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糖果鸢尾花粉活力和柱头可授性研究
Studies on Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Pardancanda norrisii
 [PDF]

阮丽丽,高亦珂,,,杨占辉,史言妍,张启翔
- , 2017, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2017.09.015
Abstract: 观测糖果鸢尾及其亲本射干(Iris domestica)和野鸢尾(I.dichotoma)开花散粉时期花粉生活力和柱头可授性的变化规律,为提高人工授粉效率并为糖果鸢尾杂交育种提供依据。采用悬滴法测定花粉活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢测定柱头可授性,结合田间花部性状随着时间变化的实际观测进行研究。刚散粉时,糖果鸢尾的花粉活力最大,随后逐渐下降。在花朵初放时柱头的可授性最弱,之后呈现先上升再下降的趋势。柱头萎蔫后,可授性低或丧失。花粉活力与柱头可授性强期没有重叠,且花粉比柱头先成熟,是糖果鸢尾避免自花传粉的适应机制;散粉1~2 h内收集花粉,并在柱头可授性最强时进行授粉,可以提高杂交成功率。
In order to improve artificial-pollination possibility in hybridization of Pardancanda norrisii, the morphological changes of stigma and pollen were observed and the stigma receptivity and pollen viability were tested.The benzidine-H2O2 testing stigma receptivity, pollen germination test in vitro and morphological observation of stigma and pollen were adopted in the study. The pollen of P.norrisii has the highest viability at the beginning, then its viability declines gradually.The stigma has the lowest receptivity at the beginning, then increasing and declining again.The wilted stigma has low or null receptivity.Pollen matures earlier than stigma, and there was no overlap between the highest period of pollen viability and stigma receptivity, which is the mechanism of P.norrisii to avoid self-pollination.Collecting pollen in 1-2 h at the beginning and pollinating at the highest period of stigma receptivity, can improve the possibility of hybridization.
A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Pinellia ternata Leaves Exposed to Heat Stress  [PDF]
Yunhao Zhu,Guosheng Zhu,Qiaosheng Guo,Zaibiao Zhu,Changlin Wang,Zuoyi Liu
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms141020614
Abstract: Pinellia ternata is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The growth of P. ternata is sensitive to high temperatures. To gain a better understanding of heat stress responses in P. ternata, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis. P. ternata seedlings were subjected to a temperature of 38 °C and samples were collected 24 h after treatment. Increased relative ion leakage and lipid peroxidation suggested that oxidative stress was frequently generated in rice leaves exposed to high temperature. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to analyze heat-responsive proteins. More than 600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel; of these spots, 20 were up-regulated, and 7 were down-regulated. A total of 24 proteins and protein species were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins and protein species were found to be primarily small heat shock proteins (58%) as well as proteins involved in RNA processing (17%), photosynthesis (13%), chlorophyll biosynthetic processes (4%), protein degradation (4%) and defense (4%). Using 2-DE Western blot analysis, we confirmed the identities of the cytosolic class II small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CII) identified by MS. The expression levels of four different proteins [cytosolic class I small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CI), sHSPs-CII, mitochondrial small heat shock protein (sHSPs-MIT), glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (GRP)] were analyzed at the transcriptional level by quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of three sHSPs correlated with the corresponding protein levels. However, GRP was down-regulated at the beginning of heat stress but then increased substantially to reach a peak after 24 h of heat stress. Our study provides valuable new insight into the responses of P. ternata to heat stress.
Stigma Receptivity, Stigma Morphology and Fruit Set of Yantai Sweet Cherry (Cerasus avium)
烟台甜樱桃柱头的可授性、形态特征与坐果率

Lijuan Wang,Linde Liu,Li Zhang,Yanjie Wang,Wei Lian,Zhongwu Jiang,Fuxing Zhang,
王丽娟
,刘林德,张莉,王艳杰,连玮,姜中武,张福兴

植物学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Stigmatic receptivity is a limiting factor of flower receptivity and fruit set in Cerasus avium. This study investigated stigma receptivity, morphological characteristics and fruit setting under defined developmental stages by scanning electron microscopy, benzidine testing, H2O2 testing and bagging experiments. Stigma receptivity occurs 1 day before blossoming and is retained for 5 to 7 days. Stigma receptivity is associated with collapse of papillae and production of cellular exudates. The loss of receptivity is accompanied by nigrescence and stigma shrinking, including severe stigma degeneration. The stages of bell-like flowers and flattened flowers showed increased stigma receptivity. As compared with emasculation and bagging, hand pollination could produce greater fruit set, and fruit set was maintained even at the stage of petal abscission. Successful pollination was 60.50% at the balloon-like stage, 58.33% at the petal unfurling stage, 62.08% at the fully open stage, 57.14% at the flattened petal stage, and 39.13% at the petal falling stage. Open pollination could produce pollination levels between 30% and 42%. The best pollination opportunity mainly occurs when petals are unfurling and when petals flatten. A longer receptivity period is helpful for stigmas to be visited and pollinated successfully by bees and gives cultivators the opportunity to apply remedial measures such as artificial pollination to increase pollination rates and fruit set.
药用植物半夏生物碱类成分研究进展
Research progress on alkaloids from Pinellia ternata
 [PDF]

刘永红,郭建宏,刘文婷,
- , 2015,
Abstract: 生物碱为半夏药理作用的主要有效成分之一,具有镇咳、祛痰、止呕、抗心律失常、抗炎等作用,在抗癌和对帕金森病的防治方面也有重要作用。文章对近5年来有关半夏生物碱的含量分布、代谢调控及相关药理研究进展进行了综述,并对相关研究现状进行了展望,以期为半夏生物碱类成分的开发利用提供参考依据。
Alkaloids are the main biologically active compounds in Pinellia ternata with the ability to prevent vomiting and the effects of analgesic,expectorant,antiarrhythmic and anti-inflammation.They also can resist cancer and Parkinson’s disease.In the paper,the detection,metabolism regulation,and pharmacological effects of alkaloids based on researches in last five years were summarized and future research directions were prospected to provide reference for exploitation of Pinellia ternata alkaloids
Sequential Extraction Results in Improved Proteome Profiling of Medicinal Plant Pinellia ternata Tubers, Which Contain Large Amounts of High-Abundance Proteins  [PDF]
XiaoLin Wu, ErHui Xiong, SuFang An, FangPing Gong, Wei Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050497
Abstract: Pinellia ternata tuber is one of the well-known Chinese traditional medicines. In order to understand the pharmacological properties of tuber proteins, it is necessary to perform proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. However, a few high-abundance proteins (HAPs), mainly mannose-binding lectin (agglutinin), exist in aggregates of various sizes in the tubers and seriously interfere with proteome profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Therefore, selective depletion of these HAPs is a prerequisite for enhanced proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. Based on differential protein solubility, we developed a novel protocol involving two sequential extractions for depletion of some HAPs and prefractionation of tuber proteins prior to 2-DE. The first extraction using 10% acetic acid selectively extracted acid-soluble HAPs and the second extraction using the SDS-containing buffer extracted remaining acid-insoluble proteins. After application of the protocol, 2-DE profiles of P. ternata tuber proteins were greatly improved and more protein spots were detected, especially low-abundance proteins. Moreover, the subunit composition of P. ternata lectin was analyzed by electrophoresis. Native lectin consists of two hydrogen-bonded subunits (11 kDa and 25 kDa) and the 11 kDa subunit was a glycoprotein. Subsequently, major HAPs in the tubers were analyzed by mass spectrometry, with nine protein spots being identified as lectin isoforms. The methodology was easy to perform and required no specialized apparatus. It would be useful for proteome analysis of other tuber plants of Araceae.
半夏连作障碍效应及生理机制研究
Study on the Effect and Physiological Mechanism of Continuous Cropping Obstruction of Pinellia ternata
 [PDF]

,,,,,,晋小军
- , 2018, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2018.07.013
Abstract: 通过比较轮作和连作半夏的生理生化效应,探讨连作对半夏生长发育的影响。试验测定并分析半夏的生长指标、叶片叶绿素质量分数、植株保护酶活性、MDA质量摩尔浓度及渗透调节物质质量分数的变化。结果表明,连作导致半夏生长发育受阻,其中连作较轮作年平均株高、块茎直径、地上部分生物量及地下部分生物量分别降低31.93%、19.86%、56.30%和38.32%;叶片叶绿素、叶绿素a、叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素质量分数均降低,叶绿素a/b增大;叶片保护酶SOD、POD和CAT活性降低;叶片膜脂过氧化作用增强,MDA质量摩尔浓度、脯氨酸、可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白质量分数增加。可见,连作通过降低植株保护酶活性引起活性氧代谢失调,导致活性氧积累和膜脂过氧化损伤。这种影响的表现为植株生长发育受到抑制,光合色素质量分数降低,可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白质量分数升高。
To explore the effects of continuous cropping on the growth and development of Pinellia ternata,the growth indexes, leaf chlorophyll mass fraction, plant protective enzyme activity, MDA and osmotic adjustment substance content of Pinellia ternata were determined. The results showed that the continuous cropping blocked the growth and development of Pinellia ternata. The means of plant height, tubers diameter, aboveground biomass and underground biomass in continuous cropping were 31.93%,19.86%,56.30% and 38.32% lower than in rotation cropping, respectively; the mass fractions of leaf chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid decreased, chlorophyll a/b increased; the activities of leaf protective enzyme SOD, POD and CAT decreased;leaf membrane lipid peroxidation increased, MDA, proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein mass fraction increased. In conclusion, the continuous cropping cause disorder of active oxygen metabolism by reducing the plant protective enzyme activity, leading to active oxygen accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation damage. The manifestation of this effect is to inhibit the growth and development of plant, decreasing the mass fraction of photosynthetic pigment, and increasing the content of soluble sugar and soluble protein.
Characterization and biological activities of lectin isolated from Pinellia ternata  [PDF]
Ruijuan Feng, Weibiao Zhang, Tao Xu
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.22014
Abstract: In this paper, Pinellia ternata lectin (PTL) purified from 95% saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation by applying mannose-Sepharose 4B affinity column chromatography was first described. The mannose-Sepharose 4B affinity adsorption gel has already been designed and prepared before the experiments according the combinative characterization between lectin and mannose. Mass spectrometry analysis result shows that PTL is a glycoprotein with the molecular weight of 12.165 kD. It was conclude that PTL had strong agglutination effects on mouse red blood cells, and the minimum reaction concentration was 25 μg/ml according the Hemagglutination. Results of automatic amino acid analysis indicated that PTL mainly contained 15 varieties of amino acids, of which the minimum content was cysteine and aspartate was the maximum. Cell experiment results suggested that PTL of low concentrations (0.004 mg/ml, 0.02 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml) promoted HeLa cell proliferation, but the effect weakened with the concentrations and treated-time increasing. However, the HeLa cells pro- liferation was intensively inhibited by higher PTL concentrations (0.5 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml), and the effect increased in a dose and time dependent manner.
Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and Their Combinational Prescription Inhibit Eosinophil Infiltration and Airway Hyperresponsiveness by Suppressing CCR3+ and Th2 Cytokines Production in the Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Model  [PDF]
In-Soo Ok,Seung-Hyung Kim,Bok-Kyu Kim,Jang-Cheon Lee,Young-Cheol Lee
Mediators of Inflammation , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/413270
Abstract: Background and Objective. This study was aimed to analyse the curative effects of Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combination on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, Th2 cytokine production, and IgE and histamine production in a murine model of asthma. Methods. For this purpose, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) followed intratracheally, intraperitoneally, and by aerosol allergen challenges for 12 weeks. We examined the development of pulmonary eosinophilic accumulation, control of Th2 cytokine, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and histamine productions in a murine model of asthma. Results. Our data suggest that the therapeutic mechanism by which Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combinational prescription effectively treats asthma is based on reductions of eosinophil infiltration, eotaxin receptor (CCR3), histamine, OVA-specific IgE productions in serum, and Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13) by marked reductions of IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA expression in lung tissue. Conclusions. These findings provide evidence that Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combination play a regulatory role in allergic inflammation and offer therapeutic approaches as novel CCR3 antagonists for treatment asthma. However, it is not clear whether pharmacological activities of prescription composed of two herbs are potentiated due to synergistic effect or additive effect.
不同处理方式对半夏连作障碍的缓解初探
Study on Mitigation Measure of Continuous Cropping Obstacles on Pinellia ternata (Thunb) Breit with Different Treatments
 [PDF]

金文进
Hans Journal of Agricultural Sciences (HJAS) , 2019, DOI: 10.12677/HJAS.2019.98094
Abstract:
为缓解半夏连作障碍问题,以半夏单作为对照,研究了“连作半夏与带菌黑麦草间作及用其种子浸提液浇灌半夏土壤”对连作半夏(Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) breit.)微生物区系、生长量及发病率的影响,以探讨利用禾草化感作用及其内生真菌抗逆性双重作用缓解连作障碍的可行性。结果表明,与单作对照相比,半夏与带菌禾草间作和浇灌其种子浸提液均能够使土壤中细菌、放线菌、微生物总数和B/F有所上升,真菌数量和土壤脲酶有所下降,过氧化氢酶含量和磷酸酶含量间作处理升高,而浇灌处理与浓度有关,50 mg/L时下降,80 mg/L时升高;与对照相比,两种处理均能降低块茎腐烂病的发病率,提高半夏繁殖系数,浇灌处理对半夏地上部生长作用与浓度有关,50 mg/ml的浸提液对半夏地上部生长产生不同程度的抑制作用,80 mg/ml浸提液对半夏生长均有促进作用。这表明带菌黑麦草间作和浇灌一定浓度的种子浸提液具有协同提高连作半夏产量的作用。
In order to alleviate or overcome obstacles of continuous cropping in Pinellia ternata planting, taking mono-cropping as a control, P. ternata was interplanted with germy ryegrass and its seed extract solution was used to irrigate the soil of P. ternata, whose effects on soil microflora, the growth and morbidity were to analysis the feasibility of dual effects of allelopathy and endophytic fungal stress resistance of grasses for mitigation of continuous cropping obstacles. The results showed that P. ternata interplanted with germy ryegrass and its seed extract solution significantly reduced soil mould colony forming units (CFU) and urease, but increased bacterium (CFU), actinomyces (CFU) and microbial diversity. The content of catalase and phosphatase increased after intertreatment. Irrigation treatment was related to concentration, which decreased at 50 mg/L and increased at 80 mg/L. Compared with the control group, both the two treatments can reduce the incidence of tuber rot and increase the reproduction coefficient of Pinellia ternata. The effect of irrigation treatment on the growth of the overground part of Pinellia ternata is related to the concentration. 50 mg/ml extraction solution can inhibit the growth of the overground part of Pinellia ternata to varying degrees while 80 mg/ml extraction solution can promote the growth of Pinellia ternata. The results showed that intercropping with ryegrass and watering with certain concentration of seed extract solution could increase the yield of Pinellia ternata.
Studies on the Growth-development Law and Suitable Period for Harvesting of Pinellia ternata (Thunb)Breit  [cached]
Shuhong Wei
Modern Applied Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v3n12p57
Abstract: Objective: Find out the growth-development law of P. ternata, and offer references for suitable period for harvesting and standardized cultural technique. Methods: Periodic sampling, investigation and measurement; Results: Dynamic change of each growth index all show a similar rule, namely that with the elongation of growth-development course, it was characterized an “S” type curve, and peak values are observed during the first “inverted seedlings” period. Especially, average drying rate of tubers during the first “inverted seedlings” period is significantly higher than that during the second period. Conclusions: Initial stage of the first “inverted seedlings” is quite suitable period for harvesting of P. ternata, and thus its utilization value is further efficaciously enhanced.
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