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Modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment pain scale: a new tool for measuring upper abdominal pain in osteoarthritis patients taking NSAIDs
Welle J, Fort J, Crawley J, Cryer B, Dickerhoof R, Turner MP, Miller KL
Patient Related Outcome Measures , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PROM.S18077
Abstract: dified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment pain scale: a new tool for measuring upper abdominal pain in osteoarthritis patients taking NSAIDs Original Research (2859) Total Article Views Authors: Welle J, Fort J, Crawley J, Cryer B, Dickerhoof R, Turner MP, Miller KL Published Date June 2011 Volume 2011:2 Pages 135 - 143 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PROM.S18077 Jennifer Welle1, John Fort2, Joseph Crawley3, Byron Cryer4, Rene Dickerhoof1, Michelle P Turner1, Kimberly L Miller1 1ICON Clinical Research, The Embarcadero, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2POZEN Inc, Raleigh Road, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3AstraZeneca LP, Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE, USA; 4UT Southwestern Medical Center, Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX, USA Background: This study evaluated the electronically administered modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (mSODA) pain scale, a six-item measure of upper abdominal pain intensity, for daily use in osteoarthritis patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Methods: Once the mSODA pain scale was isolated, cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 30) were used to examine its appropriateness in the target population. Following administration of the instrument in two Phase III pivotal trials, the data were analyzed to examine reliability, validity, responsiveness, and the minimal important difference. Results: Using a subset of trial data (n = 90 patients), the mSODA pain scale proved to be a unidimensional, highly internally consistent instrument (α = 0.93) with good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.77). Construct validity was established via moderate correlations with other similar patient-reported outcomes. Additionally, known-groups validity demonstrated that the mSODA pain scale could distinguish between subjects who did and did not report gastrointestinal symptoms and antacid use (both P values ≤ 0.05). The mSODA pain scale was also responsive to change in heartburn at weeks 6 and 12 (Guyatt's statistic = 1.7 and 2.6, respectively), and the minimal important difference obtained via SD was 5.7 (range 2–47). Conclusion: This research suggests that the mSODA pain scale is both feasible and valid for assessing dyspepsia in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for relief of symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Genetic moderation of the association between regulatory focus and reward responsiveness: a proof-of-concept study  [cached]
Goetz Elena L,Hariri Ahmad R,Pizzagalli Diego A,Strauman Timothy J
Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2045-5380-3-3
Abstract: Background Recent studies implicate individual differences in regulatory focus as contributing to self-regulatory dysfunction, particularly not responding to positive outcomes. How such individual differences emerge, however, is unclear. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to examine the moderating effects of genetically driven variation in dopamine signaling, a key modulator of neural reward circuits, on the association between regulatory focus and reward cue responsiveness. Method Healthy Caucasians (N=59) completed a measure of chronic regulatory focus and a probabilistic reward task. A common functional genetic polymorphism impacting prefrontal dopamine signaling (COMT rs4680) was evaluated. Results Response bias, the participants’ propensity to modulate behavior as a function of reward, was predicted by an interaction of regulatory focus and COMT genotype. Specifically, self-perceived success at achieving promotion goals predicted total response bias, but only for individuals with the COMT genotype (Val/Val) associated with relatively increased phasic dopamine signaling and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions The combination of success in promotion goal pursuit and Val/Val genotype appears to facilitate responding to reward opportunities in the environment. This study is among the first to integrate an assessment of self-regulatory style with an examination of genetic variability that underlies responsiveness to positive outcomes in goal pursuit.
New Potential of Black Holes : Quest for TeV-Scale Physics by Measuring Top Quark Sector using Black Holes  [PDF]
Yosuke Uehara
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: If TeV-scale gravity models are correct, the production of black holes will be the first signal of new physics. Once black holes are produced, they will give us much information about TeV-scale new physics directly. But such black holes can also be used for the precision measurements of the Standard Model (SM). The SM is nothing but a theory which can describe weak-scale, and TeV-scale physics will affect it. So if some experimental results which cannot be explained in the SM are found, they will be attributed to TeV-scale physics and we can obtain ``bottom-up'' type information about new physics. In this paper, we consider the precision measurements of the top sector at the LHC by using black holes. The stringent trigger conditions to confirm the black hole production vanish almost all of the QCD background, and we can examine the top quark emitted from black holes very precisely. The error of the top quark mass and the top Yukawa coupling are drastically reduced, leading to a very accurate test of the Higgs mechanism. We can directly measure the CKM matrix element |V_{ts}|, and we will understand the property of the CKM matrix and the origin of CP-violation deeply. The very precise measurements of such properties in the SM, enabled by black holes, can become treasures in the quest for TeV-scale physics because there exists a possibility that TeV-scale physics affects them and destroys the predictions of the SM. By combining the direct information of new physics obtained from black holes themselves and the indirect information obtained from the limitations of the SM, we will be able to identify TeV-scale physics correctly.
Measuring public attitudes to severe mental illness in Greece: Development of a new scale
Madianos,Michael; Economou,Marina; Peppou,Lily Evangelia; Kallergis,George; Rogakou,Efi; Alevizopoulos,George;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632012000100006
Abstract: background and objectives: the purpose of the present study was to develop an attitudinal schedule, the attitudes to severe mental illness (asmi) scale, which synthesizes elements from different conceptual frameworks of the field, while addressing gaps on the existing literature on stigma measurement. methods: a national representative sample of 2039 adults from the general population was interviewed by telephone. results: factor analysis revealed 4 factors to underlie the data, namely "stereotyping" "optimism", "coping" and "understanding", which explained 67% of total variance. the instrument's face and predictive validity were also supported, while its internal consistency and test -retest reliability were found to be high for the overall scale and its factors. conclusions: consistent with these, the asmi scale emerges as a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of attitudes towards severe mental illness, while it opens new directions for advancing scientific understanding of the topic.
Measuring public attitudes to severe mental illness in Greece: Development of a new scale  [cached]
Michael Madianos,Marina Economou,Lily Evangelia Peppou,George Kallergis
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to develop an attitudinal schedule, the Attitudes to Severe Mental Illness (ASMI) scale, which synthesizes elements from different conceptual frameworks of the field, while addressing gaps on the existing literature on stigma measurement. Methods: A national representative sample of 2039 adults from the general population was interviewed by telephone. Results: Factor analysis revealed 4 factors to underlie the data, namely "stereotyping" "optimism", "coping" and "understanding", which explained 67% of total variance. The instrument's face and predictive validity were also supported, while its internal consistency and test -retest reliability were found to be high for the overall scale and its factors. Conclusions: Consistent with these, the ASMI scale emerges as a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of attitudes towards severe mental illness, while it opens new directions for advancing scientific understanding of the topic.
Individual differences in decision making: Drive and reward responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games
Anouk Scheres, Alan G Sanfey
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-2-35
Abstract: Specifically, we studied a personality dimension that may influence economic decision-making, the Behavioral Activation System, (BAS) which is composed of three components: Reward Responsiveness, Drive, and Fun Seeking. In order to assess economic decision making, we utilized two commonly-used tasks, the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game. Individual differences in BAS were measured by completion of the BIS/BAS Scales, and correlations between the BAS scales and monetary offers made in the two tasks were computed.We found that higher scores on BAS Drive and on BAS Reward Responsiveness were associated with a pattern of higher offers on the Ultimatum Game, lower offers on the Dictator Game, and a correspondingly larger discrepancy between Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game offers.These findings are consistent with an interpretation that high scores on Drive and Reward Responsiveness are associated with a strategy that first seeks to maximize the likelihood of reward, and then to maximize the amount of reward. More generally, these results suggest that there are additional factors other than empathy, fairness and selfishness that contribute to strategic decision-making.For many centuries theoreticians have attempted to build accurate models of how people make judgments, decisions, and choices. To endeavor to answer these important questions about decision-making behavior, researchers from a wide variety of fields have used many different approaches and methods, though for many years this area of interest has been the purview of economists and mathematicians. The resulting mathematical models, such as the family of Expected Utility models [1], were initially proposed as primarily prescriptive, that is, modeling how decisions should be made. However, these models were also taken as good approximations of how people actually make judgments and decisions.These models remained largely unchallenged as descriptive accounts of behavior until quite recently, when psychological stu
Measuring the Reward Value of Aspartame-Sweetened Yogurt Shake via Continuous and Progressive Ratio Schedules in Humans
Madeleine Gondek-Brown,Anthony Sclafani,Sarah McNally,Rebecca Gordon
Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal , 2007,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for measuring the reward value of food. Potentially, this methodology may help determine why people tend to regain weight after stopping a diet program. Human subjects were given aspartame-sweetened yogurt shake and non-sweet yogurt shake on continuous, or uninhibited, and progressive ratio, or inhibited for increasing intervals, schedules. It was expected that subjects would consume more of the sweet than non-sweet shake on each schedule, and that the progressive ratio schedule would amplify the difference between intake of sweet and non-sweet shake. For males and females together, intake measured reward value only on the continuous schedule. Also, males consumed significantly higher quantities of both sweet and non-sweet shake than females on the continuous schedule, indicating that males may consume markedly more than females only when the food is easily obtained. A second variable, post-meal palatability rating on a nine-point scale, measured reward value for both sexes together on the continuous schedule, and for females, also on the progressive ratio schedule. This variable predicted intake in females, suggesting that females place more emphasis on taste in determining intake than do males. On the continuous schedule, a one-point increase on the nine-point palatability scale corresponded to a 100 gram intake increase. Ultimately, the study showed that when there is no obstacle to obtaining the reinforcer, intake and post-meal palatability rating on a nine-point scale predict reward value, and that males and females stress different factors in deciding how much to consume.
The casualty chain inventory: a new scale for measuring peritraumatic responses: a cross-sectional study
Laila Skogstad, Erlend Hem, Leiv Sandvik, ?ivind Ekeberg
BMC Emergency Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-227x-11-6
Abstract: Three hundred and fifteen injured, conscious, hospitalised patients were assessed with a self-report questionnaire. The CCI consists of eight items including sensory impressions and well-known psychological responses to trauma.The internal consistency of the CCI was solid (Cronbach's alpha: .83-.85). A factor analysis revealed two components, "perception" and "dissociation". The instrument correlates significantly with the Impact of Event Scale (r = 0.47 - 0.54) and the Posttraumatic Stress Scale-10 (r = 0.32 - 0.50). The explained variance is high both at the scene of injury (61%) and in the hospital (65%). Dissociation and perception either used as a two-factor solution or as a sum score measured in the hospital, gave the strongest prediction for later psychological distress.The CCI appears to be a useful screening instrument for, at an early state, identifying patients hospitalized after a physical incident at risk for subsequent psychological distress.Patients who are hospitalized because of physical traumas may perceive varying degrees of psychological threat during the incident. A physical accident can be viewed as a chain of connected moments--the moment one realize that something bad is about to happen, when it happens, waiting for help, transportation to, and treatment in hospital. This process may be defined as the casualty chain. The authors of two meta-analyses recommended further research on peritraumatic responses [1,2]. ?zer et al. concluded that peritraumatic psychological processes might be the strongest predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to get a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a high level of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) must be present together with other diagnostic criteria.Most instruments are developed to measure posttraumatic stress, such as the Impact of Event Scale [3], the Trauma Screening Questionnaire [4], and the Post-traumatic Stress Scale-10 [5]. However, only few instruments measure
Modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment pain scale: a new tool for measuring upper abdominal pain in osteoarthritis patients taking NSAIDs  [cached]
Welle J,Fort J,Crawley J,Cryer B
Patient Related Outcome Measures , 2011,
Abstract: Jennifer Welle1, John Fort2, Joseph Crawley3, Byron Cryer4, Rene Dickerhoof1, Michelle P Turner1, Kimberly L Miller11ICON Clinical Research, The Embarcadero, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2POZEN Inc, Raleigh Road, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3AstraZeneca LP, Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE, USA; 4UT Southwestern Medical Center, Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX, USABackground: This study evaluated the electronically administered modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (mSODA) pain scale, a six-item measure of upper abdominal pain intensity, for daily use in osteoarthritis patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.Methods: Once the mSODA pain scale was isolated, cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 30) were used to examine its appropriateness in the target population. Following administration of the instrument in two Phase III pivotal trials, the data were analyzed to examine reliability, validity, responsiveness, and the minimal important difference.Results: Using a subset of trial data (n = 90 patients), the mSODA pain scale proved to be a unidimensional, highly internally consistent instrument (α = 0.93) with good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.77). Construct validity was established via moderate correlations with other similar patient-reported outcomes. Additionally, known-groups validity demonstrated that the mSODA pain scale could distinguish between subjects who did and did not report gastrointestinal symptoms and antacid use (both P values ≤ 0.05). The mSODA pain scale was also responsive to change in heartburn at weeks 6 and 12 (Guyatt's statistic = 1.7 and 2.6, respectively), and the minimal important difference obtained via SD was 5.7 (range 2–47).Conclusion: This research suggests that the mSODA pain scale is both feasible and valid for assessing dyspepsia in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for relief of symptoms of osteoarthritis.Keywords: mSODA pain scale, questionnaire, antacid, patients, heartburn
The Reward-Based Eating Drive Scale: A Self-Report Index of Reward-Based Eating  [PDF]
Elissa S. Epel, A. Janet Tomiyama, Ashley E. Mason, Barbara A. Laraia, William Hartman, Karen Ready, Michael Acree, Tanja C. Adam, Sachiko St. Jeor, David Kessler
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101350
Abstract: Why are some individuals more vulnerable to persistent weight gain and obesity than are others? Some obese individuals report factors that drive overeating, including lack of control, lack of satiation, and preoccupation with food, which may stem from reward-related neural circuitry. These are normative and common symptoms and not the sole focus of any existing measures. Many eating scales capture these common behaviors, but are confounded with aspects of dysregulated eating such as binge eating or emotional overeating. Across five studies, we developed items that capture this reward-based eating drive (RED). Study 1 developed the items in lean to obese individuals (n = 327) and examined changes in weight over eight years. In Study 2, the scale was further developed and expert raters evaluated the set of items. Study 3 tested psychometric properties of the final 9 items in 400 participants. Study 4 examined psychometric properties and race invariance (n = 80 women). Study 5 examined psychometric properties and age/gender invariance (n = 381). Results showed that RED scores correlated with BMI and predicted earlier onset of obesity, greater weight fluctuations, and greater overall weight gain over eight years. Expert ratings of RED scale items indicated that the items reflected characteristics of reward-based eating. The RED scale evidenced high internal consistency and invariance across demographic factors. The RED scale, designed to tap vulnerability to reward-based eating behavior, appears to be a useful brief tool for identifying those at higher risk of weight gain over time. Given the heterogeneity of obesity, unique brief profiling of the reward-based aspect of obesity using a self-report instrument such as the RED scale may be critical for customizing effective treatments in the general population.
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