive tree are fruits and seeds. Seeds oil of olive is used as a major component of the “diet.” Chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, polyphenolics and squalene. These main phenolic components are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest amounts in virgin olive oil and have antioxidant properties. Olive oil has shown activity in against cancer, mainly in colon and breast cancer prevention, while individual component of olive oil, oleic acid and squalene has also been identified as anticancer agent. The olive oil has effects on coronary heart disease, due to its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein level. Some components (such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein) of olive oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganism in intestinal and respiratory infections. The oleic acid, polyphenolics, squqlenes are dependable for a number of biological activities as well as whole olive plant also gives health benefits.
Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea  [PDF]
Na?m Stiti,Marie-Andrée Hartmann
Journal of Lipids , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/476595
Abstract: Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. 1. Introduction Plant triterpenoids, which include sterols, steroids, and brassinosteroids, constitute a large and structurally diverse group of natural products, with over 100 different carbon skeletons [1, 2]. Oxidative modifications and glycosylations generate more chemical diversity [3]. Sterols and nonsterol triterpenoids are synthesized via the cytoplasmic acetate/mevalonate pathway and share common biosynthetic precursors up to (3S)-2,3-oxidosqualene (OS). The conversion of OS to cycloartenol by the cycloartenol cyclase (CAS, EC 5.4.99.8) is the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, but OS can be also cyclized by distinct OS cyclases (OSCs), also known as triterpene synthases, into a variety of triterpene skeletons including those of α- and β-amyrins, the most commonly occurring plant triterpenes. These nonsterol triterpenoids are then metabolized into multioxygenated compounds, the precursors of triterpene saponins [4]. Thus, OS cyclization by the various triterpene synthases is a major branch point in the regulation of the carbon flux toward either the sterol pathway (primary metabolism) or the nonsterol triterpenoid pathway (secondary metabolism). During these last ten years, triterpenoids isolated from a large number of plant organs
Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development  [PDF]
Linda Bianco, Fiammetta Alagna, Luciana Baldoni, Christine Finnie, Birte Svensson, Gaetano Perrotta
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053563
Abstract: Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.
Inhibition the mutagenicity of vitamin a by using Olea europaea extract  [cached]
Qasim M. Ali Al Ameri,Ali H. Al Saadi,Mona Najah Al-Terehi,Haider K. Zaidan
Research in Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the predisposition of the extraction of the extract ofolive leaves (Olea europaea of the family Oleaceae, or the olive family) to frustrate theexcretion of the inherent toxic caused by vitamin A (henceforth VA). After being sure thatthe extraction is inane of any negative effects on the living creature, the following testsare adopted, the mitotic index test of the medulla ossium of the bones, and thechromosomal aberration test. The results showed that toxic dose of vitamin A havecytogenetic effect. It cusses increased in bone marrow cell proliferation and increase inchromosome malformation, the olea leaf extract showed anti-mutagenic activity againstthe cytogenetic effect of vitamin A it decrees chromosome malformation and kept theMitotic index in normal level.
IBA Promotes Rooting in the Hardwood Cuttings of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars  [PDF]
Mir Saleem Khattak,Fazli Wahab,Javed Iqbal,Muhammad Rafiq
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The study was carried out to propagate olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from hardwood cuttings with IBA (Indole butyric acid) at 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. IBA at 4000 ppm significantly promoted maximum sprouting (90%), highest survival (76.70%) and produced lengthy shoot (5.8 cm) for cultivar Domate and maximum number of roots 6.9 per cutting in the cultivar at 2000 ppm IBA. Root length in the cultivar was increased at 2000 ppm of IBA. The cultivar N.D. Belice was the 2nd best to give good response to various levels of growth regulator. The cuttings of the remaining cultivars showed little response to IBA.
Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Olea europaea L.  [PDF]
Nehir Ozdemir Ozgenturk,Fatma Oru?,Ugur Sezerman,Alper Ku?ukural,Senay Vural Korkut,Feriha Toksoz,Cemal Un
International Journal of Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/757512
Abstract: Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source of edible oil which was originated in Near-East region. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes and search the function of unknown genes of olive. The randomly selected 3840 colonies were sequenced for EST collection from both libraries. Readable 2228 sequences for olive leaf and 1506 sequences for olive fruit were assembled into 205 and 69 contigs, respectively, whereas 2478 were singletons. Putative functions of all 2752 differentially expressed unique sequences were designated by gene homology based on BLAST and annotated using BLAST2GO. While 1339 ESTs show no homology to the database, 2024 ESTs have homology (under 80%) with hypothetical proteins, putative proteins, expressed proteins, and unknown proteins in NCBI-GenBank. 635 EST's unique genes sequence have been identified by over 80% homology to known function in other species which were not previously described in Olea family. Only 3.1% of total EST's was shown similarity with olive database existing in NCBI. This generated EST's data and consensus sequences were submitted to NCBI as valuable source for functional genome studies of olive. 1. Introduction Oleacea family comprises 600 species in 24 genus and disseminates all around the world. The olive Olea europaea L, which is one of the first domesticated agricultural tree crops in the family Oleaceae, is cultivated mainly for both edible oil and table olives. The domestication of Olea europaea is supposed to be realized some 5700–5500 years ago in the Near-East [1]. Therefore, Anatolia is one of the most important areas of the olive origin of which over 86 varieties of Europea species are present in Turkey (Anatolia). It is known that olive is native to coastal areas of the Mediterranean region such as Spain, Italy, Greece, France, Turkey, Algeria, and Morocco. Olive is the most extensively cultivated fruit crop with its orchards cover about 9.8?mil. ha. in the world. According to the statistics published by FAO, Turkey is the fourth largest producer of olive oil in the world, after Spain, Italy, and Greece. Turkey is the first producer of black table olive in the world and Gemlik cuv. represents 80% of black table olives production in Turkey. Because of economical importance of Gemlik, a lot of research centers in Turkey continue their molecular and classical breeding program for this cultivar. Most of the genetic studies in cultivated plants are focused on the understanding of genetic
Chloroformic and Methanolic Extracts of Olea europaea L. Leaves Present Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities  [PDF]
R Chebbi Mahjoub,M. Khemiss,M. Dhidah,A. Della?,A. Bouraoui,F. Khemiss
ISRN Pharmacology , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/564972
Abstract: Olea europaea L. is used in traditional medicine in the Mediterranean areas. Its natural products are used in the treatment of different disorders, like fighting fever and some infectious diseases such as malaria, the treatment of arrhythmia, and relief of intestinal spasms. The aim of the current study is to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory and anatinociceptive effects of methanol and chloroformic extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the different extracts of Olea europaea leaves were assessed after intraperitoneal administration into rats and mice, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats to test the anti-inflammatory effect and the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice to test the analgesic effect. The chloroformic and methanolic leaves extracts, studied at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg (Body Weight: BW), exhibited significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that Olea europaea leaves extracts have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. 1. Introduction The medicinal uses of different parts of Olea europaea L. have been known for a long time in all the countries of the Mediterranean basin. Olive oil was recognized as an important component of a healthy diet. Several epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is low in the Mediterranean basin where the diet is rich in olive products [1, 2]. Historically, olive leaves have been used as a folk remedy for combating fevers and other diseases such as malaria. Previous studies showed that some extracts of this product decreased blood pressure in animals and increased blood flow in coronary arteries [3], relieved arrhythmia, and prevented intestinal muscle spasms [4]. A phytochemical investigation reported that oleuropein was isolated from the leaves of Olea europaea [5]. This compound is known for possessing a wide range of pharmacologic and health promoting properties including anti-arrhythmic, spasmolytic, immuno-stimulant, cardioprotective, hypotensive, antihyperglycemic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects [6–8]. Olea europaea is also rich in other bioactive phenolic compounds that are reported to have anti-inflammatory activities [9] However, there is no sufficient scientific studies reporting the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Olea europaea leaves. As a contribution to the study of the pharmacological activities of the different components of
Naturally fermented black olives of Taggiasca variety (Olea europaea L.)
Amelio, Mauro,DeMuro, Emilio
Grasas y Aceites , 2000,
Abstract: For the first time, a natural fermentation of black Taggiasca variety (Olea europaea L.) olives was studied. This cultivar is typical of Western Liguria (NW of Italy), where it is mainly used for olive oil production. Beside the traditional process, three slightly different processes were taken into account. The fermentation was carried out in 200 litre barrels left at environmental temperature (7-25oC) and took about 6 months to be complete. At the end the olives were pasteurised and stored for a further 6 month period to equilibrate. Throughout the process, pH, NaCl, acidity, free biophenol content and microbiological analysis (Colony count, Coliforms (Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli), Lactobacilli (25oC, 36oC, 45oC), Pseudomonas (P. fluorescens, P. cepacia), Yeasts (Candida spp.), Moulds (Penicillum spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp.) of brines were performed. The results showed that an initial pH correction is recommended and no long soaking of the olives in water (3+3 days) is advisable, except a short washing just before brining. Por primera vez, se ha estudiado una fermentación natural de aceitunas negras de la variedad Taggiasca (Olea europaea L.). Esta variedad es típica del Oeste de Liguria (Noroeste de Italia), donde se usa principalmente para la producción de aceite de oliva. Además del proceso tradicional, tres procesos ligeramente diferentes fueron considerados. La fermentación fue llevada a cabo en barriles de 200 litros mantenidos a temperatura ambiente (7-25oC) y duró aproximadamente 6 meses. Al final las aceitunas fueron pasteurizadas y almacenadas durante otros 6 meses para equilibrarlas. A través de todo el proceso se analizaron: pH, NaCl, acidez, contenido en biofenoles y análisis microbiológico (recuento de colonias, coliformes (Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli), Lactobacilos (25oC, 36oC, 45oC), Pseudomonas (P. fluorescens, P. cepacia), Levaduras (Candida spp.), Mohos (Penicillum spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp.) de salmueras. Los resultados mostraron que es recomendable una corrección inicial del pH y una inmersión no demasiado larga de las aceitunas en agua (3+3 días), excepto un corto lavado justo antes de ponerlas en salmuera.
Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Olea europaea L.  [PDF]
Nehir Ozdemir Ozgenturk,Fatma Oru ,Ugur Sezerman,Alper Ku ukural,Senay Vural Korkut,Feriha Toksoz,Cemal Un
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/757512
Abstract: Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source of edible oil which was originated in Near-East region. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes and search the function of unknown genes of olive. The randomly selected 3840 colonies were sequenced for EST collection from both libraries. Readable 2228 sequences for olive leaf and 1506 sequences for olive fruit were assembled into 205 and 69 contigs, respectively, whereas 2478 were singletons. Putative functions of all 2752 differentially expressed unique sequences were designated by gene homology based on BLAST and annotated using BLAST2GO. While 1339 ESTs show no homology to the database, 2024 ESTs have homology (under 80%) with hypothetical proteins, putative proteins, expressed proteins, and unknown proteins in NCBI-GenBank. 635 EST's unique genes sequence have been identified by over 80% homology to known function in other species which were not previously described in Olea family. Only 3.1% of total EST's was shown similarity with olive database existing in NCBI. This generated EST's data and consensus sequences were submitted to NCBI as valuable source for functional genome studies of olive.
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