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Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings  [PDF]
Dan Babor,Diana Plian
Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute of Jassy, Constructions, Architechture Section , 2008,
Abstract: The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.
古建筑木构件原位加固防腐研究
In-situ Consolidation and Restoration of Wooden Components in Historic Buildings
 [PDF]

曹静,汪娟丽,李玉虎,王肃,杜德新,董梅
- , 2015, DOI: doi:10.3969/j.issn.1001-7461.2015.04.42
Abstract: 古建筑是以木结构为主的建筑体系,木材是其主要承重构件,它具有极高的文物、历史和艺术价值,它不仅是中华民族的宝贵财产,也是世界建筑艺术的珍宝。木材作为一种天然生物质材料,主要由纤维素、半纤维素、木质素及少量的果胶和无机盐组成;由于木材本身耐久性差,易受物理、化学和生物损害如腐朽菌、虫的侵蚀,使其强度降低直至全部损坏。以含光门古建筑木构件修复保护工程为例,旨在通过借鉴二氧化硅/木材复合材料溶胶-凝胶制备思路,根据生物矿化原理,通过无机复合材料、防腐试剂原位对古建筑木构件材质的性能改善,从而起到原位加固防腐的作用。
Historic buildings were mainly built with wooden structures. The wooden components of historic buildings have very high cultural, historical and artistic value as relics. They are not only the invaluable property of the China, but also a cherished art treasure for the international architecture. As a natural and biological material, wood is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and trace amounts of pectin and inorganic salts. Since wood is inherently non-durable, it is susceptible to physical, chemical and biological damages such as fungal decay and insect infestation, which can weaken its strength until completely deteriorates. In this paper, taking the project of in-situ consolidation and restoration of wooden components in a historic building, Hanguang Entrance of Imperial City as an example, some well-developed methods for the protection of ancient relics were introduced, such as using silicon dioxide/wood composite made by sol-gel for bio-mineralization, by which the properties of the wooden components were improved by inorganic compounded material and preservatives to conserve and consolidate the relics
Centers of convex subsets of buildings  [PDF]
Andreas Balser,Alexander Lytchak
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: We prove that two dimensional convex subsets of spherical buildings are either buildings or have a center.
Past and future colouring patterns of historic stone buildings
Grossi, C. M.,Brimblecombe, P.
Materiales de Construccion , 2008,
Abstract: The patterns of colour on stone buildings change with time. Buildings were blackened by coal soot, but now mostly diesel particles and in future, wind-driven rain may alter the patterns and oxidation of surface organics. Colouring patterns that outline or shadow architectural elements are publicly more acceptable than those that cut across them e.g. rain streaking. Thresholds of acceptability for blackening can be related to soot loading. When soot loading of the ambient air is high, e.g. near busy roads, buildings are dark and typically viewed as unacceptable. However at lower concentrations (2-3 g m-3 elemental carbon), building appearance is typically seen as more acceptable. The future offers a potential for variation in building colour, arising through different biological growth under changing climates or the presence of different pollutants. In future urban atmospheres more dominated by organic pollutants a yellowing process may be more important. Diesel soot has many organic compounds that can oxidise to brownish-coloured humic-like (HULIS) materials. We illustrate the development of colour patterns on the Cathedral Church of St John the Baptist, Norwich UK from its opening (beginning of the 20th century) to the end of the 21st century derived from historic photographs, observations and predictions for the future appearance. The latter has to consider removal of deposits by changed rainwater flow and enhanced biological activity. Blackening from coal smoke may have reached a peak around 1960s and 1970s, but diesel soot predominates now. La distribución del color en edificios de piedra varía con el tiempo. En el pasado, el ennegrecimiento se debía principalmente a la combustión de carbón. Actualmente, se debe fundamnetalmente al depósito de partículas derivadas del diesel. En el futuro, se verá modificado por la acción de la lluvia y el viento. La percepción del público sobre el ennegrecimineto depende de su distribución. Si se resaltan las formas arquitectónicas, será en general aceptable. Los umbrales de aceptación también dependen de la concentración de carbono elemental. Si la concentración es elevada, como en áreas de tráfico intenso, los edificios estarán oscurecidos y probablemente se percibirán como inaceptablemente sucios. A menores concentracions de carbono elemental (2-3 g m-3), el aspecto de los edificios es en general más aceptable. En el futuro, los cambios de color se verán favorecidos por la diferente actividad biológica, resultante del cambio climático y los diferentes tipos de contaminantes. Un proceso de amarilleamento será
Role of fungi in biodeterioration process of stone in historic buildings  [PDF]
Ljaljevi?-Grbi? Milica V.,Vukojevi? Jelena B.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0916245l
Abstract: Fungal ability in production of pigments and organic acids have crucial role in discoloration and degradation of different types of stone in cultural heritage objects. Additionally, stone objects may support novel communities of microorganisms that are active in biodeterioration process. This investigation focuses on mycological analyses of microbial biofilm from two important buildings, made of granite and sandstone, and which were heavily colonized by fungi. The 23 fungal taxa including filamentous microfungi and yeasts with specific distribution on sandstone and granite substrate were isolated. Melanized fungi from Dematiaceae (Deuteromycotina) were dominant. The identified microfungi cause discoloration, as well as mechanical exfoliation of building stone material that was analyzed through mechanical hyphae penetration and production of dark pigments and organic acids.
A Brief Discussion on the Current Situation and Problems of the Protection of Tibet’s Historic Buildings  [PDF]
Yuan Gao
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.64005
Abstract:
The protection of historic buildings is one of the important tasks to promote the development of modern civilization, which is also of great significance to the development of contemporary architecture. All countries in the world attach great importance to the protection of historic buildings. There are still many problems in the protection of historic buildings in China, and it needs further improvement. This paper takes the historical and cultural district of Jiangzi city in the southwest of Tibet autonomous region as an example, analyzes the present situation and problems of historic building protection in China and gives some suggestions.
Detection of the seasonal cyclic movement in historic buildings by means of surveying techniques  [cached]
Valle-Melón, J. M.,Rodríguez-Miranda, á.,Pérez-Vidiella, P.
Materiales de Construccion , 2011,
Abstract: As in other engineering structures, historic buildings are conditioned by atmospheric changes which affect their size and shape. These effects follow a more or less cyclic pattern and do not normally put the stability of such buildings in jeopardy since they are part of their natural dynamics. Nevertheless, the study of these effects provides valuable information to understand the behavior of both the building and the materials it is made of. This paper arose from the project of geometric monitoring of a presumably unstable historic building: the church of Santa María la Blanca in Agoncillo (La Rioja, Spain), which is being observed with conventional surveying equipment. The computations of the different epochs show several movements that can be explained as due to seasonal cycles. Al igual que el resto de estructuras de ingeniería, los edificios históricos están sometidos a las variaciones de las condiciones atmosféricas que afectan a sus dimensiones. Estos efectos son de carácter cíclico y no suelen suponer riesgo para la estabilidad del edificio, ya que se encuentran dentro de su dinámica natural, sin embargo, su determinación aporta información valiosa a la hora de entender el comportamiento tanto del edificio como de los materiales que lo conforman. Los resultados que se presentan surgen del proyecto de auscultación geométrica de un edificio histórico supuestamente inestable, la Iglesia de Santa María la Blanca de Agoncillo (La Rioja, Espa a), que se viene realizando utilizando instrumentación topográfica convencional. En el cálculo de las diferentes campa as se han podido detectar movimientos cíclicos estacionales.
The Restoration of Historic Buildings Between 1835 and 1929: the Portuguese taste  [cached]
Lúcia Maria Cardoso Rosas
E-Journal of Portuguese History , 2005,
Abstract: The glorification of the historical monument - a European phenomenon that emerged during the first quarter of the 19th Century - occupied a place of great theoretical and iconographic importance in the Portuguese press. Through engravings, its image attained a power of synthesis, both in the creation of symbols and in the understanding of stylistic categories, becoming a major driving force behind the greater value that was given to the medieval architectural heritage and its consequent restoration. Despite being given a relatively ineffective and somewhat belated administrative and legal framework, the prestige and popularity of medieval monuments were sufficient to ensure a significant number of restoration works after 1840. Literature on art, the press and manuscript sources of the period, sought to identify the principles to underlie the idea of restoration in Portugal between 1839 and 1925, as compared to models adopted throughout Europe. Although Portuguese artistic culture lagged far behind other European nations, the restoration of medieval religious architecture was common practice in Portugal at that time, both due to the idea that unity had always been one of the fundamental principles of architecture and because the cult of monuments stemmed from a mythical and symbolic production of national identity.
Seismic Analysis of Historic Masonry Buildings: The Vicarious Palace in Pescia (Italy)  [PDF]
Michele Betti,Luciano Galano
Buildings , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/buildings2020063
Abstract: Recent Italian earthquakes have underlined the need for wide monitoring and safety assessment of architectonical heritage. This has emerged also from requirements of the new Italian Technical Recommendations for buildings. Within this subject the paper investigates the seismic vulnerability of a specific monumental masonry building: the Vicarious Palace ( Palazzo del Vicario) in Pescia, a small town near Florence. The structural behavior of the Palace was investigated using a finite element model in which the non-linearities of the masonry were considered by proper constitutive assumptions. The seismic behavior was evaluated by the pushover method, according to the Italian Technical Recommendations. The results were compared with the ones obtained by a simplified approach based on the kinematic theorem of limit analysis. Comparisons of the expected seismic demand vs the seismic capacity of the Palace confirm the weakness of this type of building to suffer extensive damage under earthquakes, as frequently observed in similar construction typologies. Additionally, the comprehension of the structural behavior under seismic loading allows the identification of a proper retrofitting strategy.
Standing tree assessment for the maintenance of historic wooden buildings: a case study of a World Heritage site in China  [cached]
Yin W,Yamamoto H
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2013, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0753-006
Abstract: Historic wooden buildings are a symbol of China’s “culture of wood” and require extraction of forest resources for their renovation. In the 21st century, natural resources are limited globally, and sustainable solutions are needed. In this study, we established a new method to connect building and forest sites for efficient utilization of limited forest resources for the renovation of historic buildings. We obtained measurements of large wooden components from Shenyang Imperial Palace. We also performed morphometric analyses on 47 thinned, old-growth larch trees to determine the relative taper curve, and selected 108 standing trees for simulation of the tree-height curve in the Mt. Changbai area, Jinlin Province, Northeast China. On the basis of forest metrology, we established an upper tree prediction method. By measuring the diameter at breast height (DBH) alone, we could compare size information (e.g., diameter, length) for standing trees and wooden building components. This method was then applied to estimate the required DBH class of standing trees for the renovation of Shenyang Imperial Palace.
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