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Increasing Water Use Efficiency in Husk Tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot) Production in Tabasco, Mexico with Improved Irrigation Water Management  [PDF]
Rutilo López-López, Ignacio Sánchez Cohen, Marco Antonio InzunzaIbarra, Andrés Fierro álvarez, Gerardo Esquivel Arriaga
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.613114
Abstract: Husk tomato production technology was developed utilizing plastic sheeting and drip irrigation based on the results of reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficients (Kc) proposed at different phenological stages. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to evaluate the effect of plastic sheeting on the yield of husk tomato fruit with drip irrigation based on crop evapotranspiration; 2) to validate the use of drip irrigation technology and plastic sheeting in husk tomato production using demonstration plots; and 3) to determine the profitability and economic viability of the product in the domestic market. The proposed Kc values were 0.25, 0.71 and 0.56 in the initial, intermediate and final stage of crop development, respectively. Irrigation rates ranged from 2.5 to 6 mm·day-1, which was equivalent to an irrigation time of 0.6 to 2.5 hr. Soil moisture tension was monitored with tensiometers at depths of 15 and 30 cm in a loamy eutricfluvisol. The use of plastic sheeting increased husk tomato yield by 56.2% and water productivity by 63.5% under drip irrigation conditions when basing irrigation levels on crop evapotranspiration. Soil matrix potential varied between depths of 15 and 30 cm based on irrigation or rainfall amounts and the use of plastic sheeting with values being higher when the plastic sheeting was used. The husk tomato fruit yield in validation plots was 46 and 54.6 t·ha-1 with water use efficiencies ranging from 16.1 to 19.1 kg·m-3. These results exceeded the national average of 14 t·ha-1 and water use efficiency of 2.54 kg·m-3. With this new technology, a cost benefit ratio of 3.6 is obtained, which represents an economically profitable margin for farmers in the region.
Phytochemical investigation of the tomatillo fruit (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae)
K. Drost-Karbowska,M. Ellnain-Wojtaszek,A. Gawron-Gzella,Z. Kowalewski
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1993, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1993.023
Abstract: The occurence of alkaloids, witanolides, saponosides and flavonoids was investigated in the fruits of tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) cv. Bujna and Rendidora. The tomatillo is commonly cultivated in Mexico and has been introduced on a small scale in Poland. The chromatographic analysis of alkaloids showed only trace amounts of compounds reacting with the Dragendorff reagent. In the fraction of quaternary alkaloids soluble in water, only choline was found. Witanolides were not detected in tomatillo fruits. The saponosides were found only in trace amounts and their hemolytic indexes as well as saponification numbers were very low. Flavonoids were represented by the derivatives of quercetine differring with their sugar moieties attached to the hydroxyl group at C-3. It is concluded that the toxic compounds which would be harmful to human health were not found in tomatillo fruits. The presence of choline in them, as well as of flavonoids belonging to the vitamin P group is advantageous for health.
Parámetros genéticos en la variedad CHF1 Chapingo de tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.)
Pe?a-Lomelí, A.;Molina-Galán, J. D.;Sahagún-Castellanos, J.;Ortiz-Cereceres, J.;Márquez-Sánchez, F.;Cervantes-Santana, T.;Santiaguillo-Hernández, J. F.;
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura , 2008,
Abstract: the objective of this research was to estimate the genetic parameters of the husk tomato (physalis ixocarpa brot.) chf1-chapingo cultivar. two hundred maternal half sib families were evaluated under three environments, in a complete randomized block design with two replications, and 22 plants by experimental plot. the narrow sense heritability of the 13 studied traits varied between 37.1 and 57.8%; the genetic additive variation coefficient presented values between 8.2 and 24.4%; for the total yield, values were 37.5 and 10.4%. the fruit number and weight at the first harvest, and the total plant fruit number were the most important yield components. high additive genetic correlation absolute values were found for the total yield with: the first harvest yield (0.67), fruits per plant in the first harvest (0.50), total fruits per plant (0.58), fruit set number (0.38), and first stem bifurcation height (-0.49).
Evapotranspiración del cultivo de tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) estimada mediante el potencial mátrico del suelo
López López, Rutilo;Arteaga Ramírez, Ramón;Vázquez Pe?a, Mario A.;López Cruz, Irineo L.;Sánchez Cohen, Ignacio;
Revista fitotecnia mexicana , 2010,
Abstract: due to low water availability in some mexican dams, as reported during the last years, and to over-exploitation of ground-water aquifers, it is necessary to design strategies for rational and efficient water use. optimization of irrigation by calculating crop water requirements to schedule irrigation is one strategy. the objectives of this work were to determine crop coefficients (kc) for husk tomato (physalis ixocarpa brot.) under two conditions, with and without plastic mulching, and to observe the effect of irrigation watering rates combined with mulching on the water matric potential at different soil depths. a linear regression model between soil matric potentials and moisture losses, as measured with a lysimeter, was generated, and this model was used to estimate crop evapotranspiration (etc) for the growing season. five levels of water irrigation (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 % of reference evapotranspiration, et0) combined with two conditions of plastic mulching (with and without) were tested. et0 was used to estimate irrigation demand and applied by a drip tape irrigation system. results showed that 60 % of the et0, expressed as supplied irrigation water, keeps the soil matric water potential level near field capacity (< -30 kpa) at different soil depths, both for mulching and no mulching. during the crop reproductive phase, the soil matric potentials decreased to -80 kpa, even in plots watered with 100 % of the et0; this result was used to estimate and adjust the formerly estimated kc. without plástic mulching kc's were 0.3, 1.1 and 0.86 for the vegetative, reproductive and maturity phases, respectively. kc could also be estimated from leaf area index (lai) values measured on crops growing under maximum water availability.
Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae)
Barbara Dyki,Leszek S. Jankiewicz,Miros?aw Staniaszek
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1998, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1998.021
Abstract: Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.
Identificación, Biología y descripción de Melanagromyza Tomaterae Steyskal (Diptera: Agromyzidae), barrenador del tomate Physalis Ixocarpa Brot.
óscar Morales Galván,Néstor Bautista Martínez,Jorge Valdez Carrasco,José Luis Carrillo Sánchez
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2002,
Abstract: Se documenta la presencia de un nuevo barrenador del tallo del tomate de cáscara, llamado "arrocillo" debido a la apariencia de la larva y pupario. En los Estados de México y Morelos se observaron infestaciones de hasta 70%. El barrenador del tallo se identificó como Melanagromyza tomaterae Steyskal(Diptera: Agromyzidae) lo cual constituye el primer registro de este insecto en México. Se describen las principales características morfológicas de esta especie usando microscopía electrónica de barrido. La hembra oviposita en las lenticelas de la planta, y las larvas se alimentan de la médula central. La larva forma un orificio en la pared del tallo antes de pupar, para facilitar la salida del adulto. Las generaciones se traslapan en una misma planta. Se observó una estrecha relación entre plantas da adas por el barrenador y el hongo Fusarium oxysporum (Sheld.) que ataca severamente a este cultivo. Se encontraron dos especies de parasitoides, de las familias Braconidae y Pteromalidae, asociados con M. tometerae. También se encontró un picudo barrenador del tallo, Trichobaris championi, que ocasiona, junto con el "arrocillo," una infestación del 90% en plantas de Physalis ixocarpa Brot.
Respuestas estimadas y observadas de tres métodos de selección en tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.)  [cached]
Aureliano Peu00F1a Lomelu00ED,Josu00E9 D. Molina Galu00E1n,Fidel Mu00E1rquez Su00E1nchez,Jaime Sahagu00FAn Castellanos
Revista fitotecnia mexicana , 2002,
Abstract: En tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) la selección masal visual estratificada (SMVE) ha sido un método eficiente para incrementar el rendimiento, pero cada vez es más difícil distinguir los mejores individuos en el lote de selección, por lo que es pertinente evaluar métodos más eficientes con el fin de determinar la mejor opción. El objetivo de este estudio fue predecir la respuesta a la selección con los métodos de SMVE, selección familial de medios hermanos (SFMH) y selección combinada de medios hermanos (SCMH), en la variedad CHF1-Chapingo de tomate de cáscara, y comparar los valores esperados (RE) con sus correspondientes observados (RO). Con una muestra aleatoria de 200 familias de medios hermanos maternos, evaluadas en tres ambientes durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 1995 y 1996, se estimaron los componentes de varianza para estimar las RE de los tres métodos. El primer ciclo de selección de cada método, la variedad CHF1-Chapingo, y seis poblaciones más, se evaluaron en tres ambientes durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 1996. El primer corte fue más importante que el segundo en relación con la respuesta a la selección. Con base en las RE para el carácter rendimiento en el primer corte, la SFMH y la SCMH fueron respectivamente 34 y 18 % superiores a la SMVE. Con base en RO, la SMVE y la SFMH fueron similares en su eficiencia para incrementar el rendimiento total (2.8 y 2.5 %, respectivamente), en tanto que en la SCMH no hubo ganancia en este carácter (0.2 %). La concordancia entre RE y RO fue alta (> 90 %) para la SMVE y baja (< 30 %) para la SCMH.
Rutilo Lu00F3pez Lu00F3pez,Ramu00F3n Arteaga Ramu00EDrez,Mario A. Vu00E1zquez Peu00F1a,Irineo L. Lu00F3pez Cruz
Revista fitotecnia mexicana , 2010,
Abstract: La poca disponibilidad de agua observada en algunas presas del país en los últimos a os y la sobreexplotación de los acuíferos subterráneos hacen urgente el establecimiento de estrategias para hacer un uso racional y eficiente de este recurso. Una estrategia es la optimización del riego mediante el cálculo de las necesidades hídricas para la programación de riegos de los cultivos. En el presente estudio los objetivos fueron determinar los coeficientes de cultivos (Kc) para el tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) con y sin cobertura plástica, y determinar el efecto de láminas de riego y acolchado plástico en el potencial mátrico del suelo a diferentes profundidades. Se generó una ecuación de regresión que relaciona los datos del potencial mátrico del suelo con la pérdida de humedad medida con el lisímetro, y con esta ecuación se estimó la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc). Los tratamientos del experi-mento consistieron de cinco niveles de láminas de riego (40, 60, 80, 100 y 120 % de la evapotranspiración de referencia, ET0), y dos niveles de acolchado, con y sin plástico. La ET0 se utilizó como base para calcular la lámina de riego por medio del goteo. Los resultados mostraron que con 60 % de la ET0, expresada en lámina de riego, mantiene niveles de potencial mátrico cercanos a capacidad de campo (< -30 kPa) en las distintas capas del suelo con y sin acolchado plástico. Durante la etapa reproductiva los potenciales bajaron hasta alcanzar valores de -80 kPa, incluso con 100 % de la ET0, lo cual se utilizó para estimar y ajustar los Kc. Sin acolchado los Kc fueron: 0.3, 1.1 y 0.86 para las etapas vegetativa, reproduc-tiva y maduración respectivamente. También se determinó que los Kc pueden estimarse a partir de mediciones del índice de área foliar (IAF) de un cultivo creciendo con máxima disponibilidad de agua.
Efecto de desarrollo y secado de semillas de physalis ixocarpa brot en germinación, vigor y contenido de azúcares
Pérez Camacho,Ignacio; González Hernández,Víctor A; Molina Moreno,Juan C; Ayala Garay,óscar J; Pe?a Lomelí,Aureliano;
Interciencia , 2008,
Abstract: during seed development the humidity content decreases while germinability increases, a process known as acquisition of tolerance to desiccation. however, this process is not well known in seeds of physalis ixocarpa. the effect of three drying methods in the physiological quality (germination and vigor) and sugar content of seeds of p. ixocarpa cv chapingo was evaluated at different development stages. seeds were extracted at six fruit development stages (28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 days after flowering, ddf) and exposed to three types of drying: forced air at 25oc or at room temperature, and a control consisting in planting the seeds inmediately. in all development stages, both drying treatments elevated germination up to 42% (p £ 0.05) over the control. the emergency rate (seed vigor) increased on average from 7 seedlings per day at 28 ddf to 18 seedlings per day at 42 ddf, independent of the drying method, which means that these drying methods affected germinability instead of seed vigor. in all the treatments, saccharose and rafinose contents increased during seed development, whereas monosaccharides contents (glucose, fructuose and sorbitol) were not related to the drying treatments.
Varianza aditiva, heredabilidad y correlaciones en la variedad M1-Fitotecnia de tomate de cáscara (physalis ixocarpa Brot)  [cached]
Mario Moreno Maldonado,Aureliano Peu00F1a Lomelu00ED,Jaime Sahagu00FAn Castellanos,Juan Enrique Rodru00EDguez Pu00E9rez
Revista fitotecnia mexicana , 2002,
Abstract: El tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) ocupa el quinto lugar en superficie cultivada con especies olerícolas en México; no obstante, la investigación realizada en esta especie es escasa, particularmente la genotécnica, base de incrementos rápidos y baratos en la productividad de los cultivos. Así, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue estimar los parámetros genéticos de la variedad M1-Fitotecnia de tomate de cáscara. Se evaluaron 200 familias de medios hermanos maternos en dos ambientes, con un dise o experimental de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones por ambiente y 16 plantas por unidad experimental. La heredabilidad de los siete caracteres estudiados fluctuó entre 35.3 y 66.4 % y el coeficiente de variación genético aditivo entre 9.3 y 46.1 %. En el caso del rendimiento total, estos parámetros fueron 50.9 y 26.7 %, respectivamente. El número de frutos, rendimiento en el corte uno, rendimiento en el corte dos y peso promedio por fruto fueron los principales componentes del rendimiento total. Se encontraron correlaciones genéticas aditivas altas y positivas del rendimiento total con número de frutos (0.27), rendimiento en el primer corte (0.78), rendimiento en el segundo corte (0.82) y peso promedio por fruto (0.35).
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