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RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA
中国城市地理学近期进展

Shen Daoqi,
沈道齐
,崔功豪

地理学报 , 1990,
Abstract: In modern history, the proud period in the study of urban geography in China began at the mid-seventies, and reached its peak at the eightieth. In China, there are over 380 cities, and over 9000 towns under the jurisdiction of country (excluding Taiwan Province) which have provided a vast domain for the study of urban geography. The study of urban geography has gained vitality by integrating itself closely with national construction and with administrative departments and other disciplines. Now, the topic of urban geography has been known as the most active sphere in the human and economic geographical circles. Since mid-seventies the research projects of Urban Geography contains: 1) Urban System, 2) Urbanization, 3) Researches on the Structures of Urban Area, 4) Lange and Small Cities (Towns), 5) Quntitative Method etc. Urban planning its providing a broad and practical basis for the further advances in 'he study of urban geography, Geographers have to not only draw up the Master planning in cooperation with urban planners, but also provide theoretical method and scientific basis for this purpose in accordance with the following as pect ia order to make the traditional planning have additionally new methods and contents: 1) Urban region researches, 2) Analysis of Urban land use, 3) Researches on urban function, 4) Researches on urban size etc. In recent years, much has been done in China in the repidly advanced studies of urban geography in combination with urban planning and urban construction. According to human geographers in China, from them on the development trends in the study of urban geography will forge ahead possibly towards to new directions, ie. the Macroscopic and microscopic aspects.
Pragmatism vs.scientism: Which is the sponsor of urban geography in China?
实用主义VS科学主义:中国城市地理学的研究取向

LIU Yun-gang,XU Xue-qiang,
刘云刚
,许学强

地理研究 , 2010,
Abstract: Rapid progress has made in urban geography in China in the past three decades. How should we look upon urban geography in China at present and in the future? From the perspective of the axiology of the discipline, this paper collects and analyzes the essays of urban geography from five main academic geographic journals, and makes a systematic review on the history and trends of the development of urban geography in China. We have found that the number of the research papers on urban geography in China has increased steadily after the 1980s, and the growth rate has been slowed down up to the 1990s. The development tendency of the research can be summarized as follows: (1) The research of urban geography in China has mainly concentrated on four aspects of urbanization, urban system, urban spatial structure and urban problems. (2) After 2000, research upon point has decreased relatively, while the research on area has increased; Compared to the reduction of research 'of the city', the research 'in the city' has increased. (3) More and more researches focus on urban function and make use of qualitative methods. Problem oriented rather than theory oriented has been the mainstream. The main problem of urban geography is lack of innovation on the angle of theory and analysis. Lots of researches are basically the duplication of the works 20 years ago. The deeper problem can be illustrated as two different factions on the axiology of the discipline, namely, pragmatism and scientism. From the angle of reflection, this paper appeals for a reasonable research orientation of urban geography in China. Research upon problems and theories should be integrated effectively, and we ought to avoid going to the extremes of metaphysics. They are two sides of urban geography, which are complemented for each other and neither can be neglected.
近年来西方城市地理学研究的主要领域、进展及趋势
Progress and Trends of Main Areas in Urban Geography in the West
 [PDF]

吕拉昌, 陈少存, 辛星
Advances in Geosciences (AG) , 2011, DOI: 10.12677/ag.2011.12005
Abstract:

近年来,在新经济及全球化的作用下,城市发生了重大变化,人们的认识视角也在发生新的变化,城市地理的研究领域发生重大调整,本文综述了西方城市地理学研究在后现代主义城市、全球城市及全球城市区域、城市信息地理、城市社会地理、低碳城市领域研究的主要问题及研究进展,指出城市地理学发展的趋势:认识路径的综合化与多元化;注重多尺度的研究;重视城市作为流通及消费空间的研究;强调城市创新结构与职能研究;研究内容“社会化”趋势;研究的“管理化”倾向;更加注重城市地理研究的分支、交叉与融合。
In recent years, in new economy and globalization, with the urban dramatic changes and the chan- ges of cognitive perspective, the research areas has been adjusted of urban geography, this paper examines the progress of major research field of modern urban geography including postmodern city, global city and Global City region, information urban geography, urban social geography, low carbon City. We point out the developmental trend of urban geography: integration and diversification of cognitive path for studies of urban geography; multi-scale study; stressing the study of circulation space and consumption space in cities; emphasizing the innovation function and innovation structure; emphasizing “socialization” trend and “mana- gement” trend from the contents of research; and pay more attention to research urban geographical branch and its overlapping and its merging.

Socio Economic Differences in Frequency of Food Consumption and Dietary Trends in Urban Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Rubina Hakeem,A.H. Shaikh,Musarrat Ziaee
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to explore socioeconomic differences in the quality of diets and dietary trends in families living in Karachi. A total of 120 housewives (forty each from low, middle and high-income groups) were interviewed for this purpose. Quality of the diets was assessed by the representation of various food groups in the family`s diet. In low income group only 3% of families whereas 68 and 58% families from the high income group had all the crucial food groups (meat/pulses, milk and vegetable/fruit) represented in the family`s diet. Foods from fruit, meat and milk were most often missing from the daily diet groups. According to the mean number of food items for which change in consumption was reported the change did not appear to be extensive but socioeconomic difference in this regard was noticeable. Socioeconomic differences were noted also in the reasons for the dietary change. The most often mentioned factor considered to be responsible for the dietary change was `cost` by low income families and health by middle and high-income families.
THE USE OF PHOTOGRAPHS IN TEACHING THE URBAN GEOGRAPHY  [cached]
Ufuk KARAKU?
Zeitschrift für die Welt der Türken , 2013,
Abstract: This study aims at the use of photography as a teaching technique in geography education. The subject of the study was the demographical and functional changes of the cities taught in the human systems unit of the 11th year geography course. The study was carried out on 32 students studying in the high school located in Yenimahalle town of Ankara province in the fall term of 2012-2013 academic year. The research technique employed was the comparative document analysis and excursion and observation method .The data was evaluated by the use of quantitative data analysis. It was observed that the students were able to photograph the distorted urbanization, city planning, and transportation and settlement problems by the use of photography. It was observed that some of the students were able to make interesting conclusion for the problems of the city they live based upon cause and result analysis.
The Effects of Economic Geography on Education in Romania
Jesús LóPEZ-RODRíGUEZ,Andres FAI?A,Cosmin-Gabriel BOLEA
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper evaluates the role that geography plays in determining the distribution of educational attainment levels among Romanian counties. We provide evidence that, in Romania, educational levels are higher in those counties with greater market access. This finding corroborates the theoretical predictions of the Redding and Schott′s (2003) model and proves that remoteness is a penalty for the economic development and convergence of the Romanian counties.
Anaysis of Urban Land Expansion and Its Driving Forces in Beibei District, Chongqing Municipality
大都市卫星城镇用地扩张及其驱动力分析——重庆市北碚区为例

PENG Yue,HE Binghui,HUANG Shiyou,CHEN Guifang,HAN Jianwen,
彭月
,何丙辉,黄世友,陈桂芳,韩建文

资源科学 , 2011,
Abstract: Beibei District is one of cities in the coastal zonal areas of Chongqing Municipality, showing the fastest urban land expansion. Rapid urban land expansion, especially occurring since the 2000s, has resulted in change in the economic structure over there. With the significant economic shift, the area of urban land use has also increased. Its developmental characteristics and land use change are typical in satellite towns of metropolis in southwestern China. Most of satellite towns of metropolis have experienced the same political, economic, and technical reforms and advancements. This paper presents an integrated study of urbanization trends in Beibei using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. Remote sensing provides spatially consistent data sets that can cover large areas with both high spatial and temporal resolutions. These advantages are unique in detecting spatial and temporal dynamics of processes in urban growth and land use change. Integration of remotely sensed data and global positioning system (GPS) with GIS has been a trend in comprehensive assessment of land cover change in a more effective and efficient way. It has been proved useful in mapping urban areas and analysis and modeling of urban growth and land use change. Based on integrated analysis of GIS and remote sensing, we unraveled a trend in urban land use expansion and suggested the primary driving forces of this trend in Beibei, a satellite city of Chongqing. Spatial and temporal variations in urban land use expansion through 1972 to 2006 corresponded to land use/land cover change (LUCC). Characteristics of LUCC in Beibei are: 1) temporally, the urban land use expansion can be generally classified into three stages, i.e., slow, fast, and dramatic expansion. The fast and dramatic expansion was clearly observed in southwestern part of the city. The downtown of the urban area shifted from the south and the southwest; 2) three types of spatial pattern of urban growth in Beibei include normal urban growth, social-political intervention, and economic-population intervention; 3) changes in spatial pattern of urban growth suggest that the urban land use expansion played a dominate role in LUCC; and 4) constrained by physical geography characteristics (mainly the river and mountains), the urban land use expansion in Beibei seems to be typical in the same type of satellite city. On the other hand, economic, political, public transportation, and population growth also contributed to the urban land use expansion of varying degrees.
Basic Frame of the Urban Geography of Northeast China
中国东北地区城市地理基本框架

WANG Shijun,SONG Yang,
王士君
,宋飏

地理学报 , 2006,
Abstract: This paper discusses the basic frame of urban geography in Northeast China on the background of rebuilding northeast old industrial base, new-type industrialization and new-type urbanization. It is an overall summarization of the unban geographical system of northern China for the purpose of proving and practising urban geographical theory further. It is also a basic prerequisite for the analysis of the northeast economic development under the new situation of implementing the concrete strategy of "giving a new life to the region" and "the regional innovation" to meet the actual need of the region. Proceeding from the formation and development process of the urban geographical structure of Northeast China, this paper deals with such basic problems as the urban system frame, the key cities, the metropolitan district, the urban compact district and the urban agglomerations of Northeast China. It points out that the formation and development process of the urban geographical frame in Northeast China witnesses three periods, namely, forming period of the ancient cities and towns, forming period of the modern cities, and shaping and developing period of the modern urban system. In terms of the urban system frame, four relavant aspects are identified as: a top to bottom urbanization process that is fast first and slowing down afterwards, the structure of scale and grade of "weak pyramid" type, the "T-shaped" space structure distributed along railway lines, and the urban function structure developing from "single" to "new-type". The "four cities era" taking Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang and Dalian as key cities in Northeast China has come. The three provincial GDPs are highly concentrated on the four cities, taking shape and developing into four metropolitan districts of "Big Harbin", "Big Changchun", "Economic Zone of Shenyang" and "Big Dalian" relying on these four cities. In the process of rebuilding the northeast old industrial base, the four cities will choose different leading directions that rely on the original foundation and new opportunities for development. Harbin will continue to strengthen its position as the key city in the northern part of Northeast China. Changchun should fully take its basic advantage of automobile industry that has broad market and form an automobile industrial base. Shenyang will serve as the centre of Northeast China. Dalian will become an important passageway of Northeast China depending on its advantage while developing outward-oriented industries. As a result of certain degree of urbanization, the urban compact district and urban agglomerations of Northeast China have developed into a relatively complete and intensive frame, and has formed a basic pattern of "three groups" preliminarily, namely, urban agglomeration of "Central-southern Liaoning", "Central Jilin" and "Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar".
Economic geography researches in the Geographical Institute "Jovan Cviji "  [PDF]
Mileti? Radmila
Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cvijic, SASA , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/ijgi0757271m
Abstract: Economic geography research results from the Geographical Institute "Jovan Cviji ", are accessible to scientists and experts through a large number of Institutional Papers, published in two editions - "Collection of Papers" and "Special Issues", whose review has been given in this paper. Economic geography researches are very different by subject matter, territory and approach. Parallel to the research of conditions of territory distribution, structure, volume and level of whole economy activity (using theoretic-methodological and empirical aspects), there is also developing scientific research framework focused on some parts of economy activity. Many research results in rural, industrial and touristic geography gave very important contributions for further development in these scientific disciplines. Research of territory distribution of economic activities and characteristics have been present in the past but even more apparent today. They include many key questions, which are very important for solving problems of development of some areas in Serbia and define concepts for sustainable development and distribution.
NEW TRENDS IN ECONOMIC FORECASTING
NICOLAE MARIUS JULA,NICOLETA JULA
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2013,
Abstract: Economic forecasting is a dynamic domain. New methods are developed and tested and the methodology needs to be updated according to economic reality. Classical approach in methodology must be completed with latest trends in econometric analysis and the forecasting methods have to benefit from the increasing computational power of the modern software. One of the main causes of false prediction is using altered data. In this paper, we will present the new concepts for data testing, adjusted for the Romanian economy, based on Benford's law.
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