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G. Vignoli
Urogynaecologia International Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/uij.2009.1.5
Abstract: The word “pelvic floor dysfunction” has different meanings in different specialties, i.e. radiology, urology, gynaecology, coloproctology. Despite the fact that the concept of perineology is not exactly new, most clinicians have only slowly adapted their practice to this transversal view. The multidisciplinary approach (several specialists dealing with various pelvic floor problems) still prevails over the interdisciplinary one (one specialist explaining what is happening) with several problems in the choice of therapeutic strategies. Obviously, the interdisciplinary approach requires a wide knowledge of the principles and techniques of each specialty. This monographic issue reviews advanced diagnostic testing for female pelvic floor dysfunctions from the perspective of a single specialist, namely a urologist.
Tactile Imaging Markers to Characterize Female Pelvic Floor Conditions  [PDF]
Heather van Raalte, Vladimir Egorov
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.59073
Abstract: The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. The objective of this study is to validate tactile imaging and muscle contraction parameters (markers) sensitive to the female pelvic floor conditions. Twenty-two women with normal and prolapse conditions were examined by a vaginal tactile imaging probe. We identified 9 parameters which were sensitive to prolapse conditions (p < 0.05 for one-way ANOVA and/or p < 0.05 for t-test with correlation factor r from -0.73 to -0.56). The list of parameters includes pressure, pressure gradient and dynamic pressure response during muscle contraction at identified locations. These parameters may be used for biomechanical characterization of female pelvic floor conditions to support an effective management of pelvic floor prolapse.
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Prolapse versus Normal Conditions  [PDF]
Vladimir Egorov, S. Abbas Shobeiri, Peter Takacs, Lennox Hoyte, Vincent Lucente, Heather van Raalte
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.810093
Abstract: Background: Quantitative biomechanical characterization of pelvic supportive structures and functions in vivo is thought to provide insight into pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). An innovative approach—vaginal tactile imaging—allows biomechanical mapping of the female pelvic floor to quantify tissue elasticity, pelvic support, and pelvic muscle functions. The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records high definition pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. Objective: To explore an extended set of 52 biomechanical parameters for differentiation and characterization of POP relative to normal pelvic floor conditions. Methods: 96 subjects with normal and POP conditions were included in the data analysis from multi-site observational, case-controlled studies; 42 subjects had normal pelvic floor conditions and 54 subjects had POP. The VTI, model 2S, was used with an analytical software package to calculate automatically 52 biomechanical parameters for 8 VTI test procedures (probe insertion, elevation, rotation, Valsalva maneuver, voluntary muscle contractions in 2 planes, relaxation, and reflex contraction). The groups were equalized for subject age and parity. Results: The ranges, mean values, and standard deviations for all 52 VTI parameters were established. 33 of 52 parameters were identified as statistically sensitive (p < 0.05; t-test) to the POP development. Among these 33 parameters, 11 parameters show changes (decrease) in tissue elasticity, 8 parameters
Pelvic floor function and advanced maternal age at first vaginal delivery  [PDF]
Mikako Yoshida, Ryoko Murayama, Maki Nakata, Megumi Haruna, Masayo Matsuzaki, Mie Shiraishi, Hiromi Sanada
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.34A005

Purpose: The study aimed to show differences in temporal recovery of pelvic floor function within 6 months postpartum between women having their first delivery at an advanced age and those having their first delivery at a younger age. Methods: Seventeen women (age: 35.5 ± 3.5, BMI: 21.1 ± 3.2) were studied at about 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after vaginal delivery. Urinary incontinence was assessed by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Pelvic floor function was assessed by the anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus using transperineal ultrasound. Women who delivered for the first time at 35 years and/or older were defined as being of advanced maternal age. Results: Nine of 17 women (52.9%) were of advanced maternal age and 5 experienced postpartum stress urinary incontinence. Four of these 5 women (80.0%) were of advanced maternal age. The anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus at rest was significantly greater in the advanced maternal age women than in the younger maternal age women at 3 and 6 months postpartum (p < 0.01). Among the continent women, the anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus at rest was significantly greater in the advanced maternal age women than in the younger maternal age women at 6 months postpartum (p = 0.004). However, among the advanced maternal age women, all parameters of the anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus were not significantly different between the women with and without stress urinary continence. Conclusion: Recovery of pelvic floor function following delivery may be delayed in women of advanced maternal age at first delivery because of the damage to the pelvic floor during pregnancy and vaginal delivery, resulting in increase in the incidence of stress urinary incontinence.

Impact of supervised physiotherapeutic pelvic floor exercises for treating female stress urinary incontinence
Zanetti, Míriam Raquel Diniz;Castro, Rodrigo de Aquino;Rotta, Adriana Lyvio;Santos, Patrícia Diniz dos;Sartori, Marair;Gir?o, Manoel Jo?o Batista Castello;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802007000500003
Abstract: context and objective: urinary incontinence is a public health problem that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. stress incontinence is the most prevalent type. pelvic floor muscle exercises have been used for treating it, although there is no consensus regarding their application. the aim of this study was to compare the results from treating female stress urinary incontinence with pelvic floor muscle exercises with or without physiotherapist supervision. design and setting: this was a randomized, prospective, controlled trial in the urogynecology and vaginal surgery sector, universidade federal de s?o paulo. methods: forty-four women were randomized to be treated for stress urinary incontinence with pelvic floor exercises for three consecutive months, into two groups: one with and the other without physiotherapist supervision. they were evaluated before and after treatment using a quality-of-life questionnaire, pad test, micturition diary and subjective evaluation. descriptive analysis was used to evaluate the population. the homogeneity of the two groups was evaluated using the kruskal-wallis and chi-squared tests. the success of the two groups after treatment was evaluated using the wilcoxon test. results: the supervised group showed statistically greater improvement in the pad test, micturition diary and quality of life than did the control group. in the subjective evaluation, only 23.8% of the control group patients were satised with their treatment. in the supervised group, 66.8% of patients did not want any other treatment. conclusion: supervised pelvic floor muscle exercises presented better results in objective and subjective evaluations than did unsupervised exercises.
Impact of Chronic Pelvic Pain on Female Sexual Function  [PDF]
Adriana Peterson Mariano Salata Rom?o, Ricardo Gorayeb, Gustavo Salata Rom?o, Omero Benedicto Poli-Neto, Antonio Alberto Nogueira
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.43031

The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and depression in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). A case-control study was conducted on 66 women, 36 of them with CPP and 30 without this diagnosis. Depression was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and sexual dysfunction was evaluated using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test, Fisher exact test, chisquare test, and Spearman correlation test. Regarding sociodemographic data, no significant differences were detected between populations with respect to the variables studied (age, schooling, number of children, income, salary, and marital status), indicating group homogeneity and thus increasing the reliability of the data. A cut-off of 26.55 points was used to calculate the total score for sexual function. In the group of women with CPP, 94.4% were at high risk for sexual dysfunction. Comparison of FSFI scores showed that the domains of sexual function, such as orgasm, lubrication and pain differed significantly between women with and without CPPP. Correlations were detected between the following items: orgasm × age (r = -0.01904), orgasm × number of children (r =-0. 00947), orgasm × body mass index (BMI) (r =-0.00 955), relationship × age (r = 0.03952), income × relationship (r =-0.014680), relationship × number of children (r =-0.03623), depression × relationship (r =-0.16091), desire × age (r = -0.45255), desire × number of children (r = -0.01824), lubrication × excitement (r = 0.04198), and lubrication × BMI (r = -0.01608). The prevalence of depression detected in the present study was 38.9% among women with pain and 3.3% among control women. It was observed that women with CPP suffer a negative interference regarding sexual function compared to controls. Thus, it can be seen that a specific approach related to sexuality is extremely important within the context of women with CPP. Depression was clearly associated with CPP and therefore an interdisciplinary approach is fundamental in order to solve this problem.

For a dos músculos do assoalho pélvico e fun o sexual em gestantes Strength of pelvic floor muscles and sexual function during pregnancy  [cached]
Joseli Franceschet,Cinara Sacomori,Fernando L. Cardoso
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy , 2009,
Abstract: CONTEXTUALIZA O: O bem-estar sexual depende de músculos do assoalho pélvico (MAP) fortes o suficiente para manter a sua fun o. Durante a gesta o, tanto a fun o sexual como a for a dos MAP podem modificar-se. OBJETIVOS: Comparar o grau de for a dos MAP e a fun o sexual em gestantes do segundo e terceiro trimestres. MéTODOS: Pesquisa descritiva causal comparativa realizada com 37 gestantes de Florianópolis (18 do segundo e 19 do terceiro trimestre), com média de idade de 25,22 anos (±5,7 anos). Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Questionário Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) e o Teste Manual da Musculatura do Assoalho Pélvico, utilizando a escala de Oxford modificada para gradua o da for a. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial (teste t independente, teste U de Mann Whitney, correla o de Spearman), nível de significancia de 0,05. RESULTADOS: N o houve diferen a significativa entre a média dos valores dos postos do grau de contra o dos MAP de gestantes do segundo e do terceiro trimestre (U=150,5; p=0,512). Todavia, a fun o sexual das gestantes do segundo trimestre de gesta o foi melhor que as do terceiro (U=104; p=0,042), e o grau de contra o dos MAP apresentou correla es estatisticamente significativas com a idade (ρ=0,320, p=0,041) e com o escore do FSFI (ρ=0,540, p<0,001). CONCLUS ES: A fun o sexual diminuiu significativamente do segundo para o terceiro trimestre, enquanto que a for a dos MAP n o apresentou diferen a entre os trimestres. BACKGROUND: Sexual well-being depends on pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) that are strong enough to maintain their function. During pregnancy, both the sexual function and the strength of the PFMs may be altered. OBJECTIVES: to compare the degree of PFM strength and the sexual function of pregnant women in the second and the third trimesters. METHODS: a descriptive, causal-comparative study was carried out with 37 pregnant women in Florianópolis (18 in the second trimester and 19 in the third trimester) with a mean age of 25.22 years (±5.7 years). The instruments used were the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire and the Manual Test of Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength, using the modified Oxford scale to grade strength. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (independent t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's correlation) with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the mean rank values of PFM strength of pregnant women in the second and third trimester (U=150.5; p=0.512). However, the sexu
Clinical anatomy of the pelvic floor  [PDF]
Aigner Felix
Acta Chirurgica Iugoslavica , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/aci0602011a
Abstract: The pelvic floor forms the supportive and caudal border of the human’s abdominopelvic cavity. A detailed anatomical understanding of its complex architecture is mandatory for the pelvic floor surgeon (general surgeon, gynaecologist and urologist) and for fundamental mechanisms of anorectal as well as urogenital dysfunctions as different anatomical systems join here. The diagnosis and treatment of complex anorectal disorders, however, require a multidisciplinary approach.
Efeitos da cirurgia bariátrica na fun o do assoalho pélvico Effects of bariatric surgery on pelvic floor function
Larissa Araújo de Castro,Wagner Sobottka,Giorgio Baretta,Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva (S?o Paulo) , 2012,
Abstract: RACIONAL: A incontinência urinária é bem documentada como comorbidade da obesidade. Estudos demonstram resolu o ou atenua o da incontinência após a perda de peso. Porém, os mecanismos pelos quais isso ocorre ainda n o est o claros. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da cirurgia bariátrica na fun o do assoalho pélvico em mulheres. MéTODOS: Foram avaliadas 30 mulheres que estavam em lista de espera para realizar a opera o. Foi verificada a prevalência de incontinência urinária no pré e no pós-operatório e seu impacto na qualidade de vida através do King's Health Questionnaire. A qualidade da contra o muscular do assoalho pélvico foi avaliada através da Escala de Oxford Modificada e da perineometria. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro mulheres finalizaram o estudo. O índice de massa corporal passou de 46,96±5,77 kg/m2 no pré-operatório para 29,97±3,48 kg/m2 no pós-operatório, e a perda percentual do excesso de peso média foi de 70,77±13,26%. A prevalência de incontinência urinária passou de 70,8% no pré-operatório para 20,8% no pós-operatório. Após um ano da cirurgia bariátrica, houve redu o do impacto da incontinência urinária na qualidade de vida em sete dos nove domínios avaliados no questionário. A mediana da Escala de Oxford Modificada aumentou de três no pré-operatório para quatro no pós-operatório. A perineometria apresentou aumento significativo na média das três contra es solicitadas, passou de 21,32±12,80 sauers para 28,83±16,17 sauers na compara o pré e pós-operatória. O pico de contra o também aumentou significativamente no pós-operatório em rela o ao pré-operatório, passou de 25,29±14,49 sauers para 30,92±16,20 sauers. CONCLUS O: A perda massiva de peso através da cirurgia bariátrica repercute positivamente na fun o do assoalho pélvico e na qualidade de vida das mulheres com obesidade mórbida. BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is well documented as a comorbidity of obesity. Studies demonstrate improvement of incontinency after weight loss. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. AIM: To analyze the effects of bariatric surgery on pelvic floor function in women. METHODS: Thirty women were invited to participate. They were waiting for bariatric surgery. Evaluations were done on pre-operative period and one year after surgery. It comprehended: body mass index, urinary incontinence prevalence, quality of life through the King's Health Questionnaire, quality of pelvic floor muscular contraction through the Oxford Modified Scale and perineometry. RESULTS: Twenty four women were included in the study. The body mass index reduced from 46.96±5.77 kg/m
Effects of pregnancy and childbirth on the pelvic floor  [cached]
Michel Naser,Valentín Manríquez,Mauricio Gómez
Medwave , 2012,
Abstract: The pelvic floor dysfunctions include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapsed and anal incontinence. One in ten women will be subjected to surgery for pelvic floor dysfunction during their lifetime. In addition, between 30% and 50% will have a recurrence of these interventions. Motherhood is a factor that contributes significantly to the submission of pelvic dysfunctions. There is still no proven evidence that vaginal delivery is an absolutely crucial factor for the presence of pelvic floor dysfunction. There is extensive research on pregnancy and child birth and their effects on the pelvic floor and if some of the obstetric action scan be modified in order to protect it from potential damage.
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