Abstract:
Nonperturbative, oscillatory, winding number one solutions of the Sine-Gordon equation are presented and studied numerically. We call these nonperturbative shape modes {\sl wobble} solitons. Perturbed Sine-Gordon kinks are found to decay to {\sl wobble} solitons.

Abstract:
We study the sine-Gordon model in two dimensional space time in two different domains. For beta > 8 pi and weak coupling, we introduce an ultraviolet cutoff and study the infrared behavior. A renormalization group analysis shows that the model is asymptotically free in the infrared. For beta < 8 pi and weak coupling, we introduce an infrared cutoff and study the ultraviolet behavior. A renormalization group analysis shows that the model is asymptotically free in the ultraviolet.

Abstract:
We formulate and discuss integrable analogue of the sine-Gordon equation on arbitrary time scales. This unification contains the sine-Gordon equation, discrete sine-Gordon equation and the Hirota equation (doubly discrete sine-Gordon equation) as special cases. We present the Lax pair, check compatibility conditions and construct the Darboux-B\"acklund transformation. Finally, we obtain a soliton solution on arbitrary time scale. The solution is expressed by the so called Cayley exponential function.

Abstract:
We consider the instability of fluctuations in an oscillating scalar field which obeys the Sine-Gordon equation. We present simple closed-form analytic solutions describing the parametric resonance in the Sine-Gordon model. The structure of the resonance differs from that obtained with the Mathieu equation which is usually derived with the small angle approximation to the equation for fluctuations. The results are applied to axion cosmology, where the oscillations of the classical axion field, with a Sine-Gordon self-interaction potential, constitute the cold dark matter of the universe. When the axion misalignment angle at the QCD epoch, $\theta_0$, is small, the parametric resonance of the axion fluctuations is not significant. However, in regions of larger $\theta_0$ where axion miniclusters would form, the resonance may be important. As a result, axion miniclusters may disintegrate into finer, denser clumps. We also apply the theory of Sine-Gordon parametric resonance to reheating in the Natural Inflation scenario. The decay of the inflaton field due to the self-interaction alone is ineffective, but a coupling to other bosons can lead to preheating in the broad resonance regime. Together with the preheating of fermions, this can alter the reheating scenario for Natural Inflation.

Abstract:
In this paper we construct analytical self-dual soliton solutions in (1+1) dimensions for two families of models which can be seen as generalizations of the sine-Gordon system but where the kinetic term is non-canonical. For that purpose we use a projection method applied to the Sine-Gordon soliton. We focus our attention on the wall and lump-like soliton solutions of these k-field models. These solutions and their potentials reduce to those of the Klein-Gordon kink and the standard lump for the case of canonical kinetic term. As we increase the non-linearity on the kinetic term the corresponding potentials get modified and the nature of the soliton may change, in particular, undergoing a topology modification. The procedure constructed here is shown to be a sort of generalization of the deformation method for a specific class of k-field models.

Abstract:
In this paper the quantum direct scattering problem is solved for the Sine-Gordon model. Correlators of the Jost functions are derived by the angular quantization method.

Abstract:
We show how to compute form factors, matrix elements of local fields, in the restricted sine-Gordon model, at the reflectionless points, by quantizing solitons. We introduce (quantum) separated variables in which the Hamiltonians are expressed in terms of (quantum) tau-functions. We explicitly describe the soliton wave functions, and we explain how the restriction is related to an unusual hermitian structure. We also present a semi-classical analysis which enlightens the fact that the restricted sine-Gordon model corresponds to an analytical continuation of the sine-Gordon model, intermediate between sine-Gordon and KdV.

Abstract:
The relationship between N-soliton solutions to the Euclidean sine-Gordon equation and Lorentzian black holes in Jackiw-Teitelboim dilaton gravity is investigated, with emphasis on the important role played by the dilaton in determining the black hole geometry. We show how an N-soliton solution can be used to construct ``sine-Gordon'' coordinates for a black hole of mass M, and construct the transformation to more standard ``Schwarzchild-like'' coordinates. For N=1 and 2, we find explicit closed form solutions to the dilaton equations of motion in soliton coordinates, and find the relationship between the soliton parameters and the black hole mass. Remarkably, the black hole mass is non-negative for arbitrary soliton parameters. In the one-soliton case the coordinates are shown to cover smoothly a region containing the whole interior of the black hole as well as a finite neighbourhood outside the horizon. A Hamiltonian analysis is performed for slicings that approach the soliton coordinates on the interior, and it is shown that there is no boundary contribution from the interior. Finally we speculate on the sine-Gordon solitonic origin of black hole statistical mechanics.

Abstract:
The sine-Gordon equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation. It is known that the sine-Gordon has soliton solutions in the 1D and 2D cases, but such solutions are not known to exist in the 3D case. Several numerical solutions to the 1D, 2D, and 3D sine-Gordon equation are presented and comments are given on the nature of the solutions.