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Polluting Emissions in the City of La Paz, Mexico: Emissions Inventory and Monitoring Data  [PDF]
Alfredo Bermudez-Contreras, Antonina Ivanova, Jose Antonio Martinez
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2017.51004
Abstract: In the City of La Paz, Mexico, there is growing concern amongst the local population due to the uncertainty about the local air quality. To address this concern, an air pollutants emissions inventory was recently carried out as a first step to better understand air quality in La Paz. The inventory considers point, area, mobile and natural sources and it includes six major air pollutants: sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), respirable suspended particulates (RSP or PM10), fine suspended particulates (FSP or PM2.5), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and carbon monoxide (CO). The reference year for the inventory is 2013. This paper presents the main results of the inventory by source category. In addition, the local power utility maintains three air quality monitoring stations in the city. Data from these stations are also presented and analysed in this paper. Electricity generation and motor vehicles are the main emissions sources. The paper highlights the importance of having in place adequate emissions control systems and operations. Some recommendations for the local authorities include a ten-year air quality and emissions reduction plan that considers measures such as the imposition of statutory emission caps on power plants, implementation of renewable energies and mandatory annual roadworthiness and exhaust pipe emissions tests for on-road vehicles.
SWOT Analysis on Development of the City Cluster in Hebei Coastal Area  [cached]
Chengcong Zhang,Yanfang Wang
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v3n8p93
Abstract: Hebei Province wants to become a strong economy among all the coastal provinces. And this needs Hebei Province to develop its city cluster in coastal area. SWOT method used here to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the city cluster in Hebei costal area means a lot for Hebei Province to find measures to improve its coastal economy.
The city of Ljubljana in transition: Between the market and the plan  [PDF]
Marjan Be?an,Jo?e Dekleva
Urbani Izziv , 1995,
Abstract: The cities in transitions are not regulated any more by planning mechanism while the market mechanism in not working yet. For societies in transition the city space is not relevant. In the city of Ljubljana non regulated processes of housing development are continuing.
Evaluación de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz, Bolivia Avifauna evaluation of the La Paz City, Bolivia
Omar Martínez,Manuel Olivera,Carmen Quiroga,Isabel Gómez
Revista Peruana de Biología , 2011,
Abstract: Desde el a o 1996 al 2003, mediante métodos de observación directa, caminatas y capturas con redes niebla, realizamos un inventario y obtuvimos datos sobre la historia natural, gremios tróficos y patrones de migración de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz (Bolivia). Registramos 136 especies de aves en 30 localidades de estudio. Las familias más representativas fueron Tyrannidae, Emberizidae y Furnariidae con 19, 16 y 15 especies, re- spectivamente. Registramos 18 especies de aves acuáticas y dos especies (Tachuris rubrigastra y Phleocryptes melanops) de passeriformes especialistas de totorales. Dos especies de furnáridos (Cranioleuca henricae y Upucerthia harterti) fueron endémicas bolivianas. Detectamos 57 especies en alguna categoría de migración. Movimientos altitudinales inusuales fueron observados para cinco especies (e.g. Pitangus sulphuratus, Pyro- cephalus rubinus). Diecinueve especies fueron consideradas raras (e.g. Lesbia nuna, Poospiza boliviana). Los insectívoros y frugi-granívoros son los gremios tróficos mas representativos entre comunidades. El valle de la ciudad de La Paz es una ruta obligatoria para muchas aves migrantes latitudinales (boreales y australes) y altitudinales, que provienen del Altiplano por el oeste y las especies de Yungas por el este. Since 1996 to 2003, we realized an inventory and obtained data on the natural history, trophic guilds and mi- gration patterns of the avifauna of La Paz (Bolivia), based on direct observation, random walks and captures with mist nets. A total of 136 species of birds in 30 localities of study were registered. Tyrannids, Emberizids and Furnariids were the families most representatives with 19, 16 and 15 species, respectively. Eighteen species of waterbirds and two species of passerine rush (called totorales) specialists as Tachuris rubigastra and Phleocryptes melanops, were registered. Two furnariids species (Cranioleuca henricae and Upucerthia harterti) were Bolivian endemics. We detected 57 species in some category of migrants. Unusual elevational movements were observed for five species (e.g. Pitangus sulphuratus, Pyrocephalus rubinus). Nineteen spe- cies were considered rare (e.g. Lesbia nuna, Poospiza boliviana). Insectivores and frugi-granivores were the trophic guilds most representatives between communities. The La Paz City Valley is one obligatory route for many latitudinal (neartic and austral) and altitudinal migrants birds, which arise from highland by the western and species of mountain forest (called Yungas) by the eastern.
Participatory Metalegal and Legal Processes for the Coastal Development Plan of Bolinao, Pangasinan  [cached]
Wenceslao Asido Jr.,Liana Talaue-McManus
Science Diliman , 2000,
Abstract: The Coastal Development Plan that was passed into law as the Municipal Fisheries Ordinance of Bolinao, Pangasinan, is a concrete example of community participation in policy development. Among the effective metalegal strategies used during the evolution of the plan into an ordinance were the lobbies staged by the federation of people’s organizations (KAISAKA), the Municipal Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council (MFARMC), and the Municipal Mayor. The capacity of various sectors to participate actively in the passage of the plan was enhanced through legal consultations and training provided by the Marine Fisheries Resources Management Project, in partnership with Tanggol Kalikasan, the legal arm of Haribon Foundation. The experience underscores the need for development projects to include the metalegal training of community constituents as a requisite for the latter to actively participate in the formulation of policies and laws for coastal resources management.
Tides and tidal currents in Ensenada de la Paz lagoon,  [cached]
Francisco J. Sandoval,José Gómez-Valdés
Geofísica internacional , 1997,
Abstract: Tides and tidal currents are observed in Ensenada de la Paz, a shallow coastal lagoon in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The amplitudes of two semidiurnal harmonics increase towards the head and there is a notably phase lag with respect to the mouth in the principal harmonics of surface tide. However, the amplitude of the fortnightly tide decreases toward the head. It is suggested that this behavior is caused by an approximate balance between surface pressure gradient and quadratic bot tom friction. The influence of both bottom friction and basin configuration on surface tide are examined with a linear hy drodynamic model. Currents fall into two groups: a tidally-driven inlet flow and an interior flow wherein nonlinearities ap pear to be important. The relative importance of nonlinear interactions on tidal velocities is analyzed with a simple model.
FROM MASTER PLAN TO VISION PLAN: THE CHANGING ROLE OF PLANS AND PLAN MAKING IN CITY DEVELOPMENT (WITH REFERENCE TO MUMBAI)
Ramakrishna NALLATHIGA
Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management , 2009,
Abstract: Master plans are the traditional instruments used by urban local governments in India as forward planning tools by anticipating urban development and making provisions for the same in terms of (a) the allocation of land for various uses, (b) the regulation of its development and (c) the provision of civic infrastructure. However, they failed to meet the expectations of the citizens as well as the decision makers for several reasons: their design and approach were far too simplistic in anticipating the citizens’ needs and aspirations; their very long tenure has been a major hindrance to anticipate socio-economic changes over time horizon; further, the restrictive approach taken to their implementation without adequate flexibility to meet the changing needs of hour has been acting against the spirit of urban planning. Essentially, it is because of these inadequacies in the plan design, plan making and plan implementation that there is a need felt now on steering an alternative course for achieving the city development goals. Vision plans, in this context, have emerged as alternative instruments useful for achieving the city development goals over a medium to long term; and they are increasingly becoming popular in the cities across the USA as well as elsewhere. This paper describes the evolution of master plan in the Indian context and analyses its inadequacies first (as found in literature); subsequently, it explains the positive features of emerging alternative approaches like the strategic vision plans. In particular, it illustrates the specific case of the Strategic Vision Plan for Mumbai, jointly prepared by a partnership of private non-profit initiative and for-profit organisation, as to how its design is different and as how it takes in to account of / built upon some of the principles of master planning approach. It therefore lays down, finally, how the urban planning has to change the course, akin to the economic planning focus change from that in central planning [of pre-modern era] to decentralized planning [of post-modern era].
THE METHAMORPHOSIS OF A COASTAL CITY (Case study SEMARANG METROPOLITAN)  [cached]
Bambang Setyoko
Journal of Coastal Development , 2010,
Abstract: Many empirical researches on urban growth have been carried out in megapolitan cities like Jakarta, andSurabaya. Most theoretical studies in this particular problem have been concerned about the expandingurban areas. This study differs firstly, concerning urban growth in a coastal city named Semarang, andsecondly using superimposed and descriptive analysis based on old city-map and field survey data. Base onmapping analysis and field survey, Semarang urban fringe areas indicated dualistic characteristics, amixing of formal and informal, planned and un-planned settlements. Most of them are incrementallyspreading, mixed and growth simultaneously. Semarang as a port and ex- Dutch colonial city just has beenon the earlier stages of spatial and structural evolution. This stage has been characterized as “spill overand specialization” occurred in fringe areas and it would lead to poly-centric metropolis. New urbaninfrastructure network has a contribution to the mono-centric fragmenting and metamorphosing into a polycentricmetropolis. The main activities at urban core have been move sporadically and incrementally tofringe area. Middle class migrated out of the city centre into sprawl settlements on the fringe areas. The roleof central city decline while fringe areas increase. These conditions raise complicated social problems.
Aspectos macroeconómicos del plan nacional de desarrollo cambio para construir la paz Macroeconomic aspects of the development plan change to reach peace  [cached]
Fresard B. Christian,Rhenals M. Remberto
Cuadernos de Economía , 1999,
Abstract: En el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo "Cambio para construir la Paz" se presenta una plitica de estabilizacion que pretende establecer los equlibrios macroeconomicos y elevar el ritmo de crecimiento de la economia colombiana. Este articulo analiza la propuesta de politica economica del plan, incluida en la seccion "Macroeconomia, crecimiento y empleo". En particular se estudia la estrategia de estabilizacion y crecmiento de la economia. Las principales conclusiones de nuestro analisis son: a) el ajuste fiscal propuesto es poco efectivo porque no reduce de forma importante el gasto corriente. Esto puede afectar el crecimiento normal de la economia porque se reduce la inversion publica y no se reasignan fondos hacia areas prioritarias como la formacion de capital humano y la investigacion en ciencia y tecnologia; y b) el programa macroecnomico tiene problemas de consistencia. Segun nuestras estimaciones, el lento crecimiento del ahorro domestico seria insuficiente para mantener un crecimiento sostenido del Pib. The economic and social planning project in Colombia, 'Change to reach peace' presents mainly a stabilization policy that intends to restore macroeconomic equilibrium and also pretends to increase the economic growth in the presidential period of 1998-2002. This article analyses the economic policy proposal included in the section "Macroeconomics,growth and employment". More precisely it is concerned in the stabilization and growth strategy. Ourmain conclusions are: a) fiscal adjustment is not effective, becauseit does not reduce government consumption. This situation can affect potential economic growth due to a decrease in public investment and there will not be a reallocation of resources for human capital and investment in research and development; b) macroeconomic plan is not consistent. Based on our estimations, slow growth of domestic saving could not be enough to maintain a sustainable process of economic growth.
Distribución de aves acuáticas en las lagunas de oxidación de la ciudad de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México
Zamora-Orozco,Elvia Margarita; Carmona,Roberto; Brabata,Georgina;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2007,
Abstract: distribution of aquatic birds in oxidation lagoons of la paz city in south baja california, mexico. taxonomic composition, spatial and temporal distribution of aquatic birds in oxidation lagoons (lo) of la paz city in south baja california, mexico, were determined during 24 censuses realized in two-week intervals (april/98-march/99). there are five lagoons of 5 ha each and 17 ha of terrains constantly flooded that serve as feeding areas for cattle and birds. one hundred twenty three species were observed, 75 of which were aquatic birds. a total of 46 041 observations were made (average 1 918 birds/census). richness and abundance of aquatic birds were influenced mainly by migration of anatids and sandpipers. the first group had the greatest abundance due to its affinity towards fresh water bodies. the terrains were the favorite sites of dabbling ducks (anas) and sandpipers. in contrast, two of the most abundant species (oxyura jamaicensis, 12.5 % of all species, and fulica americana, 8.8 %) restricted their presence to the oxidation lagoons. lo presented a bird structure of its own and atypical, according to the dryness of the region. rev. biol. trop. 55 (2): 617-626. epub 2007 june, 29.
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