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Electrical and Electronic Waste in Northwest Mexico  [PDF]
Sara Ojeda-Benitez, Samantha E. Cruz-Sotelo, Luis Velázquez, Néstor Santillán-Soto, Margarito Quintero Nu?ez, O. Rafael García Cueto, Will Markus
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.45048
Abstract:

The waste derived from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of interest now worldwide, in some countries due to the rapid technological development and in others due to technological dependence through the acquisition of second hand equipment. Therefore it is necessary to implement strategies for the sustainable management of electrical and electronic equipment at the end of its useful life. This paper presents the results of an investigation that was conducted in a city located in the Northwest of Mexico, which seeks to understand the management practices of household WEEE generators. A survey was applied to a representative sample of the population with a confidence level of 90%. Six home appliances were quantified and it was found that approximately 21% of them are disposed directly as part of the household flow of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), while 79% are storage for a latter sale, repair or reuse. The results obtained support the need to develop evaluations and to implement possible scenarios for the sustainable management of Electrical and Electronic Waste.

Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment  [PDF]
P. Gramatyka,R. Nowosielski,P. Sakiewicz
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2007,
Abstract: Purpose: This paper describes the current status of waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling anddisposal in Europe, and its impact on the environment, human health and the economy.Design/methodology/approach: The production of electric and electronic equipment is one of the fastestgrowing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of WEEE. Increased recycling of WEEE issupposed to limit the total quantity of waste going to final disposal.Findings: Based on comprehensive bibliography, this article reviewed the implementation of strategies ofWEEE treatment and the recovery technologies of WEEE.Research limitations/implications: Further studies should be undertaken in order to develop integrated WEEErecycling and disposal systems.Practical implications: In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, manycountries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other formsof recovery of such waste so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only fromthe point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials. The study of WEEE properties isimportant for a further recycling and eventual reuse.
The Digital Economy and the Evolution of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in European Union  [cached]
Nadia Carmen CIOCOIU,Catalin Razvan DOBREA
Communications of the IBIMA , 2008,
Abstract: The development of the digital economy generates countless effects on society and on the environment. The creation of the new business models via the internet and the large scale employment of the information technology, which guarantees the economic growth in conditions of increased environmental protection, decreasing the consumption of materials in favour of capitalizing information and knowledge. On the other hand, the digital economy generates growth in the number of electric and electronic equipments possessed by the consumers, with a fast rate of moral wear, thus transforming in waste. The management of electrical and electronic equipment waste (WEEE) is a priority for the European countries, due to very recent concerns regarding the implementation of a management system and the alignment to the European Union directives in the field. The paper intends to present the environmental impact of digital economy represented by the increase of the electrical and electronic equipment waste (WEEE) and the evolution of the WEEE situation in the European Union.
Waste assaying and radiation monitoring equipment at the waste management centre of NPP Leningrad
?ok?i?-Kosti? Marina
Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/ntrp0601053s
Abstract: The waste accumulated in the past at the Nuclear Power Plant Leningrad has to be sorted and packed in an optimal way. In the area of waste treatment and management, the completeness and quality of direct monitoring are of the outmost importance for the validity of, and confidence in, both practicable waste management options and calculations of radiological impacts. Special monitoring systems are needed for this purpose. Consistent with the scale of work during the waste treatment procedures and the complexity of the plant data have to be collected from characteristic parts in various treatment stages. To combine all the information, a tracking procedure is needed during the waste treatment process to characterize the waste for interim and/or final disposal. RWE NUKEM GmbH has developed special customer-tailored systems which fulfill the specifications required by plant operation and by the authorities.
Environmental Policy Coordination in ASEAN: The Case of Waste From Electrical and Electronic Equipment
Armin Ibitz
ASEAS : ?sterreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften , 2012,
Abstract: Among numerous environmental challenges in the ASEAN region, the rapid growth of volumes of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) has increasingly drawn international attention. Economies face huge demands for electrical and electronic products, while governments are confronted with difficulties dealing with mounting volumes of e-waste. Furthermore, lucrative transnational shipment of discarded electric and electronic devices calls for a regional response to the issue. While ASEAN has failed to come up with a common policy response, certain member states have pushed ahead with their own legislation in an attempt to address this urgent issue. This study sets out to identify the determining factors which have disabled ASEAN in terms of agreeing on a common policy response in the case of dealing with e-waste. Based on the assumption that states act according to expected gains, the study applies a game theoretical approach to analyse the developments. ----- Die Bew ltigung der rasant anwachsenden Menge an Elektroschrott z hlt zu den gro en umweltpolitischen Herausforderungen der ASEAN-Staaten. W hrend sich die Volkswirtschaften einer immer gr er werdenden Nachfrage nach elektrischen und elektronischen Ger ten gegenübergestellt sehen, verm gen es die meisten L nder nicht ad quate Entsorgungswege für Altger te aufzubauen. Zus tzlich zur inl ndischen Produktion gilt es auch mit oftmals als Gebrauchtprodukt getarntem, importiertem Elektroschrott umzugehen. Eine dringend notwendige regionale Koordinierung wurde von ASEAN noch nicht in Angriff genommen. Diese Studie geht der Frage nach, warum auf Ebene von ASEAN keine L sungsans tze zu dieser Problematik zu erwarten sind. Zur Analyse der Entwicklungen bedient sich die Arbeit eines spieltheoretischen Ansatzes.
Optimization of Precious Metal Recovery from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Boards  [PDF]
Massimo Delfini, Mauro Ferrini, Andrea Manni, Paolo Massacci, Luigi Piga, Antonio Scoppettuolo
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.26078
Abstract: Recovering noble metals from Waste Electrical Electronic Equipment (WEEE) will provide an additional income within the disposal process of end-of-life electronic devices. Generally, the recycling process starts with the manual disman-tling of different devices and with sorting of the subdivided products into useful and hazardous materials. A sample of about 21 tonnes of WEEE was dismantled in 14 days to remove Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) that were about 5% weight of the whole sample. Computer PCBs proved to contain the 96% of all the gold present in all types of PCBs of the sample. Computer PCBs were manually dismantled to obtain the easy-to-remove components of the board, namely, the integrated circuits and the processors, which were about 13% weight of the board and 0.1% weight of the whole WEEE sample and contained about 91% of the gold present in the whole board with an average concentration of 2400 μg/g
Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Management at Selected Colleges of the Bulacan State University: Perspectives for Program Development
Gerald L. Meneses, Warlito M. Galita
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101428
Abstract: This action research explored the various issues of electronic waste (e-waste) at the Bulacan State University (BSU) with the end view of promoting awareness, education, and proper e-waste disposal. This research outlined the complex issues that surround e-waste, its negative effects of its improper disposal and policy recommendations to implement an effective e-waste management system in the University. The study covered the 114 rooms in four (4) selected colleges in the BSU Main Campus. The main survey instrument used in this study is standardized e-waste survey instrument as used in a previous study of the University of Edinburgh, Study on the Disposal of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 2007. The said instrument was slightly modified to fit the research locale of the study. Based on the results of this study, the respondents are fully aware of regarding the presence of e-waste in the University. The study also found that there are a lot of electronic equipments in the University, and for this reason, there is also a considerable amount of e-waste being generated. The respondents also practiced only two e-waste disposal methods, namely: 1) store at the warehouse and 2) hand over to e-waste collectors. On the basis of the foregoing significant findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations are offered: 1) the school should sponsor seminars regarding proper e-waste management and disposal for students, faculty and staff; 2) teachers are encouraged to inculcate positive values to their students in terms of caring for the environment through proper e-waste disposal; 3) the school administration may also consider the implementation of the proposed e-waste inventory management system so as to further improve the current practices in the University, making it more responsive to the challenges of today.
Systemic Analysis of Supermarket Solid Waste Generation in Mexicali, Mexico  [PDF]
Aurora Fierro Ochoa, Moisés Galindo Duarte, Lorenzo A. Sánchez Bueno, Benjamín Valdez Salas, Gisela Montero Alpírez, Michael Schorr Wiener
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.12013
Abstract: The common practice of managing solid waste (SW) generated by supermarkets in Mexicali, Mexico, consists of mix-ing all kinds of SW without any separation process. The concern of these actions is that does not involve some of these products to be reused or sold for recycling. The company ceases to receive an income of $ 3,881 Mexican pesos as an additional benefit by the generation of approximately 5,869 kg of SW than can be recovered in only one of its eleven branches in the city. However, the only two products that are valued by the supermarkets are wax boxes for fruits and vegetables which are sold to a company that subsequently resell them to fruit shops for reuse, and the cardboard boxes, whose weekly generation in one branch is 5,375 kg. They are separated from the waxed boxes and placed in a compactor to form bales from 300 to 400 kg each and then are collected for sale to a recycling company. As for the generation of different types of plastics that can be recycled, a branch generates weekly 339 kg. The model to simulate the generation of SW in supermarkets was performed using “system dynamics” as a tool for modeling and simulation in order to make better decisions to reduce generation of waste.
Alternative perspectives of quality of prenatal care in Chihuahua, Mexico
Lourdes Camarena O,Christine von Glascoe
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: this article describes the process and results of a research on the quality of prenatal care from the perspective of pregnant women who use the principal subsystems of the Mexican healthcare system in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Methodology: the eld of cognitive anthropology was adopted using techniques that reveal the organization of concepts of quality in prenatal care based on pregnant women’s knowledge and experience, in terms of where they decided to seek care. Results: aspects of care quality assumed as satis ers that are important to women when they seek prenatal care in different healthcare institutions are presented. These women prefer to obtain full information from their healthcare providers about how to take care of themselves during their pregnancy, and, additionally, they also wish to be treated in a kind way showing respect and interest in their emotions and feelings on the part of the physicians. They also criticize the condition of the hospitals and the lack of medicines that were supposed to be provided. The methods that were utilized are considered to contribute to the improvement of quality in prenatal service and, furthermore, to optimizing the continuity of care for pregnant women.
Characteristics of Toxic Waste from Nine Casting Industries According to Mexican Standards: Prospective Study of West Mexico  [PDF]
Walter Ramírez-Meda, José de Jesús Bernal-Casillas, Luis Alberto López-Tejeda, Gilberto í?iguez-Covarrubias
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.53004
Abstract: This research analyzed nine casting industries located in western Mexico and their waste streams, including slags, sand, dust and sludge. All of these are considered dangerous by Mexican Legislation due to their concentrations of heavy metals. Analytical results show that lead is the main problem in these wastes. Field sampling showed that these industries do not have any protocol for waste handling and storage.
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